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UNIT 2 (I) HISTORY OF SETTLEMENT STUDIES: Ancient classical Medieval Renaissance Industrial

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Human settlement and planning case study and examples

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  • UNIT 2


    Ancient classical





    It is the period from the 8th to 12th century in political life of India and is particularly

    dominated by the presence of large number of states. Medieval India refers to the Post classical

    Era, i.e. 7th to 18th century in the Indian subcontinent. It is divided into two periods: The 'early

    medieval period' which lasted from the 7th to the 13th century and the 'late medieval period'

    which lasted from the 13th to the 18th century

    Pondicherry (medieval india) :

    o Introduction;

    o History of pondicherry;

    o Transition of powers;

    o Voyages, settlements, wars and commerce; architecture and planning;

    o Present settlement;

    o Conclusion.

    Introduction :

    Pondicherry or Puducherry is a city, an urban agglomeration and a municipality in

    Pondicherry district in the Indian union territory of Puducherry. It is affectionately

    known as Pondy, and has been officially known by the alternative name Puducherry

    since 2006.

    The City of Puducherry itself does not have a vishva history from antiquity.

    Puducherry has history recorded only after the advent of the Colonial Powers like the

    Dutch, Portuguese, English and the French.

    Though nearby places like Arikamedu, Ariyankuppam, Kakayanthoppe, Villianur,

    Bahur which were annexed by the French East India Company over a period of time

    and which became the Union Territory of Puducherry after Independence have history

    predating the Colonial History.

    Puducherrry is on the east coast, about 162 kms. south of Chennai. (area - 290


  • Puducherry, the mystical place that attracts thousands of tourists every year was

    discovered by Romans in 200 B.C.

    History :

    The Portuguese established a factory in the 16th century. But the ruler of Gingee (The

    Vijayanagra empire) forced them out in the same century. The Dutch who found this place

    attractive established their presence in the 17th century. Then came the French who really

    defined this place in 1654. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, of the 1st century, mentions a

    marketplace named Poduke or Poduca (Ch. 60) that G.W.B. Huntingford identified as possibly

    being Arikamedu (now part of Ariyankuppam), about 2 miles (3.2 km) from the modern city

    of Pondicherry. (Archaeological excavations between 1944 and 1949). Puducherry was

    apparently an important element of Roman trade with India.

    Transition of powers:

    At the beginning of the 4th century AD the Puducherry area was part of the Pallava Kingdom

    of Kanchipuram. During the following centuries different southern dynasties controlled

    Puducherry: in the 10th century AD. The Cholas of Thanjavur took over, only to be replaced

    by the Pandya Kingdom in the 13th century. After a brief invasion by the Muslim rulers of the

    North, who established the Sultanate of Madurai, the Vijayanagar Empire took control of

    almost all the South of India and lasted till 1638, when the Sultan of Bijapur began to rule over


    Rival Empires of Trade in the Orient 1600-1800 : The French ruled this territory for 300 years,

    and today, it stands as a living monument of the French culture in India. It was the site of

    conflict between the British and the French, and was the capital of French India, before it

    attained its independence. In the 1690s there was little concern with French competition. Yet

    France constituted the "largest market for the textiles and spices" brought back from the East.

    It was not until1700 (after many years of peace and enormous profits) that the company were

    considered to be on a solid financial footing. The Companies was modelled on the Dutch, yet

    the merchants feared the whole enterprise might be controlled by the King.

    Rival Empires II : The activities were chiefly focused on the Coromandel coast, the company

    placed its hopes on the piece goods trade. Pondicherry important "because piece goods and

    other wares can be got there at first hand and cheaper than anywhere else in India". The French

    East India companies, excluding Calonnes private company, were primarily political and not

  • economic enterprises. The Dutch bombarded Pondicherry in 1693 and the French fled to

    Ceylon and after six years the French finally re-entered. Martin was adamant to return

    Pondicherry to its former glory, with fortifications, trading associations, the acquisition of fine

    looms. The French were plagued with bad luck with their maritime missions. Extreme financial

    difficulties, incompetent directors, wars back in Europe which diverted ships and affected


    Fortunes a faire : The new French Company inherited two settlements in India from its

    predecessor, one of which was Pondicherry. Unlike the English with different presidencies to

    control different regions of India, the French company formed a single administration unit with

    the superior council based at Pondicherry. The number of French in India in 1st half of 18th

    century was difficult to determine. In the 1690s estimate there were 200 French in

    Pondicherry. Jesuit missionaries calculate that there were 2000 Christians in 1703 out of

    population of 30,000, by 1753 there were 4000 Christians out of pop of 102,000.

    Fortunes a faire I : At Pondicherry in 1727 a company of 120 men consisted of 40 topasses,

    Indian Christians who served alongside Europeans. 4 companies were stationed in Pondicherry

    which with their officers and a small battery of artillery numbered 364 Europeans and 160

    topasses. There were traders and artisans who came in the wake of the company of its

    employees, often soldiers after serving their term remained in India. Noel Jallobert was a

    jeweller based in Pondicherry. Innkeepers, carpenters, wigmakers and booksellers are

    mentioned, indicating the development of services inseparable from any small French town.

    Missionaries, company anxious to appoint their own chaplains. Choice normally fell on the

    Capucins who held the office at Pondicherry. Although Jesuits were also in Pondicherry after

    being ejected from Siam in 1689, who competed for influence. Pondicherry took over supply

    of piece goods preciously drawn from Gujarat. Textiles, pepper, coffee, saltpetre bulk cargo

    from France but Indian textiles most in demand, coarser cloth come from Coromandel coast.

    Voyages, settlements, wars and commerce; architecture and planning :

    Voyages, settlements, wars and commerce in the french in East indies : French expansion in

    India brought large numbers of troops to Pondicherry. At this time Pondicherry saw its territory

    increase by some ten leagues and 80 villages. Pondicherry was the chief settlement of the

    French in India. All the merchandise purchased at Karikal, Yanam and Masulipatnam is taken

  • to Pondicherry. The Town rose from small beginnings, it became in time large, powerful and

    famous. Its streets, all quite straight and mostly very wide, were flanked by two rows of trees.

    Voyages, settlements, wars and commerce II : One mosque, two pagodas, two churches and

    the government building, considered as the most magnificent edifice in the east, were all

    noteworthy public monuments. A small citadel had been constructed in 1704 but had become

    useless once permission had been given to build houses all around it. To replace this defence 3

    sides of the town had been fortified with a rampart, a moat, bastions and a glacis (artificial

    slope of earth), incomplete in places. The roadstead was defended by batteries.

    Voyages, settlements, wars and commerce III : The town, with a circumference of more then a

    league, had 70,000 inhabitants, of these 4000 were Europeans or of mixed race and at most

    10,000 Muslims. The remainder were Indians of whom 15,000 were Christians while others

    belonged to 17 or 18 different castes. Three villages dependent on the town had a combined

    population of some 10,000.

    Voyages, settlements, wars and commerce IV : Although the town is without a harbour, it had

    the advantage of a much more commodious roadstead. Ships are able to moor near the shore,

    under the protection of the cannon from the fortifications. Its territory is only infertile sand on

    the coast but most of it is suitable for cultivation of rice and vegetables. Two small rivers that

    flow through the land providing water which is excellent for dyes, especially blue. Three miles

    from the town is a hill, 600 feet in height which acts as a landmark for mariners, an advantage

    on a coast which is generally low. Colony favourably placed to receive the provisions and

    merchandise of Carnatic, Mysore and Tanjore.

    Voyages, settlements, wars and commerce V : Once the British took possession of Pondicherry

    they shipped to Europe not just the garrison but in addition all the French in the service of the

    company. They carried their revenge further, Pondicherry was destroyed, the magnificent town

    was reduced to a heap of rubble. However due to its strategic location the French decided to

    rebuild Pondicherry. When agents arrived on the 11th April 1765 unhappy Indians flocked

    back after being scattered by war. By beginnings of 1770 there were 27,000 of Indians living

    in Pondicherry who had rebuild their old homes from the ruins.

  • Port at Pondicherry during French settlement

    Railways during French settlement

    Pondi railway station Rajbhavan at Pondicherry

    Overview of Pondicherry during French settlement

  • The settlement pattern which has different quarters for different set of people from various part of country

    to settle here in pondicherry, which has been very strong and appealing.

    The present settlement of Pondicherry which evidently shows that settlement remains same through course of

    time, it has improved a lot with grid planning structure.

  • Settlement pattern implemented by French. They made initial start as grid planning before 1740.

    Map of Pondicherry in 1741, after Joseph Francois Dupleixs( governor of French India)

    arrival. the grid planning has improved a lot it is been spread out all over in a suttled way


  • Present conditions :

    City features :

    Architecture: The French built houses at the French quarter is otherwise called the

    Ville Blanche.

    Road plan: A typical French style; grid plan where the streets meet each other at right


    Street names: Carry respective names at the French / Indian quarter like Rue Dumas

    and Bharathy Street.

    Furniture: Franco Pondicherrian furniture are famous for its style and finish.

    Cuisine: Is known for original French cuisine with Poulet, Poisson and Crevette. It

    attracts a lot of tourists during January for the Gourmet Festival.

    Language: Thousands of ethnic Indians retain their French citizenship and are in

    command of the language that has become part of everyday slang like; Bonjour.

    Architecture and planning :

    Pondicherry is a city with a rich cultural diversity, a major reason being the cross-

    cultural Indo-French influence.

    The boulevard town has significant architectural heritage that can be seen in its well

    planned, grid-patterned layout comprising the two distinct settlements - French and


    The Government Square is the only major green space in Pondicherry within the

    boulevards, surrounded by public buildings.

    The contrasting French and Tamil styles, and in many cases a harmonious blend of

    the two, are a special feature of the town.

    French streets were characterized by mansion-type houses with garden and courtyards

    behind ornate gateways, while the Tamil streets were recognized by their tiled lean-to

    verandas (thalvarams) and thinnais.

    A synthesis of these two styles has resulted in a town with a unique "Franco-Tamil"

    architectural identity.

  • Tamil quarter :

    Originally the native Tamil town developed around the nucleus of a group of temples

    in the northern section, and the streets were laid along the east-west axis, onto which

    the back-to-back rows of houses opened.

    These streetscapes with continuous wall-to-wall construction are very different in

    character from the French streetscapes.

    Their exterior faades mainly feature a thalvaram (street veranda with a lean-to roof

    over wooden posts), which acts as a social extension of the house providing shelter

    for pedestrians - and a thinnai (semi-public veranda space) with masonry benches for

    visitors and pilgrims.

    These talking-streets, so called because of their intimate scale and interactive

    nature, are typical of vernacular Tamil architecture, and

    The entire street stretch is homogeneous because of connecting elements such as lean-

    to roofs, cornices (horizontals), and plasters and engaged columns (verticals) with

    ornamental parapets, which define the skyline.

    All houses are similar, but no two houses are exactly the same.

    The thinnai marks the sensitive transition space after which the house is entered

    through a finely carved wooden door.

    Once inside, the mutram (a colonnaded courtyard) becomes the central family space

    around which the various other spaces are functionally arranged. Some houses have

    several courtyards.

    French quarter :

    The French quarter developed along the beach and around the present Bharathi Park,

    which is surrounded by stately government buildings.

    Residential villas extend on either side interspersed by institutional structures. In

    general the buildings fall into two main categories.

    The residential buildings are simple and varied and form the majority, and the public

    buildings are set amidst large plots with fenced enclosures.

    The French building models were adapted to suit local climatic conditions.

  • The residential street faades are usually characterised by continuous wall-to-wall

    construction with high garden walls and elaborate gateways.

    The faades are divided into smaller panels by the use of vertical pilasters and

    horizontal cornices, and feature flat or segmental arched windows with bands and

    louvered wooden shutters.

    Wooden balconies over iron brackets and continuous parapets with simple ornamental

    features are also common.

    Most French houses were built on similar ground plans with few variations and with

    full or partial street frontage.

    The main faades have colonnaded porticoes to provide better protection from sun

    and rain, and also act as a transition space to the garden court.

    A major change from the original French model is the use of flat terraced roofs

    instead of the pitched roofs of the Parisian villas.

    The walled gardens form private interior courts onto which the rest of the building

    spaces open.

    The interiors of the houses are usually more ornate than the exterior. High ceilings,

    tall arched doors and windows define the rooms, and in the case of two-storey

    buildings, vaulted staircases wind upwards. Often the inclined windows shades were

    made of light materials like wood or metal.

    Special features :

    The main faades have colonnaded porticoes to provide better protection from sun and

    rain, and also act as a transition space to the garden court.

    A major change from the original French model is the use of flat terraced roofs instead

    of the pitched roofs of the Parisian villas.

    The walled gardens form private interior courts onto which the rest of the building

    spaces open.

    The interiors of the houses are usually more ornate than the exterior. High ceilings, tall

    arched doors and windows define the rooms, and in the case of two-storey buildings,

  • vaulted staircases wind upwards. Often the inclined windows shades were made of light

    materials like wood or metal.

    Option given to choose Indian/French nationality. Puducherry has about 50000 French

    nationals of Indian origin.

    Area of UT of Puducherry is 480 Sq. kms. and has a population of 9,74,345 . The ratio

    of male and female is 1000 : 1001.

    Major types of soil Red loam, Coastal deltaic alluvium, Red laterite. The mean

    maximum temperature is 38.2OC and minimum is 24OC. Major source of rainfall is

    from North-East monsoon.



    Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and

    early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, in which there was a conscious

    revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and

    material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture

    and was succeeded by Baroque architecture.

    The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the

    regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and

    in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained. Orderly

    arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches,

    hemispherical domes, niches and aedicule replaced the more complex proportional

    systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.

    Developed first in Florence, with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators, the

    Renaissance style quickly spread to other Italian cities and then to France, Germany,

    England, Russia and elsewhere.

    Brief history

    Medieval cities have narrow winding streets converging on a market square with a

    cathedral and city hall. Many cities of this period display this pattern, the product of

    thousands of incremental additions to the urban fabric.

    However, new towns seeded throughout undeveloped regions of Europe were based

    upon the familiar grid. In other case, large encircling walls were built for defense

    against marauding armies; new walls enclosing more land were built as the city

    expanded and outgrew its former container.

    During the Renaissance, architects began to systematically study the shaping of urban

    space, as though the city itself were a piece of architecture that could be given an

    aesthetically pleasing and functional order.

    Many of the great public spaces of Rome and other Italian cities date from this era.

    Parts of old cities were rebuilt to create elegant squares, long street vistas, and

    symmetrical building arrangements.

  • Responding to advances in firearms during the fifteenth century, new city walls were

    designed with large earthworks to deflect artillery, and star-shaped points to provide

    defenders with sweeping lines of fire.

    Spanish colonial cities in the New World were built according to rules codified in the

    Laws of the Indies of 1573, specifying an orderly grid of streets with a central plaza,

    defensive wall, and uniform building style.

    Baroque city is associated with the emergence of great nation-states between 1600 and

    1750. Ambitious monarchs constructed new palaces, courts, and bureaucratic offices.

    The grand scale was sought in urban public spaces: long avenues, radial street networks,

    monumental squares, geometric parks and gardens. Versailles is a clear expression of

    this city-building model; Washington, D.C. is an example from the United States.

    Baroque principles of urban design were used by Baron Haussmann in his celebrated

    restructuring of Paris between 1853 and 1870. Haussmann carved broad new

    thoroughfares through the tangled web of old Parisian streets, linking major sub centers

    of the city with one another in a pattern which has served as a model for many other

    modernization plans.

    Example:- venice

    Venice is one of the foremost cities of the Italian Renaissance

    Venice (Italian: Venezia) Located In Northern Italy On The Adriatic Sea

    The City Is Really A Cluster Of 118 Islands -In A Marshy Venetian Lagoon Along The

    Adriatic Sea.

    Islands Are Connected By Bridges And Land Areas That Constitute The City Of


    Population : 271,251

  • History/Significance of the Navy

    Venice gained control of the Adriatic Sea - established out posts, and became a staging

    area of the Crusades

    In 1275 the Venetian, Marco Polo reached Beijing-opening a trade route between

    Europe and the far east.

    Venice was successful city because the leaders created a powerful Navy

    The navy was able to gain control of the trade routes of the Mediterranean Sea

    The Venetians maintained hundreds of merchant ships, warships and thousands of


    The cities navy made it impossible to attack Venice

    Other names for venice are

  • La Dominante (The Leader)

    Serenissima (The Most Serene)

    The City Of Water

    The City Of Bridges

    The City Of Light and The City Of Romance

    Transporatation as city planning focus

    150 Canals, 400 Bridges Built are on an Archipelago of 118 Islands. The Canals Serve The

    Function Of Roads.

    Forms Of Transportation Are Either On The Water By Water Taxi (Gondola) Or On Foot

    Along The Many Streets On The Various Islands.

    Cars Have No Place In Venice

    In The 20th Century, A Causeway Was Developed That Led To Train Service From Europe

    To Venice.

    Its City Plan Is Parallel With The Emergence Of A Strong City-state.Strict Zoning Is Present

    And Land Use Is Divided Into Several Functions. Separation Of Public Space From Private


    The Centre Is Usually Public And Commercial. In Venice, The Centre Is The Piazza San


    All Of The Roads In Venice, It Should Be Mentioned, Radiate Out From The Piazza (The

    Public Square) Which Defines The Centre Of The City.

    The Architecture Of Venice Differs From Many European Cities. In Normal Cities, The

    Facades Of The Buildings Face The Road, But In Venice, These Face The Canals And


  • Many Of These Facades Are Impressive In Architectural Design. Most Houses In Venice

    Are Three Storey Buildings.

    The Six Districts That Mark The Cultural Spaces Of Venice.

    1.Cannaregio---Northerly District.

    The Name Is Derived From The Canne(canes Or Reeds) That Grew Here Centuries Ago.The

    Waterway is the Entry Point For Most Visitors To Venice. Over A Third Of The Population

    Of The City (40,000) Lives In This District. The Famous Marco Polo And His Family Lived



    One Of The Liveliest Districts In The City With Its Market Stalls, Small Shops, And Local


    Traditionally a market area, A Commercial Center For Bankers And Brokers. The Rialto

    Bridge (From Rivo Alto High Bank) Is A Major Entrance Way Into Venice Over The Grand



    The Home Of The Political And The Judicial Centres Of Venice.

    Home To The Spanish And Austrian Embassies.


    The Settlement Was Founded By Fishermen formed during The First Half Of The Millennium.

  • 5SantaCroce

    This District Lies North Of San Polo. Both Santa Croce And San Polo Are Traversed By The

    Grand Canal.


    The Largest District In The City, The Name Of This District Comes From The 8th Century

    Fortress That Once Stood There. The Industrial Hub Of The District Was The Arsenal

    Some Of Cultural Landscapes Of The Venetian Archipelago:


    This island is a renowned glass-making center. In 1291, glass making furnaces were removed

    from Venice to protect the city against fire hazards. The island is a miniature Venice in many

    ways. It is self-governed and mints its own coins. The population is about 30,000.


    The people of Burano are lace makers and fisherman. The waterways are lined with brightly

    painted houses.


    This island is linked to Burano by a foot bridge. It is an island of orchards and gardens.


    The island of serves as the cemetery for Venice. Is the largest island in the Venetian lagoon but

    it is also sparsely populated.


    This island is full of palaces and gardens. built to celebrate the end of the plague. .

  • 6.SanServolo

    This is one of the original monastery islands of Venice. The Benedictine monks established

    themselves in this locate in the 8th century.

    7.San Giorgio Maggiore

    There is a Benedictine monastery and a church on this island that goes back to the 9th


    8.Santa Maria della Grazia

    It was a shelter for pilgrims on the way to the Holy Lands. Later, it became a monastery



    This island forms a natural barrier between Venice and the open sea. There are little or no


    10.Le Vignole

    This island guards the entrance to the lagoon.

    11.San Lazzaro degli Armeni

    It is a green monastery island that once served as an asylum for lepers.


    This was once an important Roman town. Its lagoon is choked with mud flats and marshes. It

    is now an abandoned island.

    Lagoons of Venice (in brief)

    Venice lies within a lagoon that is surrounded by other islands.

    Each has its own history and its own points of interest.

    Murano is among the most interesting of these islands.

    It is known for glass making. Burano is noted for its delicate laces.

    San Michele serves as the cemetery for the region.

    The City-state Of Venice

    The City-state Of Venice

  • Venice And Florence Were Two Centres Of Power And Wealth That Became The

    Cradle Of The Renaissance. Florence, The City Of Flowers, Did Well In Textiles And

    Banking. Equally Important Was Venice.

    In The 5th Century, People Settled On A Group Of Islands On The North-eastern Edge

    Of The Italian Peninsula Where Shipbuilding Was The Primary Industry.

    By The 13th Century, The City Became Rich N Most Prosperous In Europe By

    Collecting Taxes On All Merchandise Brought Into Its Harbour. Built Huge Warships

    That Protected The Valuable Cargo Of Its Merchant Ships From Pirate Raids. Vastness

    In Wealth From Trade.

    Naming Venice

    The First Postmaster Was Darwin Curry.The Curry And Higel Families Chose The Name

    Venice For Their Community Post Office, Located In Southside.

    The Settlement Of Venice Occurred Slowly Venice Remained A Small Fishing Resort And

    Farming Community Through The First Part Of The 1920s.

    First Settlers, In The 1870s,

    Richard Roberts and his orange grove near beach,.Sold A Portion Of His Holdings To Frank

    Higel in 1884 The Higel Family Established A Citrus Operation Involving The Production Of

    Several Lines Of Canned Citrus Items. For The Next 30 Years, The Higel Family Members

    Were Boat Builders, Fishermen, Grove Caretakers And Contractors.

  • A City Is Born!

    On June 10, 1926, The First Street In Venice Opened. By Mid-june, The First Phase Was

    Complete With 6 Miles Of Graded Streets And A Mile Of 7-foot-wide Sidewalks And Gutters.

    The Key Feature Of The Venice Plan Designated Venice Avenue As A 200-foot Boulevard

    With A 100-foot Parkway In The Centres Terminating In A Plaza On The Beach.It Was The

    Gateway To Venice Beach.

    Early Developments By Landowners And Business People !

    1911, Bertha Honore Palmer (Mrs. Potter Palmer), A Chicago Businesswoman

    Venice-sarasota Company

    1925, Dr. Fred H. Albee, A Well-known Orthopedic Surgeon

    John Nolen, A World-renowned City Planner

    Brotherhood Of Locomotive Engineers

    1926, George A. Fuller, A Contractor

    The New York Architectural Firm Of Walker And Gillette, As Supervising Architects

    Prentiss French, Landscape Architect.

    "Floating City" Of Romance And Gondolas,

    It is Slowly Sinking Into Its Watery Foundations.The Influence Of Natural Causes Of The


    Due To Compaction Of The Sediments On Which The City Is Built, Versus Man-made Ones,

    Such As Building Restoration.

    Pumping Of Groundwater From Beneath Venice Was Causing The City To Setatle Into The

    Earth. The Pumping And Its Effects Have Long Since Stopped, But The City Continues To


    It's More "Underwater" Than "Above The Water" Due To The Phenomenon Of "Acqua Alta

  • "Acqua Alta" (Literally Means High Water In Italian), Occurs During High And Spring Tide.

    Flooding Of The Most Low-lying Areas Of Venice, Or, In More Severe Cases, Up To 96% Of

    The City.


    Venice Is Unique, Creating A Community With Character.Buildings Had To Be Constructed

    In The Northern Italian Renaissance Architectural Style.

    The Venice Standards Included

    The Use Of Sloping Roofs With Colored Tile And Smooth Stucco

    Awning Colors Were Regulated

    Houses, Were Generally Painted White Or Light Tones

    Window And Door Placements Were Also Regulated

    The Setting Of The Building Was Also Reviewed Including Setback, Orientation And

    Relationship To Neighbouring Building

    Schools And Children Make A Community

    By January 1927,

    128,065 Feet Of Sidewalks

    14,195 Feet Of Storm-water Pipes

    83,563 Cubic Feet Of Paving

  • 5 Miles Of Electric Lines

    2 Miles Of Street Lights

    21 Miles Of Drainage Ditches

    Were Completed.

    Government Is Formed In December 1926. On May 9, 1927, The State Legislature

    Changed The Designation Of Venice From Town To City.


    Large scale industrial development created huge employment opportunities which boosted the

    population growth around them. Settlements sprang up around these industries or planned

    settlements were started around them. One such example is the Neyveli township.

    During the late 18th and 19th centuries, many cities in Britain such as Glasgow, London

    andManchester also began to expand rapidly as industries were set up, initially on the edge of

    the town. People were attracted into these settlements for work and zones of housing grew up

    near the factories and industrial areas. The Industrial Revolution during the 19th century

    allowed Glasgow to grow rapidly.

    The Industrial zone has a key relationship with contemporary settlement. Industrial activities

    require a workforce; sometimes this will be drawn to a new area by the promise of work, or the

    industry will develop near to an existing centre of population. The Industrial Settlements and

    Planned Industrial Settlements zones are settlements that specifically developed alongside

    local industries. Such settlements were mainly related to coal mining, the iron, glass, wool,

    linen and steel industries played significant parts in their expansion.


    Neyveli is a mining and power generation township in Cuddalore district in

    the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is 62 kilometres (39 mi) inland from Bay of Bengal, west

    of Pondicherryand 197 kilometres (122 mi) south of Chennai, located 8 kilometres (5.0 mi)

    west of Vadalur. The Neyveli Township was developed after mining of lignite started under

    the Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC) in 1956 some 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) north of the

    original Neyveli Village . Today the Township covers 53 square kilometres provide around

    18,000 houses for the employees.

    The Township of Neyveli is one of the modern, well-planned townships in India, and can be

    compared to the likes of Chandigarh, New York. The township was in fact planned just like

    the city of Chandigarh, New York City with the township being sub-divided into 'blocks'. There

    are 32 blocks in total. Each block is 1000 m by 700 m in size. The main roads of Neyveli

    Township dividing each of the blocks by double-lane modern roads are constructed with

    rubberised top layer. The housing quarters are around 15,000 in number and vary between

    hostel-type buildings with 6 apartments to individual two-floor single cottage type quarters.

    The houses were originally constructed using concrete, while newer buildings are constructed

    using 'hollow blocks' cast from flyash which is a by-product of lignite. The technique is being

    used as an initiative to re-use the by-products of lignite effectively.

    Neyveli Township can be termed as one of the modern industrial townships of India, with

    round-the-clock, water and electricity facilities. It also uses well-maintained, underground

    sanitation system, unlike some of the other cities in Tamil Nadu. At the dawn of the new

    millennium, the overhead communication cables were replaced by the underground cable

    communication system, with state-of-the-art optical cables. Neyveli Township has its own

    telecom system, complete with company-owned telephone exchanges, for faster

    communication between employees of the township.

    Neyveli also have 2,000 temporary Housing quarters near Neyveli Railway station namely M.K

    Colony, G.K Colony, Sainik Quarters, J.E Quarters & Thandavankuppam Colony . It is 7 km

    south of Township & NLC Employees working in Mine-2 stay here as it is just 1.5 km away.

    These housing colonies are also administered by Township Administration (TA)

    There many Villages around Neyveli Township like, Neyveli (Old Neyveli),

    Mandharakuppam, Gangaikondan, Periyakurichi, Veppankurichi, Vadakkuvellur,

    Therkkuvellur, Valaimadevi, Ameri, Melpaathi, Kelpaathi, Thenpaathi, Thenkuthu, Uthangal,

    Oomangalam, A.Kuravankuppam, Uyyakondaraavi, Pudukuppam, Irruppu, Dhedeerkuppam,

    Pazhaya Koorapettai, Sepalanatham, Thandavankuppam, Koonakurichi, Thoppulikuppam,

    Romapuri, Athipattu, Aandarkollai, Paapanampattu, Elavarasampattu, Velludaiyanpattu etc.

    These Villages not just share PINCODES of Neyveli but also the primary reason behind

    success of NLC by giving their precious Homes, lands, livelihood and the Name Neyveli to the

    NLC's Mines, Thermal Power Stations and Township.


  • The city of Glasgow was founded in the 6th century when Saint Mungo established a church

    on the north side of the river, near to the present day Glasgow Cathedral. The manufacturing

    of iron, steel and textiles became common and these were soon followed by shipbuilding along

    the river.By the end of the 19th century Glasgow was producing most of the ships in the world.

    During this period Glasgows population also grew at an incredible rate.

    Most cities in the developed world have distinctive areas or zones of land use. One way of

    illustrating this is the Concentric Ring Model. As the city expands, newer buildings are built

    further away from the city centre and oldest part of town.

    People were attracted into these settlements for work and zones of housing grew up near the

    factories and industrial areas. Through the twentieth century, cities across Britain continued to

    grow outwards. Improvements in public transport (trams, trains and buses) and the huge

    increase in car ownership since the 1950s meant that people did not have to live right next to

    their workplace. Glasgow has a lot of similarities with the ring model. All the different zones

    shown in the previous images can beidentified within Glasgow. There are also differences.

    Glasgow was a major industrial city and as a result has a very large inner city area where the

    factories and shipyards were located. Glasgows inner city does not form a nice ring around

    the CBD because much of the industry was based near the River Clyde.





    Circular/ radial

    Linear and nucleated type settlement

    LINEAR : Linear type is a pattern of settlement that describes a group of buildings arranged

    along a main thoroughfare or a coast.Linear settlements can also be formed where growth is

    restricted by hills,valleys or rivers.

    NUCLEATED :Nucleated type is a pattern of settlement where a group of buildings are

    clustered around a central element ex:a bridge ,market square etc.

    Tirunelveli is an example of linear and nucleated type of settlements. Tirunelveli is a district

    of Tamilnadu, It is located at the southernmost tip of the Deccan plateau, its headquarters being

    Tirunelveli town, one of the major towns in Tamilnadu. The city is located on the west bank of

    the thamirabarani river . The Tamirabarani River divides the city into the Tirunelveli quarter

    and the Palayamkottai area Tirunelveli is believed to be an ancient settlement.

    The word Tirunelveli is derived from three Tamil words: thiru, nel and veli, meaning "sacred

    paddy hedge.The city has been referred in the 7th century Saiva canonical work Tevaram by

    Thirugnanasambandhar as "Thirunelveli".The inscriptions in the Nellaiappar temple indicate

    the Hindu god Shiva as Vrihivritesvara descended in the form of a hedge and a roof to save the

    paddy crop of a devotee.


  • Tirunelveli has been called as:

    Venuvana "forest of bamboohindu legends

    Thenpandiyanadu early pandiyas

    Mudikonda Cholamandalam --cholas

    Tirunelveli Seemai -britishers



    ELEVATION -47 metres (154 ft).

    CLIMATE-hot and humid

    SOIL-friable, red and sandy.The arid, desert-like regional pattern is seen only in

    Tirunelveli District, and is known as Palai in Tamil literature.

    Tirunelveli is the only area which is said to have all the five types of lands found in the sangam


    RAINFALL-The average annual rainfall is 680

    SOURCE OF IRRIGATION- . The river chitthar and thamirabarani are the major

    source of irrigation, and is fed by the northeast and southwest monsoons. The major

    lakes in the city are Nainar Lake and Udayarpetti Lake.

    LINKAGE-Twenty-two kilometres of highway are maintained by the State Highways

    Department and thirty kilometres by the National Highways Department ,a bridge

    across the Tamirabarani River, connecting Tirunelveli to Palayamkottai.The city is

    located onNH 7 between madurai and kanyakumari.Tirunelveli is also connected by

    major highways.





    pandiyas-304232 bce

  • ashoka-mahavamsa and the brihat-samhita (inscribed in the writings of


    cholas-rajendhra chola 1064ce until 13th century

    pandiyas-kulasekara pandiyan-12681308

    vijayangara rulers and marava chieftains-16th century.

    the maravars -western foothills

    the telugas and the kannadigas -black-soil-rich eastern portion

    the city was rebuilt about 1560

    chanda sahib-17401754

    nawabs- mid-18th century

    polygarhs by kattabomman-1797

    british rule-1801


    Good trade connections over road and sea

    Strategic location connecting east and west

    River source for irrigation and settlement

    Religious shrines and the occupation based on religious activities

    Inscriptions from the eighth to the 14th centuries (during the rule of the Pandyas,

    Cholas and later Tenkasi Pandyas) indicate the growth of Tirunelveli as a centre of

    economic growth which developed around the Nellaiappar temple. The drier parts

    of the province also flourished during the rule of the Vijayanagara kings.

    From 1550 until the early modern era, migration to the city from other parts of the

    state was common and the urban regions became hubs of manufacturing and

    commerce. Tirunelveli was a strategic point, connecting the eastern and western

    parts of the peninsula, as well as a trading centre. Records of sea and overland trade

    between 1700 and 1850 indicate close trading connections with SRILANKA and.

    KERALA During the 1840s, cotton produced in the region was in demand for

    British mills.

    The city was a Hindu centre, but mass conversion was conducted by missionaries

    in the regions of Tirunelveli, Nagercoil, Kanyakumari and Travancore. A set of

  • villages in the community of Shanars were converted to Christianity, and the

    temples were converted into religious schools.The first conversion took place in

    1784. Despite stiff resistance from landlords in the region, mass conversions

    continued until the 19th century.The proportion of Christians in Tirunelveli is larger

    than any other province in India.



    Valavu is a Old Tamil word. It is still used in Kerala, Tamilnadu to indicate Group

    living or urban colony or living in a common compound. Vellala Pillais traditionally

    lived around the Temples, in small vazhavu homes, or in big independent houses

    forming a compound pattern.

    VaLavu settlement system is a Unique system of Tirunelveli Saiva Pillai

    community. No where else in india it is to be found. Still followed in the Tirunelveli

    Town, this is an age old indifference given to the Vasthu Housing System, to suit

    the needs of the Urban homing system, perhaps only equalled by the latest

    Apartment homing complex.








  • Map showing the settlements around the temples of gandhimadhi amman and

    nellaiyappar temple.

    This housing system was formed around the temple ponds,lakes,main roads around

    the temple structures etc and they can be compared with "Bul Bulaiyah" of Northern

    (esp. Lucknow) and the maze of the Tanjore Maharaja's Aranmanai or the

    ziggurats/maze of the Europe.

    The Valavu settlement system followed no patterns. It is born out of natural urbanization

    and full utilization of the land.The entry of a VaLavu is from a 'Mudukku' a by-lane, from

    the main road. Mostly the homes are built around the Shiva Temple of the Town. In this

    case, the Nellaiappar - Kandhimathi amman temple. This ensures that the people who

    worked at the temple, treasury, govt offices, bazaar, santhai, market, banks and the rice

    fields all are just a walking distance from the home. So commuting is fast and enriching.


    1 .Emotionally close well knit-close network of people : The VaLavu system is only caste

    based, not class based. So all kinds of people from lower middle class, middle class to upper

    class people freely, closely lived together. This faded the class differences and a 'brotherly'

    attitude to help each other.

    2. Security: Economical and Social : In any VaLavu system of houses, through out the night

    one can enter the dark mudukku's and darker sandhu's without the fear of being robbed.

    Because it is rare to find thieves in that area, second even the thieves will not dare to do their

    job as all the people are just a call away, they cant escape.

    3. Fast commuting by walk or by cycle :Commuting to the offices, banks, markets, temple,

    cinema theatres, river, book shop, pan shop, vegetable shop, grocery store, temple, Teppakulam

    is much easier in this pattern.

    4.Easy Networking, Friendly atmosphere : Everybody mostly knew the private lives of

    others, this brought less privacy, but more transparency. This helped solve problems, very

    rarely created problems also..


    1. No Privacy or very less privacy

  • 2. More Copy cats

    3. Jealousy, groupism, revenge taking by close people/relatives.

    4. Health problems, hygienic problems reported

    5. Vasthu system is more good and better than this crowded living system.

    Gangaikondan is a panchayat town in Tirunelveli. It is located about 20 KM north

    of thirunelveli on the way to Madurai on NH7 .presently, it is the industrial hub of


    Gaingakondan is said "to have been originally one of those innumerable gifts made to

    Brahmans," probably by the king Rajendra Chola.

    The local account is that first Brahmans were settled by the king to serve the temple,


    Konars (herdsmen) to supply milk for the gods

    Pillais to keep the accounts

    musicians to serve the gods

    Nellayappar kovil & kulam bharathi

    yar street

  • Vani Chettiars to make oil

    Thevars to guard the place and

    Pallars to provide labour all in separate hamlets.

    The main street of Gangaikondan proper is the Brahman street which leads up to the

    Perumal temple. The big, but now sadly dilapidated Kailasanatha temple, which has

    inscriptions going back to the ninth century, lies a little to the west. There seems always

    to have been a Brahman "street," rather than a distinct, spatially

    separated agraharam (or area occupied by Brahmans alone), such as was typical of

    villages in Thanjavur district of Tamil Nadu.

    It was said in 1916 that: "The Brahmans live in one street exclusively. On either side of

    the eastern part of the street live the Pillaimars, the Kshatriyas, the pipers, etc.This

    proves that there was a community based settlement separationin this part of


    The street is now occupied by people of different castes, as well as, still, by a few

    Brahmans some of them natives of Gangaikondan who have returned after careers that

    took them outside, and others who have come from outside.

    A century ago Gangaikondan was still a Brahman village in which the members of this

    caste community owned most of the irrigated wetlands.

    In the 1930s, though the numbers of Brahman households had by then declined. By the

    second half of the twentieth century Gangaikondan was a "Brahman village" no more,

    and it is now dominated by Thevars and by Pallars, in 1916, together they made up 40

    per cent or so of the households of the village, they now account for more than two-


    The area profile of the Tirunelveli district clearly shows that there is great potential for

    economic development. This district is endowed with large varieties of natural


    Tirunelveli district, blessed with the perennial Tamirabharani river and its tributaries,

    is believed to be a favourable spot for human settlement in the prehistoric periods.

  • Archaeological excavations done by Alexander Rea in 1899 and the Archaeological

    survey of India in recent years at Aditchanallur, a hamlet situated on Tamirabharani

    basin, and excavation of ancient port of Korkai, have exposed how megalithic period

    or an earlier period of human civilization had got deep roots in this district.


    These settlements have closely built up area. Therefore in such settlements all the

    dwellings are concentrated in one central sites and these inhabited area is distinct and

    separated from the farms and pastures. Maximum settlements of our country comes

    under this category. They are spread over almost every part of the country.

    These settlements are distributed over the entire northern Indo-Ganga plain (from

    Punjab in the north-west to West Bengal in the east), Orissa coast, basins of Mahanadi

    in Chhattisgarh, coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, cauvery delta of Tamil Nadu,

    Maidaus of Karnataka, lower Assam and Tripura, in the valleys of Siwaliks etc.

    Sometimes people live in compact settlement for security or defence purpose.

    The greatest example of this type is in Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh and

    Uttar Pradesh. In Rajasthan people live in compact settlement because of the scarce

    availability of cultivable land and water body. Therefore, they want to make maximum

    use of available natural resources.

    Such settlements generally range from a cluster of about thirty to hundreds of dwelling

    of different forms, size and functions. On an average their size various from 500 to

    2,500 persons in sparsely populated parts of Rajasthan to more than 10,000 persons in

    Ganga plain.

    Very often these settlements have a definite pattern due to closely built area and

    intervening street patterns. As many as 11 patterns are identified. There are Five major


    These patterns are:

    Linear pattern

    Rectangular pattern

    Circular pattern

    Square pattern

    Radial pattern

    (i) Linear Pattern : It is commonly found along main roads, railways,streams, etc. It may have

    a single row of houses arranged along the main artery. For example rural settlements found

    along the sea coast, river valley, mountain ranges etc.

  • (ii) Rectangular Pattern : This is a very common type which develops around the rectangular

    shape of agricultural fields as it is common to find a system of land measurement based on

    square units. Village paths and cart tracks also confirm to the rectangular field patterns and run

    through the village in north-south and east-west directions. Accessibility to farms and fields

    and connectivity to other settlements lead to rectangular shape of settlements. The settlements

    of coastal Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh and either side of Aravali hills, etc. may be cited

    for examples.

    (iii) Square Pattern: This is basically a varient of rectangular type. Such a pattern is associated

    with villages lying at the crossing of cart tracks or roads and also related to features restricting

    the extension of the village outside a square space. These features may include an old boundary

    wall, thick orchards, a road or a pond.

    (iv) Circular Pattern : In the upper Doab and Trans Yamuna districts, Malwa region, Punjab

    and Gujarat, large villages are characterized by a very high degree of compactness. The outer

    walls of dwellings adjoin each other and present a continuous front so that when viewed from

    outside, the villages look like a walled and fortified enclosure pierced by a few openings. The

    round form was a natural outcome.


    Calcutta, Bengali Kalikata, is the capital city of West Bengal, in India (after 1912). it

    was the former capital (1772 -1912) of British India. the city boasts being the nation's

    largest metropolitan in area.

    Calcutta is located on the eastern bank of the Hooghly river, an arm of the Ganges,

    about 96 miles (154 km) Upstream from its mouth at the head of the bay of Bengal. This

    river port is the most important urban center of eastern India.


  • Indian scholars like Sunil Kumar Munshi (1989), Tapan Banerjee and Kalyan Roy

    (1990) have pointed out that Kolkata, one of the finest example of Indias colonial port

    city shows remarkable variation in urban growth across the city core (old city) and the

    periphery (new city).

    Indian planners and policy makers consider Kolkata as a unique case where colonial

    legacy still burdens the citys urban growth and land use pattern.

    Though immediately after the Independence proper city planning has been introduced

    in Kolkata like many other Indian cities, but still the city has not yet achieved uniform

    urban growth and a complete well-planned spatial transformation.

    The urban settlement of Kolkata is a clustered pattern can be defined in to three definite

    regions, which can be broadly distinguished according to history, socio-economic

    culture, and architectural character.

    NORTH KOLKATA : neighborhood of elite Bengalis, crafts men, artisans and



    CENTRAL KOLKATA: Central Kolkata is mostly covered between esplanade and the park street and is stretched till the lower circular road as its limits.

    North Kolkata lies to the north of esplanade

    (public pathway) on the eastern banks the


    North Kolkata has low height buildings

    with maximum of ground coverage.

    Streets in north Kolkata can be categorized

    into three types, they are roads, lanes and


    North Kolkata has the least number of

    public open 'spaces.

    Central Kolkata is mostly covered between

    esplanade and the park street and is stretched till

    the lower circular road as its limits.

    It is the administrative and the commercial

    district of the city.

    Monumental scale in proportion.

    Main roads are wide carriage ways and are laid

    straight, which act as vistas.

    Even the lanes in these areas where mostly the

    Europeans have settled are wide

    enough for vehicular movements.

  • SOUTH KOLKATA: The only directions Calcutta could grow were east and south. north was already congested and west was the river. as far as east is concerned the scope

    to expand was again limited due to the wetlands.The only direction open for growth

    was south.

    Plan form of the buildings were mostly

    symmetrical. Residences in south Calcutta had

    large setbacks on all sides.

    Building materials mainly used was brick and

    lime-surk l Wooden beams were used for

    structural support.

    Densification along the major roads like,

    rashbeharl avenue. Lansdowne road, hazra

    road, gariahat road and asutosh mukherjee


    There was lesser elaboration and

    ornamentation of buildings.

    Decreasing plot sizes due to fall in economic

    condition of people led to very less setbacks.

    Courtyard houses with long corridors gave way

    to smaller houses with lesser setbacks.

    No new planning and development schemes

    were formulated for south Calcutta. Greater

    part of planning activities was confined to the

    central Calcutta.


    Along the curvature of river or road there is arrangement of the houses in somewhat circular

    manner then circular pattern get develop.

    For e.g.,Mandavgaon,Bhatkudgaon,Rajapur, Kanhoor and Jeur.

    In the upper Doab and Trans Yamuna districts,Malwa region, Punjab and Gujarat, large

    villages are characterized bya very high degree of compactness. The outer walls of dwellings

    adjoin each other and present a continuous front so that when viewed from outside, the villages

    look like a walled and fortified enclosure pierced by a few openings. The round form was a

    natural outcome of maximum aggregation for the purpose of defence during the past.

    E.g., for Circular pattern NEW DELHI

  • Lutyens Delhi

    I has been referred to as "the greatest British architect and the designer of new Delhi, which is also known as "Lutyens' Delhi. I designed the Viceroy's House now known as the Rashtrapati Bhavan, India gate and so on.


    I am defined by broadly: Paths Nodes Districts Landmarks Edges Element inter relationships


    The new city contains both the Parliament buildings and government offices (many

    designed by Herbert Baker) and was built distinctively of the local red sandstone

    using the traditional Mughal style.

    When composing the plans for New Delhi, Lutyens planned for the new city to lie

    southwest of the walled city of Shahjahanbad. His plans for the city also laid out the

    street plan for New Delhi consisting of wide tree-lined avenues.

    Lutyens laid out the central administrative area of the city. At the heart of the city

    was the impressive Rashtrapati Bhawan, formerly known as Viceroy's House, located

    on the top of Raisina Hill.

  • Lutyens had initially designed Delhi with all the streets crossing at right angles, much like in New York. However, Lord Hardinge told him of the dust storms that sweep the landscape in these parts, insisting on roundabouts, hedges and trees to break their force, giving him the plans of Rome, Paris and Washington to study and apply to Delhi.




    of New


  • Features 1.The plan reflects Lutyens transcendent fervour for geometric symmetry, which is expressed through amazing sequences of triangle and hexagons, through sightlines and axes.

    2. Lutyens plan is also remarkable for the generous green spaces, lawns, watercourses, flower and fruit-bearing trees, and the integration with the parks developed around monuments. 3. The attempt was to include all natural and historical wonders in the new city.

  • Image source: http://www.archinomy.com/case-studies/1158/changing-image-of-lutyens-delhi