Understanding Factors Influencing Employee Engagement: A ... Understanding Factors Influencing...

download Understanding Factors Influencing Employee Engagement: A ... Understanding Factors Influencing Employee

of 300

  • date post

    10-Mar-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    1
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Understanding Factors Influencing Employee Engagement: A ... Understanding Factors Influencing...

  • Understanding Factors Influencing

    Employee Engagement: A Study of the

    Financial Sector in Malaysia

    A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the

    degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    Raida Abu Bakar

    BSc, Purdue University, 1998

    MBA, University of Malaya, 2002

    School of Management

    Business Portfolio

    RMIT University

    March 2013

  • ii

    AUTHOR’S DECLARATION

    I certify that except where due acknowledgement has been made, the work is that of

    the author alone; the work has not been submitted previously, in whole or in part, to

    qualify for any other academic award; the content of the thesis is the result of work

    which has been carried out since the official commencement date of the approved

    research program; and, any editorial work, paid or unpaid, carried out by a third party

    is acknowledged.

    Raida Abu Bakar

    March, 2013

  • iii

    Dedicated in loving memory of my mother, Hazilah Hassan, my idol and inspiration,

    and the best friend I have ever had

    and

    To my father, Abu Bakar Hashim, whose love, support, and understanding have

    made me who I am today.

  • iv

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    Praise be to God for giving me the health, strength, patience and perseverance to carry

    out this research.

    My PhD journey would not have been possible without the guidance of my principal

    supervisor, Professor Fang Lee Cooke. I am indebted to her for her unfailing support,

    her academic rigour and her recommendations. Her constructive critiques have proven

    invaluable in refining my thesis. She has always believed in my capabilities even when

    I did not. I cannot thank her enough for all her genuine efforts to help me overcome

    my PhD hurdles. I am truly honoured and humbled to have had such a dedicated

    supervisor.

    My appreciation also goes to DrNuttawuth Muenjohn, my co-supervisor, who shared

    valuable insights and facilitated my work. Your methodological astuteness has helped

    me to be a better ‘analyser’ and researcher.

    This study would have not been possible without the financial support of my sponsor,

    the University of Malaya. Additionally, my special thanks go to all the respondents

    from the financial sector for their time and effort. I would also like to express my

    gratitude to DrAdrian Schembri from the School of Mathematical and Geospatial

    Science, RMIT, for his valuable feedback on the statistical aspect of this thesis.

    I owe this accomplishment to my friend for life, Adleen Ahmad, who has always been

    there, listening through tough moments and laughing with me through the bizarre

    times. My appreciation also goes to DrLatif, DrNorbani and all my friends who have

    been a great support.

    I extend my deepest gratitude to all my family members, most of all, to my in-laws,

    Ahmad Jusoh and Saripah Salmah, for their support and prayers, and to my siblings,

    Rizal and Asrar, for always standing by me.

    And most importantly, my husband – Muhammad Zamharir Ahmad. He has provided

    wholehearted support and graciously embraced taking care of our children, for which I

    am grateful. His encouragement and support are the pillars to my motivation.

    Last but not least, my most precious and delightful children – Aiman, Ayshah and

    Aathif – for their unconditional love and prayers for me. Your distractions have

    protected me from exhaustion and made this journey truly meaningful. May you find

    knowledge in your innermost thoughts and curiosity!

  • v

    CONTENTS

    AUTHOR’S DECLARATION ................................................................................... ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................................................................... iv CONTENTS ................................................................................................................ v LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................... viii LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................... x LIST OF APPENDICES ............................................................................................ xi LIST OF ACRONYMS ............................................................................................ xii PUBLICATIONS AND CONFERENCES ............................................................. xiii ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................. xiv

    CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION ................................................................................ 1

    1.1 Background of the Research ................................................................................ 1 1.2 Objectives of the Study ........................................................................................ 4 1.3 Rationale for the Study ........................................................................................ 5

    1.3.1 Theoretical significance ................................................................................ 5 1.3.2 Methodological significance ......................................................................... 9 1.3.3 Practical implications .................................................................................... 9 1.3.4 The importance of studying the financial sector in Malaysia ..................... 10

    1.4 Organisation of the Thesis ................................................................................. 13

    CHAPTER 2: PERSPECTIVES ON EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT .................. 16

    2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 16 2.2 The Conceptual Definition of Employee Engagement ...................................... 17 2.3 Sociological Perspectives of Work .................................................................... 23 2.4 Psychological Perspectives ................................................................................ 27 2.5 Strategic Human Resource Perspectives ............................................................ 34

    2.5.1 Resource-based view .................................................................................. 42 2.5.2 Institutional perspectives ............................................................................ 45

    2.6 Cultural Values and Religious Elements ........................................................... 61 2.7 Summary ............................................................................................................ 70

    CHAPTER 3: MALAYSIA IN CONTEXT .............................................................. 71

    3.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 71 3.2 The People ......................................................................................................... 71 3.3 Politico-economic Background .......................................................................... 73 3.4 Human Resource Management in Malaysia ...................................................... 75 3.5 The Financial Sector .......................................................................................... 78 3.6 High-performance Plans and the Role of the Central Bank ............................... 80 3.7 The Role of Trade Unions in Malaysia: a Formal Grievance System ............... 83 3.8 Religiosity and its Role in Malaysia .................................................................. 84 3.9 Summary ............................................................................................................ 87

    CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ..................................................... 88

    4.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................ 88

  • vi

    4.2 Considerations of Research Paradigm ............................................................... 88 4.3 The Mixed Method Paradigm ............................................................................ 91 4.4 Epistemological Stance: Rationale for Using a Mixed Method Approach ....... 93 4.5 Research Design Method ................................................................................... 95 4.6 Research Context ............................................................................................... 97

    4.6.1 Target population ........................................................................................ 97 4.6.2 Malaysia in context ..................................................................................... 98

    4.7 Study 1: Qualitative Study ................................................................................. 99 4.7.1 Sampling strategy ..................................................................................... 100 4.7.2 The instrument: semi-structured interviews ............................................. 102 4.7.3 Data collection procedures ........................................................................ 103 4.7.4 Data analysis procedures ..............................................