Timesaving Tools TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES...Chapter 18 Resources ... The French Revolution and...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

  • Category


  • view

  • download


Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Timesaving Tools TEACHING TRANSPARENCIES...Chapter 18 Resources ... The French Revolution and...

  • 544A

    Chapter 18 ResourcesTimesaving Tools

    • Interactive Teacher Edition Access your Teacher Wraparound Edition andyour classroom resources with a few easy clicks.

    • Interactive Lesson Planner Planning has never been easier! Organize yourweek, month, semester, or year with all the lesson helps you need to maketeaching creative, timely, and relevant.

    ™ Use Glencoe’sPresentation Plus!multimedia teacher tool to easily present

    dynamic lessons that visually excite your stu-dents. Using Microsoft PowerPoint® you can customize the presentations to create your ownpersonalized lessons.

    The following videotape program is available from Glencoe as a supplement to Chapter 18:

    • Napoleon Bonaparte: The Glory of France(ISBN 0–7670–1211–9)

    To order, call Glencoe at 1–800–334–7344. To findclassroom resources to accompany this video,check the following home pages:A&E Television: www.aande.comThe History Channel: www.historychannel.com




    Graphic Organizer StudentActivity 18 Transparency L2


    “My glory is not to have wonforty battles, for Waterloo’sdefeat will destroy the memoryof as many victories. But whatnothing will destroy, what will live eternally is my Civil Code.”

    —Napoleon Bonaparte

    The French Revolution and Napoleon (1789–1815)

    Graphic Organizer 15: Chain-of-Events or Flowchart

    Map OverlayTransparency 18 L2

    France and Europe













    0 150


    300 mi.

    0 300 km


    NorthSea Baltic












    France, 1789





    Map Overlay Transparency 18

    Enrichment Activity 18 L3

    Copyright ©

    by The M


    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    Name Date Class

    Four months after the French revolution-aries proclaimed the first day of the “Year 1of Liberty,” they faced fierce attacks fromEuropean monarchies that feared the

    ★ Enrichment Activity 18 ★★

    spread of the revolution. Desperate, theleaders of the revolution made a decisionthat would change the face of warfareforever.

    The Levée en Masse

    DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below in the space provided.

    1. Why did French revolutionary leaders institute the levée en masse? _____________________

    2. How did the levée en masse change the French armies? _______________________________

    3. What “basic principle” does the author refer to?_____________________________________

    4. France’s enemies were reluctant to introduce conscription. Why do you think this was so?

    5. What do you think about Napoleon’s statement? How do you think this reflects on him?

    Almost all of the monarchies of Europe launched their armies against France to stamp out the sacri-legious revolutionaries, and when what was left of the old royal army, aided by volunteers, provedunable to stem the attacks, the National Convention decided on conscription: the levée en masse.

    . . . the convention issued the call for a levée en masse in August [1793]. By New Year’s Day,1794, the French armies numbered about 777,000 men, and the wars of mass armies that ensuedravaged Europe for the next two decades.

    Conscription was not an entirely new idea . . . but it had never really amounted to more than com-pulsory selection of an unfortunate minority, nor had it lasted long or been extended to an entirecountry. But the French Revolution, with its principles of liberty and equality, first stimulated and thenexploited a fervent nationalism which made conscription acceptable. It also made French troopsbehave differently.

    The “nation in arms” produced poorly trained soldiers . . . who had no time to master the intricatedrill of close-order formations, but their enthusiasm and numbers made up for it: attacking in cloudsof skirmishers and disorderly columns, they often simply overwhelmed their better-trained adver-saries. . . . Battles rarely ended in draws any more—Carnot of the Committee of Public Safetyinstructed the French armies in 1794 “to act in mass formations and take the offensive. . . . Give bat-tle on a large scale and pursue the enemy until he is utterly destroyed.”

    The basic principle underlying all this was that whereas the prerevolutionary regular soldiers hadbeen scarce and expensive, the lives of conscripts were plentiful and cheap. The disdain for casual-ties grew even greater once Napoleon had seized control of France in 1799. “You cannot stop me,”he boasted to Count Metternich, the Austrian diplomat. “I spend thirty thousand men a month.” Itwas not an idle boast: the losses of France in 1793–1814 amounted to 1.7 million dead—almost allsoldiers—out of a population of 29 million.

    —From War by Gwynne Dyer

    Primary Source Reading 18 L2

    Name Date Class



    ht ©








    es, I


    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Although the French Revolution later turned to violence and terror, thefirst bold public statement of the revolutionary National Assemblyechoes the high ideals of John Locke, the Enlightenment, and theAmerican Declaration of Independence. The Declaration of the Rights of Manand of the Citizen was issued in August 1789.

    Guided Reading In this selection, read to learn what problems and rights the Declaration addresses.

    The representatives of the French people,constituted in National Assembly, consideringthat ignorance, forgetfulness, or contempt of therights of man are the sole causes of public mis-fortunes and the corruption of governments,have resolved to set forth in a solemn declara-tion the natural, inalienable, and sacred rights ofman so that this declaration, being constantlybefore all members of the social body, mayunceasingly recall to them their rights and theirduties; so that the acts of the legislative powerand those of the executive power may always becompared with the true aim of political organi-zation and thus may be more respected; and sothat the demands of the citizens, founded hence-forth upon simple and incontestable principles,may always be aimed at maintaining the consti-tution and the happiness of all.

    In consequence, the National Assembly rec-ognizes and declares, in the presence and underthe auspices of the Supreme Being, the followingrights of man and citizen.

    1. Men are born and remain free and equal inrights. Social distinctions can be based onlyupon the common good.

    2. The aim of every political association is thepreservation of the natural and impre-scriptible rights of man. These rights are lib-erty, property, security, and resistance tooppression.

    3. The source of all sovereignty is essentiallyin the nation [that is, the people]; no body,no individual can exercise authority thatdoes not emanate from it expressly.

    4. Liberty consists in the power to do anythingthat does not injure others; accordingly, theexercise of the natural rights of each man

    has no limits except those that assure to theother members of society the enjoyment ofthese same rights. These limits can be deter-mined only by law.

    5. The law can forbid only such actions as areinjurious to society. Nothing can be forbid-den that is not forbidden by the law, and noone can be constrained to do that which itdoes not decree.

    6. Law is the expression of the general will.All citizens have the right to take part per-sonally, or by their representatives, in itsenactment. It must be the same for all,whether it protects or punishes. All citizensbeing equal in its eyes, are equally eligibleto all public dignities, places, and employ-ments, according to their capacities, andwithout other distinction than that of theirmerits and their talents.

    7. No man can be accused, arrested, ordetained, except in the cases determined bythe law and according to the forms which ithas prescribed. Those who call for, expedite,execute, or cause to be executed arbitraryorders should be punished; but every citi-zen summoned or seized by virtue of thelaw ought to obey instantly; he makes him-self culpable by resistance.

    8. The law ought to establish only punish-ments that are strictly and obviously neces-sary, and no one should be punished exceptby virtue of a law established and promul-gated prior to the offence and legallyapplied.

    9. Every man being presumed innocent untilhe has been declared guilty, if it is judgedindispensable to arrest him, all severity that

    P R I M A R Y S O U R C E R E A D I N G 18


    Name Date Class

    Copyright ©

    by The M


    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.


    Unrest in Blaat—Roles

    King BoraxYou are God’s lieutenant onearth. Like your father beforeyou, you have absolutepower given to you by Godto pass any law you wish, andthe people owe you unques-tioning allegiance.

    Archbishop LadlepateYou have been chosen byGod to lead the one truechurch. As such, you are thesecond most powerful per-son in Blaat. You owe yourallegiance to King Borax. If hefalls, so will you.

    Lady BolingreenYour family has owned thegreat Bolingreen blueberryplantation for generations,since the days of goodQueen Gertrude. Your familyhas always been loyal to themonarch, as have most of thegreat lords, but this kingoffends your honor. However,he is your king, and perhapshe is no worse than thosefanatic opposition preacherswho might replace him.

    Master ScarfordYou are a blueberry merchantof means, respected by yourfellows, and a member ofParliament. Your family hascome a long way; just threegenerations ago, you wereblueberry pickers on theBolingreen plantation. Butthis king could drive you tobankruptcy with his taxes.

    Preacher BakerYou are a preacher in thesmall opposition church inyour county, and deeplycommitted to your religion.The archbishop and his menhave tried to silence yourpreaching, even imprisoningyou once, but you are deter-mined to purify the Churchof Blaat and establish thekingdom of God on earth.

    Tamara ChattworthYou are a blueberry picker onthe plantation of LadyBolingreen, who is complete-ly loyal to the king. You are amember of the oppositionchurch. You have seven chil-dren to care for, and alreadythe burden of taxes leavesyou barely able to feed them.

    18H I S T O R YS I M U L A T I O NAC T I V I T Y

    Historical SignificanceActivity 18 L2



    ht ©








    es, I


    Name Date Class

    Although assessments of Napoleon differwidely, no one denies that he was one of themost colorful and famous people in all ofhistory. He was also among the most influ-ential. Napoleon helped spread the ideas ofthe French Revolution throughout Europe.The passages below discuss three additionalways Napoleon changed the world.

    1. The Napoleonic Code “One of Napoleon’s reforms . . . wasdestined to have an impact far beyondthe borders of France. That was the creation of the French civil code, the[Napoleonic Code]. In many ways thecode embodied the ideals of the FrenchRevolution. For example, under thecode there were no privileges of birth,and all men were equal under the law.At the same time, the code was suffi-ciently close to the older French lawsand customs to be acceptable to theFrench public and the legal profession.On the whole, the code was moderate,well organized, and written with com-mendable brevity and outstandinglucidity. As a result, the code has notonly endured in France (the French civilcode today is strikingly similar to theoriginal [Napoleonic Code]) but hasbeen adopted, with local modifications,in many other countries.”

    2. The Invasion of Spain“Napoleon also had a large, thoughindirect, effect on the history of LatinAmerica. His invasion of Spain so weakened the Spanish government that for a period of several years it losteffective control of its colonies in Latin

    America. It was during this period of defacto autonomy that the Latin Americanindependence movements commenced.”

    3. The Louisiana Purchase“Of all Napoleon’s actions . . . the onethat has perhaps had the most enduringand significant consequences was onethat was almost irrelevant to his mainplans. In 1803, Napoleon sold a vasttract of land to the United States. Herealized that the French possessions inNorth America might be difficult to pro-tect from British conquest, and besideshe was short of cash. The LouisianaPurchase, perhaps the largest peacefultransfer of land in all of history, trans-formed the United States into a nation ofnear-continental size. It is difficult to saywhat the United States would have beenlike without the Louisiana Purchase; cer-tainly it would have been a vastly differ-ent country than it is today. Indeed, it isdoubtful whether the United Stateswould have become a great power with-out the Louisiana Purchase.

    “Napoleon, of course, was not solelyresponsible for the Louisiana Purchase.The American government clearlyplayed a role as well. But the Frenchoffer was such a bargain that it seemslikely that any American governmentwould have accepted it, while the deci-sion of the French government to sellthe Louisiana territory came aboutthrough the arbitrary judgment of a sin-gle individual, Napoleon Bonaparte.”

    —From The 100: A Ranking of the MostInfluential Persons in History

    by Michael H. Hart

    Historical Significance Activity 18

    Three Ways Napoleon Changed the World


    DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.

    1. Which change has affected the most people? Explain your answer.

    Cooperative LearningActivity 18 L1/ELL



    ht ©








    es, I


    Name Date Class

    Stages of Change in France

    ★ Cooperative Learning Activity 18 ★★

    BACKGROUNDThe French Revolution did not simply replace one type of government withanother, or replace a monarchy with a democracy. The remarkable events of lateeighteenth- and early nineteenth-centuries in France from the fall of the Bastille andleading up to the reign of Napoleon took place in stages. Through your researchyou will learn about the unusual twists and turns that the transformation took as itstruggled to define French government.

    GROUP DIRECTIONS1. Your group will prepare a two-column chart to show the various stages of the

    French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon to become first consul. In the left-hand column, list the stages of the events that took place, and in the right-handcolumn describe the stage, including a list of important associated leaders anddocuments.

    2. Use Chapter 18 in your textbook and library or Internet resources to discover asmuch as possible about the stages of political changes.

    3. Use what you learn to create a poster-sized two-column chart. You may addappropriate drawings or illustrations to add interest to the chart.

    4. Think about the following events and any others you find in your research toinclude in your chart. Where would each fit in the “stages” of the revolutionand its aftermath?

    The Three Estates Committee of Public SafetyNational Assembly Reign of TerrorReign of Louis XVI Republic of VirtueConstitution of 1791 The DirectoryNational Convention The Consulate

    ORGANIZING THE GROUP1. Decision Making Form a group with three other students. Review the informa-

    tion from your textbook and decide what the group thinks are the major stages.Consider the old regime and the meeting of the Estates-General as the first twostages. Assign research on each to individuals. Decide on and assign tasks thatwill be needed to complete the chart.

    2. Individual Work Do research to find out as much as possible about yourassigned stages and the related events and significant people. Make notes asyou gather your information, including sources.

    3. Group Work Share your information with the group. Give one another sugges-tions for improving descriptions, grammar, and spelling. Revise your informa-tion into final form. Make sure that the beginning and ending times or events ofyour stages are as clear as possible or determine where stages might overlap.

    0544A-0544D C18 TE-Nat/FL©05 3/11/04 1:28 PM Page 544


  • 544B

    Chapter 18 Resources




    Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROMInteractive Tutor Self-AssessmentCD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMAudio ProgramWorld History Primary SourceDocument Library CD-ROM

    MindJogger VideoquizPresentation Plus! CD-ROMTeacherWorks CD-ROMInteractive Student Edition CD-ROMThe World History Video Program

    MULTIMEDIAMULTIMEDIAThe following Spanish language materialsare available:

    • Spanish Guided Reading Activities• Spanish Reteaching Activities• Spanish Quizzes and Tests• Spanish Vocabulary Activities• Spanish Summaries• Spanish Reading Essentials and Study Guide


    Linking Past and PresentActivity 18 L2



    ht ©








    es, I


    Name ____________________________________ Date ________________ Class __________

    Then Like society in pre-RevolutionaryFrance, Latin American society was rigidlystratified. Spanish and Portuguese colonistshelped to set this class system in place.

    In colonial times, peninsulares—people bornon the Iberian Peninsula where Spain andPortugal are located-were at the top of thesocial hierarchy. As governors of the colonies,peninsulares made sure that much of LatinAmerica’s wealth went to Spain and Portugal.

    The Creoles were born in Latin America,but had Spanish or Portuguese parents.Creoles controlled the profitable export-importbusinesses and mining industries. Theybelieved that their “pure European blood”entitled them, as it did the peninsulares, to gov-ern Latin America and to enjoy its wealth.

    The mestizo people were part Spanish andpart Indian. Most of them were shopkeepers ormine and plantation supervisors. In spite oftheir skills and the importance of their work,mestizos were poorly paid and had little politi-cal power. They were, however, better off thanthe Indians and blacks—many blacks wereenslaved, while the Indians lived in abjectpoverty.

    Latin Americans won their independencefrom Spain and Portugal when the focus ofthese countries shifted to thwartingNapoleon’s attempt to conquer Europe.Independence somewhat improved social con-ditions. Most Latin American countriesabolished slavery; and blacks and Indians whohad fought in the revolution were oftenrewarded with land and political offices.Nonetheless, class structure remained a domi-nant characteristic of Latin American society.

    Now Tradition and neocolonialism have keptLatin America’s divisive class structure alive.Neocolonialism developed when foreign cor-porations began to invest in Latin Americanplantations and mines. Like the countries ofEurope that originally controlled the LatinAmerican colonies, neocolonial investors havedrained Latin America of much its wealth.

    Extremes of poverty and wealth have led topolitical instability and violence in LatinAmerica. Some political figures have attempt-ed to establish socialist governments in theircountries in hopes of dividing the sources ofwealth more evenly among the citizens.Foreign states with economic interests in LatinAmerican countries have often backed brutalmilitary regimes in order to preserve the statusquo. The conflict between socialists and theleaders of military regimes has been bloodyand devastating. Several democratic govern-ments in Latin America are now trying to healthe damage caused by centuries of social injus-tice.

    European colonial policies in nineteenth-and twentieth-century Africa have left a legacyof violence on that continent as well. Colonialadministrators created countries by imposingartificial boundaries. The countries created bythe administrators usually contained severaltribal groups, often traditionally hostile to oneanother. Administrators ignored such realitiesas they drew the borders of new Africannations.

    Today, in the twenty-first century, warringtribes within one country often compete forpolitical or military control or for resourcessuch as diamond mines. Civil wars and con-flicts within countries such as Nigeria,Rwanda, and Kenya have become common-place, due in large part to the existence of oldtribal conflicts.

    Linking Past and Present Activity 18

    Legacy of Colonialism: Class and Tribal Conflict

    Critical ThinkingDirections: Answer the following questionson a separate sheet of paper.1. Drawing conclusions: What was one rea-

    son that the peninsulares and the Creolesbelieved that they were entitled to rule andexploit Latin America?

    2. Making inferences: How does neocolo-nialism contribute to the class hierarchy in

    Latin America? 3. Synthesizing information: How did race

    divide Latin American society? Do researchin the library and on the Internet to learnabout how Latin American racial attitudesoriginated in Spain with the SpanishInquisition. Write a brief report of yourfindings.

    Time Line Activity 18 L2



    ht ©








    es, I


    Name Date Class

    Time Line Activity 18

    The French Revolution and NapoleonDIRECTIONS: In France, the years from 1789 to 1815 were turbulent. You can trace thechanges that took place during this time in French history on a time line. Read the timeline below. Then answer the questions that follow, adding information to the time line asdirected.

    1. a. What event marked the beginning of the French Revolution? Add this point to thetime line.

    b. How long did the French Revolution last?

    2. a. What event marked the beginning of Napoleon’s rule? Add this point to the time line.

    b. What event marked the end of Napoleon’s rule? Add this point to the time line.

    3. Napoleon ruled from 1799 to 1815. The Consulate accounts for the years 1799 to 1804.The remaining years are called the Napoleonic Empire. What 1804 event caused thechange? Write your answer below, then mark this point on your time line.

    4. A French historian once said that the French Revolution “turned out badly.” How doesyour time line illustrate this concept?

    1790 1795 1800 1805 1810 1815

    1793–1794 Reign of Terror1792–1795 National Convention

    1791–1792 Legislative Assembly

    1789–1791 Estates General and National Assembly

    1789–1798 French Revolution 1795–1799 Directory 1799–1804 Consulate

    1804–1815 Napoleonic Empire

    Reteaching Activity 18 L1

    Copyright ©

    by The M


    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    The French Revolution and Napoleon

    The increasingly bitter division of French society in the late 1700s was a fundamentalcause of the French Revolution. Understanding these divisions, then, is essential to yourunderstanding of this turning point in history.

    DIRECTIONS: Answer the question below. Then completes the pyramid by copying eachphrase into the appropriate space below.

    1. What were the estates?

    2. Description of estates?

    Reteaching Activity 18‘

    Name Date Class

    • comprised about 1 percent of the population

    • comprised about 2 percent of the population

    • comprised about 97 percent of the population

    • held high posts in government and the military

    • made up of higher and lower clergy

    • made up of nobility

    • made up of peasants and the bourgeoisie

    • most were very poor

    • owned 10 percent of French land

    • owned 25 percent of French land

    • owned 65 percent of French land



    Third Estate

    Vocabulary Activity 18 L1

    Copyright ©

    by The M


    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    Name Date Class

    The French Revolution and Napoleon: 1789–1815DIRECTIONS: Select and write the term that best completes each sentence.

    1. Before the revolution, French society was divided into three (estates/émigrés).

    2. Members of the First and Second Estates were exempt from the (tithe/taille), a tax on nonprivileged subjects and lands that tended to weigh most heavily on the peasants.

    3. French peasants resented the (relics of feudalism/coup d’état), oraristocratic privileges, that included the payment of fees for the use of village facilitiesas well as contributions to the clergy.

    4. The (bourgeoisie/émigrés), or French middle class, supportedthe revolution.

    5. The Third Estate in France came together for a meeting to discuss their governmentreforms. Finding their assigned meeting hall locked, they moved to a nearby venue. Itwas here that the (Tennis Court Oath/unicameral legislature), an agreement that they would remain assembled until a constitution had been written,was made.

    6. The Constitution of 1791 set up a limited (dictatorship/monar-chy) where there was still a king, but a Legislative Assembly would make the laws.

    7. During the French Revolution, many radical members of the Paris Commune wore longtrousers instead of knee-length breeches and called themselves (sans-culottes/reactionaries).

    8. The 1793 execution of King Louis XVI pushed the French Revolution into a new stagecalled (radicalism/liberalism), the political orientation of thosewho favor revolutionary change in government and society.

    9. In order to meet both the domestic and foreign crisis, the National Convention in 1793 gave broad powers to a special committee known as the (plebiscites/Committee of Public Safety), dominated at first by Georges Danton, then by Maximilien Robespierre.

    10. The popular general Napoleon Bonaparte seized control of France in a(bourgeoisie/coup d’état).

    11. In 1799 Napoleon held absolute power in a new government called the(consulate/unicameral legislature).

    12. In other European countries, strong feelings of (nationalism/liberalism), or the cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion,and national symbols, helped to stir revolts against Napoleon.

    Vocabulary Activity 18f

    Chapter 18 TestForm A L2



    ht ©








    es, I


    DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)

    Column A

    1. France’s chief tax

    2. demanded equal political rights for women from the newFrench National Assembly

    3. lawmaking body established by the Constitution of 1791

    4. radical political group made up of the sans-culottes

    5. large network of political groups throughout France

    6. head of the Committee for Public Safety

    7. a sudden overthrow of the government

    8. preserved most of the rights of the people gained by therevolution

    9. island off the coast of Tuscany, where Napoleon was firstexiled

    10. site of Napoleon’s final defeat

    DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of thesentence. (4 points each)

    11. The French National Assembly swore the Tennis Court Oath, which wasA. a promise to reclaim the nation’s wealth from the aristocrats, known for their

    love of tennis.B. a vow to continue to meet until they had produced a French constitution.C. a oath of loyalty to Jean Valjean, an outspoken lawyer that called for doing away

    with the relics of feudalism.D. a promise not to rest until all members of the nobility were tried and executed.

    12. Louis XVI was forced to accept the National Assembly’s decrees becauseA. the army turned against him and threatened to execute him.B. it was the only way he would be allowed to remain monarch.C. thousands of armed Parisian women descended on the palace and captured him

    and his family.D. his attempt to escape the country had failed.

    Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

    Score✔ ScoreChapter 18 Test, Form A

    Column B

    A. Elba

    B. LegislativeAssembly

    C. MaximilienRobespierre

    D. Olympe deGouges

    E. Napoleonic Code

    F. taille

    G. Waterloo

    H. Paris Commune

    I. coup d’état

    J. Jacobin club

    Chapter 18 TestForm B L2

    Performance AssessmentActivity 18 L1/ELL

    Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

    Copyright ©

    by The M


    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    ★ Performance Assessment Activity 18

    Use with Chapter 18.

    The French Revolution and Napoleon

    BACKGROUNDThe Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen shocked the world. Its

    adoption by the National Assembly on August 26, 1789, trumpeted the success of theradical ideas of the revolutionary leaders. The inspiring document was to have dra-matic effects beyond the borders of France. “This single page of print,” the Britishstatesman Lord Acton later said, “is stronger than all the armies of Napoleon.” Today,the Declaration of Rights forms the preamble to the French Constitution and contin-ues to serve as a model of liberal thought and government.

    TASKYou are a member of the National Assembly in the summer of 1789. You and

    other Assembly members are to compile a list of all the rights due to individuals andcitizens.

    AUDIENCEYour audience is the people of France, present and future, and people around the

    world who will look to this document for inspiration as they struggle to end oppres-sion in their own nations.

    PURPOSEThe purpose is to determine the specific rights that will be included in the final

    Declaration of Rights adopted by the National Assembly.

    PROCEDURES1. Working with a group, begin two lists. Title one list “Rights of Man”and the other

    list “Rights of the Citizen.” (In the original document, the word man was used torefer to people in general, not to men only.)

    2. Ask yourself, How do the rights of the individual (as a person) differ from therights of a citizen (as a member of a nation)? Decide on the types of rights to beincluded in each list and write this at the beginning of each list.

    3. Remember the historical situation: You are working in the National Assembly asfeudalism is ending in France. Keeping this in mind, brainstorm a list of rightsthat you think all individuals should have. Then brainstorm a list of rights thatyou think all citizens should have.

    4. Review and revise your lists. Working together, decide whether to eliminate somerights and add others.

    5. Combine your two lists into a single list titled “Rights of Man and of the Citizen.”List the rights in order of importance.

    6. Revise each right on the list so its meaning is clear.

    7. Prepare a final copy of your list and post it. Compare your list to the text of theactual Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

    ExamView® ProTestmaker CD-ROM

    Mapping History Activity 18 L2



    ht ©








    es, I


    Name Date Class

    The French RevolutionNapoleon so dominated Europe that the years 1800 to 1815 are often called “theNapoleonic Era.” At the height of his power, Napoleon controlled virtually theentire continent.

    DIRECTIONS: The map below illustrates the remarkable extent of Napoleon’sinfluence. Use the map to complete the activities that follow. Write your answerson a separate sheet of paper.

    Mapping History Activity 18

    1. a. In what year wasNapoleon at the height of his power?

    b. What nations did he control?

    c. What nations did hemake his allies?

    2. What parts of Europe did hefail to conquer?

    3. Napoleon’s major battles arelisted in the chart at right.

    a. Create a map symbol fora battle and add the sym-

    Marengo 1800 300 miles northwest of RomeTrafalgar 1805 off the coast of Cape TrafalgarAusterlitz 1805 250 miles southwest of WarsawAuerstedt 1806 just southwest of LeipzigJena 1806 just southeast of AuerstedtFriedland 1807 extreme northern Poland, about 100 miles

    from the Baltic SeaPeninsular War 1808–1814 throughout SpainWagram 1809 just north of ViennaAspern 1809 just northeast of ViennaBorodino 1812 about 100 miles west of MoscowLützen 1813 about 100 miles west of LeipzigLeipzig 1813 at LeipzigLigny 1815 about 100 miles south east of WaterlooWaterloo 1815 at Waterloo

    Battle Date Approximate Location





























    Cape Trafalgar







    Rhine R.


    Black Sea









    Lambert Conic Conformal Projection

    0 150


    300 miles

    0 300 kilometers

    Napoleon’s empire

    Napoleon’s campaignin Russia

    Napoleon’s alliesUnder Napoleon’s control

    Europe at Height of Napoleaon’s Power 1812

    World Art and MusicActivity 18 L2



    ht ©








    es, I


    Name Date Class

    In the painting below, Jacques-Louis David [da • VEED] depicts one of theturning points in the history of Europe and of the world. Interestingly, thepainting itself carries a historic importance all its own. Explore the painting’smany details. Pay particular attention to its formal style and the faces of theindividuals in the scene.

    DIRECTIONS: Read the accompanying article about David. Then answer thequestions in the space provided.

    The painting you are looking at was one ofNapoleon’s favorites. When he first saw it, heexclaimed “How great! What relief! How true! This isnot a painting; one can walk around in this picture;life is everywhere!”

    It was not surprising that Napoleon, a ruler with alarge ego, was thrilled by something that celebratedhimself. Nevertheless, the painting is a remarkablepiece. The actual canvas is huge—about 20 feet(6 meters) by 30 feet (9 meters). It was completed in

    Jacques-Louis David

    WoWorld Art andMusic Activity 18


    The Consecration of Emperor Napoleon I and the Coronation of the Empress Josephine (detail)

    1807 after two years of painstaking work by the greatFrench painter Jacques-Louis David.

    Just as Napoleon dominated France politically andmilitarily, Jacques-Louis David dominated the countryartistically. His influence was so great that he hasbeen called “the virtual art dictator of France for ageneration.” Few other artists have ever had as muchartistic influence during their own lifetimes.

    Born in Paris in 1748, David demonstrated his tal-ent at an early age. As a young man, he studied in

    History and GeographyActivity 18 L2



    ht ©








    es, I


    Name Date Class


    Napoleon gathered troops from all quar-ters of his European empire in his quest toconquer the Russian Empire. By June 1812his “Grand Army,” numbering 600,000 men,confidently began to march east across thevast, level Russian plain. Yet six monthslater, these same troops were making a des-perate escape from Russia—having lostmore than 500,000 men. What caused thispanicked retreat and massive loss of life?

    Napoleon had underestimated theRussian troops and his most bitter rival, thefierce Russian winter. To resist Napoleon,the Russians used a new strategy. Instead ofmeeting the French in open battle, theRussian army retreated slowly, drawingthe French army deeper and deeperinto Russia.

    A Doomed March to RussiaIn September, Napoleon’s forces finally

    reached Moscow, which the Russians hadevacuated. The day after the French entered

    The Grand Army’s RetreatThe strongest threw into the river thosewho were weaker, and . . . trampledunderfoot all the sick whom they foundin their way. . . . Others, hoping to savethemselves by swimming, were frozen inthe middle of the river, or perished byplacing themselves on pieces of ice,which sunk to the bottom. Thousandsand thousands . . . were lost.

    —French officer’s account

    Route to MoscowRoute of retreatfrom Moscow

    0 50 100 150 200 miles

    0 100 200 300 kilometers


    Koningsberg Kovno Vitebsk



    In June 1812,Napoleon and hisGrand Army of600,000 men begin their march into Russia.

    Bands of Russian troopsdestroy the French supply trains.The French leave more troops to guard their supply lines.

    On September 14, theFrench army reaches Moscow.The city is stripped; fires addto the destruction. After fiveweeks, Napoleon finallyorders a general retreat.

    The Grand Army passes againover the battlefield of Borodino.The field is covered by 30,000corpses half-eaten by wolves.

    As temperatures plungeto 40 degrees below zero,some soldiers build shelters with frozencorpses.

    On December 14, the Grand Army reaches the Prussian border.Only 30,000 men remain.





    Napolean's Russian Campaign

    With the help of the severe winter of their homeland, Russian forces wiped out 80percent of the Grand Army by the time it returned to Germany in December 1812.

    People in World History Activity 18 L2



    ht ©








    es, I


    Name Date Class

    Courage! I have shown it for years; think you I shall loseit at the moment when my sufferings are to end?

    Marie Antoinette on the way to the guillotine, 1793

    From childhood, Marie had been toldthat she would someday be a queen. At theage of 15, she was married to the Frenchdauphin, or crown prince. In only fouryears, he became King Louis XVI, andMarie Antoinette—at the age when peopletoday graduate from high school—becamethe queen of France.

    Like many royal marriages of the day, theone between Marie and Louis was basednot on love, but on politics. The marriagewas arranged to strengthen France’s ties toMarie‘s native Austria. Unhappy in hermarriage, Marie sought comfort in elabo-rate balls at Versailles, horse races, expen-sive parties, and lavish theater productions.In her extravagance, Marie became animportant symbol of royal excess and indif-ference. As such, her influence on theFrench Revolution was incalculable.

    Marie‘s reputation was under attack formuch of her reign, although not always justi-fiably. The quotation most commonly associ-ated with Marie is “Let them eat cake.” Thiswas supposedly her unthinking reply to acourtier’s remark that the peasants wererioting outside her palace because they hadno bread. She never said these words, butthe fact that people were willing to believe

    otherwise saysmuch about theway the public per-ceived her. ManyFrench citizensviewed Marie assimply frivolous.Others thought shewas dangerous, anuntrustworthy foreigner who would plotagainst France. Indeed, Marie tried constant-ly to influence French foreign policy to bene-fit her native Austria. When France went towar with Austria in 1792, Marie, who hopedfor the defeat of the French revolutionaries,passed information to the enemy. Her trea-son gave the Republicans their reason to tryand convict the queen. She was guillotinedon October 16, 1793.

    The last years of Marie’s life were full ofheartache. She spent four years as a virtualprisoner of the revolutionaries. In her finalmonths, her husband was executed and hersurviving son was taken from her.Surprisingly, the superficial queen demon-strated remarkable character during thesetragedies. Accounts of the time portray her as courageous, steadfast, and above all else, dignified as she approached theguillotine. Her noble death, in such contrastto her frivolous life, is one reason whyMarie Antoinette has intrigued people forgenerations.

    Marie Antoinette (1755–1793)

    People in WoWorld History: Activity 18 Profile 1


    Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.1. How did Marie Antoinette become queen of France?

    2. Why was she so unpopular with the French people?

    3. Critical Thinking Evaluating Information Make a list of adjectives you think apply toMarie Antoinette.

    Critical Thinking SkillsActivity 18 L2

    Copyright ©

    by The M


    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    Name Date Class

    Critical Thinking Skills Activity 18 Analyzing Information

    To the French people today, theRevolution of 1789 remains a lively topic ofdiscussion and debate. No one disputesthat it was a watershed in French—andhuman—history. In fact, historians gener-ally agree that 1789 marks the beginning ofthe modern era. Yet the true meaning andlegacy of the French Revolution continues

    to be debated. To sort through the manyopinions about the French Revolution, orany historical event, you need to analyzeinformation. Analyzing information meansstudying it carefully in order to learn asmuch as possible about what is beingpresented.

    1. Mitterrand said the French Revolution included“the inspiring,” “the unacceptable,” “hope,”“fear,” “violence,” and “fraternity.” From yourknowledge of the revolution, identify at leastone historical fact that fits each category.

    2. What might have motivated Mitterrand toemphasize both the positive and negativeaspects of the revolution?

    3. What do you think was “magnificent” aboutthe French Revolution?

    4. Why do you think Furet says it “turned outbadly”?

    5. What is the source of Jacques Delmas’s pride?

    6. Do you think he would agree with Furet’sstatement? Why or why not?

    DIRECTIONS: Below are three recent statements about the French Revolution. Answer thequestions after each statement to help you analyze it. Then answer the final two questions,which will guide you in analyzing the quotations as a group.

    One of my ancestors stormed theBastille, and I feel both thrilledand proud to be French wheneverI walk past the place where it oncestood.

    —Jacques Delmas, a lawyer fromReims

    7. Which of the three statements is the most positive about the revolution? The most nega-tive? Explain your choices.

    8. Which one do you think best summarizes the revolution? Why?

    The revolution is a complexwhole, like life itself, with theinspiring and the unacceptable,with hope and fear, violenceand fraternity.—François Mitterrand, president of

    France, speaking at theBicentennial Celebration of theFrench Revolution

    The French have come to realizethat the revolution was a magnifi-cent event that turned out badly.”

    —François Furet, historian at Paris’sEcole des Hautes Etudes

    Standardized Test PracticeWorkbook Activity 18 L2

    Standardized Test Practice

    Name __________________________________ Date ____________________ Class ____________

    Copyright ©

    by The M


    -Hill C

    ompanies, Inc.

    Reading Objective 5: The student will analyze information in a variety of written texts in order to makeinferences and generalizations.

    A broad statement drawn from a group of facts about a topic is called a generalization. To bevalid, a generalization must be supported by evidence that is logical and factual. Learning to makegeneralizations will help you develop conclusions and identify trends. An example of a generalizationis “Only tall people play basketball well.” Can this be supported by facts? If not, it is not a validgeneralization.

    ★ Practicing the SkillRead the paragraphs below and complete the activity that follows.

    ★ Learning to Make GeneralizationsUse the following guidelines to help you in perceiving cause-and-effect relationships:

    • Collect facts about a topic.• Classify the facts into categories.• Identify the relationships among the facts.• Make a generalization that states a

    relationship and is consistent with most ofthe supporting facts.

    • Write a paragraph using the generalizationand its supporting facts.

    • Examine how your generalization relates tocause-and-effect relationships.

    ACTIVITY 18Making Generalizations

    From the 1600s to the 1800s, people in theWestern world lived through a time of greatpolitical and social revolutions. The two mostimportant ideas were democracy, the right ofpeople to take an active part in government, andnationalism, the right of people who share acommon culture to have their own nation. Insome countries, people influenced by the newideas rebelled against monarchs in the hope ofwinning freedom and creating more just societies.Although in some cases these revolutions werelargely successful, in other cases the supporters offreedom and justice did not achieve many of theiroriginal goals.

    During the 1700s, worsening relationsbetween Great Britain and the North American

    colonies led to the American Revolution.Following the Revolutionary War, the 13 newlyindependent states in 1788 ratified theConstitution of the United States. Thisdocument established the framework for a federalrepublic and later provided a Bill of Rights thatprotected personal liberties.

    The American Revolution influenced thepeople of France, who became increasinglycritical of their absolute monarchy. In 1789,social injustice, economic distress, and ideas ofliberty combined to spark the French Revolution.During the 25 years that followed, revolutionarychanges led France from a constitutionalmonarchy to a democratic republic and finally, toa military dictatorship.

    The Age of Revolutions



    ht ©








    es, I


    DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B.Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)

    Column A

    1. storming of this began the French Revolution

    2. wife of King Louis XVI

    3. mandated that bishops and priests were to be elected bythe people

    4. members of the Paris Commune

    5. used by the revolutionaries to execute criminals, includingLouis XVI

    6. democratic nation composed of good citizens, which theCommittee of Public Safety tried to establish

    7. government overthrown by Napoleon’s coup d’état

    8. prominent critic of Napoleon’s rule

    9. Napoleon’s plan to weaken the British economy

    10. island to which Napoleon was exiled after his final defeat

    DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of thesentence. (4 points each)

    11. Which of France’s estates was not exempt from the taille?A. the First Estate, consisting of the clergyB. the Second Estate, consisting of the nobilityC. the Third Estate, consisting of the commoners of societyD. the Fourth Estate, consisting of the middle class

    12. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen proclaimedA. equal rights for all men, but no political rights for women.B. an end to the monarchy and the establishment of a National Assembly.C. equal rights for all citizens, including equal political rights for women.D. an end to the National Assembly and the establishment of the Paris Commune.

    13. Under the Constitution of 1791, the would make the laws.A. king C. National AssemblyB. Church D. Legislative Assembly

    Name ������������������������������������������������������� Date ������������������������� Class ���������������

    Score✔ ScoreChapter 18 Test, Form B

    Column B

    A. ContinentalSystem

    B. Bastille

    C. sans-culottes

    D. Directory

    E. Republic of Virtue

    F. St. Helena

    G. guillotine

    H. Marie Antoinette

    I. Germaine de Staël

    J. Civil Constitutionof the Clergy

    0544A-0544D C18 TE-Nat/FL©05 3/11/04 1:29 PM Page 545

  • 544C

    Chapter 18 Resources

    Blackline Master





    Music Program


    Audio Program

    *Also Available in Spanish

    Daily Objectives Reproducible Resources Multimedia Resources


    SECTION 1The French Revolution Begins1. Specify why social inequality and

    economic problems contributed tothe French Revolution.

    2. Explain why radicals, Catholic priests,nobles, and the lower classesopposed the new order.

    Reproducible Lesson Plan 18–1Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 18–1Guided Reading Activity 18–1*Section Quiz 18–1*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 18–1*

    Daily Focus Skills Transparency 18–1Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

    SECTION 3The Age of Napoleon1. Summarize how Napoleon built and

    lost an empire.2. Discuss how nationalism spread as a

    result of the French Revolution.3. Describe how Napoleon was exiled

    first to Elba, and then to St. Helena,where he died.

    Reproducible Lesson Plan 18–3Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 18–3Guided Reading Activity 18–3*Section Quiz 18–3*Reteaching Activity 18*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 18–3*

    Daily Focus Skills Transparency 18–3Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

    SECTION 2Radical Revolution and Reaction1. Report how radical groups and lead-

    ers controlled the Revolution.2. Discuss why the new French

    Republic faced enemies at homeand abroad.

    Reproducible Lesson Plan 18–2Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 18–2Guided Reading Activity 18–2*Section Quiz 18–2*Reading Essentials and Study Guide 18–2*

    Daily Focus Skills Transparency 18–2Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM*Presentation Plus! CD-ROM

    Assign the Chapter 18 Reading Essentials and Study Guide.

    0544A-0544D C18 TE-Nat/FL©05 3/11/04 1:30 PM Page 546

  • 544D

    Chapter 18 Resources

    Teacher’s Corner

    The following articles relate to this chapter:

    • France: Bicentennial of the Great Revolution, Special Issue,July 1989.

    • “Two Revolutions,” by Charles McCarry, July 1989.• “Napoleon,” by John J. Putnam, February 1982.



    To order the following, call National Geographic at 1-800-368-2728:

    • Democratic Government Series, “France” (Video)

    Access National Geographic’s new dynamic MapMachineWeb site and other geography resources at:www.nationalgeographic.comwww.nationalgeographic.com/maps


    Teaching strategies have been coded.

    L1 BASIC activities for all studentsL2 AVERAGE activities for average to above-average

    studentsL3 CHALLENGING activities for above-average students


    Susan E. Szachowicz Brockton High SchoolBrockton, Massachusetts

    The Congress of Vienna ConvenesOrganize the class into five groups, representing

    Austria, Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and France, anddirect each group to select one spokesperson to beMetternich, Castlereagh, Alexander I, FrederickWilliam III, and Talleyrand. Provide each group withan overview of the Congress and its purpose; infor-mation specific to their country, which includes theirdelegate’s role at the Congress and their country’sgoals, vital interests, and demands; and an outlinemap of Europe at the height of Napoleon’s power.

    Each group should develop its lists of demandsand redraw the map of Europe as it would like to seeit. Then convene the Congress by having the repre-sentative from each group offer his or her proposalsand maps to the entire class. Questioning and nego-tiating should proceed until a plan acceptable to all is developed. Finally, the class plan should be com-pared to the actual decision made at the Congress of Vienna with similarities and differences noted.

    From the Classroom of…


    Use our Web site for additional resources. All essential content iscovered in the Student Edition.

    You and your students can visit , theWeb site companion to Glencoe World History. This innovativeintegration of electronic and print media offers your students awealth of opportunities. The student text directs students to theWeb site for the following options:

    • Chapter Overviews • Self-Check Quizzes

    • Student Web Activities • Textbook Updates

    Answers to the Student Web Activities are provided for you in theWeb Activity Lesson Plans. Additional Web resources andInteractive Tutor Puzzles are also available.


    MEETING SPECIAL NEEDSMEETING SPECIAL NEEDSIn addition to the Differentiated Instruction strategies found ineach section, the following resources are also suitable foryour special needs students:

    • ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM allows teachers totailor tests by reducing answer choices.

    • The Audio Program includes the entire narrative of thestudent edition so that less-proficient readers can listen tothe words as they read them.

    • The Reading Essentials and Study Guide provides thesame content as the student edition but is written twograde levels below the textbook.

    • Guided Reading Activities give less-proficient readerspoint-by-point instructions to increase comprehension asthey read each textbook section.

    • Enrichment Activities include a stimulating collection ofreadings and activities for gifted and talented students.

    0544A-0544D C18 TE-Nat/FL©05 3/11/04 1:30 PM Page 547


  • 544

    The Impact TodayAsk students to consider the importanceof revolutions and reasons people decideto revolt against their governments. Dis-cuss how life in the United States mightbe different today if the American Revolu-tion had never happened. Would theUnited States still be a possession orcolony of Britain? Of Spain or France?


    Key EventsAs you read this chapter, look for the key events of the French Revolution and

    French Empire.• The fall of the Bastille marked the beginning of the French Revolution.

    • The Committee of Public Safety began the Reign of Terror.• Napoleon Bonaparte created the French Empire.

    • Allied forces defeated Napoleon at Waterloo.

    The Impact TodayThe events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.

    • The French Revolution became the model for revolution in the modern world.• The power of nationalism was first experienced during the French Revolution,

    and it is still powerful in existing nations and emerging nations today.• The French Revolution spread the principles of liberty and equality, which are held dear

    by many nations and individuals today.

    World History Video The Chapter 18 video, “Napoleon,” chroniclesthe rise and fall of Napoleon Bonaparte.

    1790 1792 1794 1796 1798 1800

    1799Napoleon participatesin coup d’état thattopples Frenchgovernment


    1791Olympe deGouges writesdeclaration of rights for women

    1792NationalConventionestablishesFrench Republic

    1793King Louis XVIis executed

    1795The Directoryis formed

    The French Revolutionand Napoleon


    Olympe de Gouges

    Louis XVI

    IntroducingCHAPTER 18

    IntroducingCHAPTER 18

    Refer to Activity 18 in thePerformance AssessmentActivities and Rubrics booklet.


    The World HistoryVideo ProgramTo learn more about the French Revolution and Napoleon, studentscan view the Chapter 18 video,“Napoleon,” from The World History Video Program.

    MindJogger VideoquizUse the MindJogger Videoquiz topreview Chapter 18 content.

    Available in VHS.



    Two-Column Notes This strategy helps students organize information from texts or lectures intouseful study tools. Have students create a table on the Causes of Revolution with two columns.Label the left column “American Revolution” and the right column “French Revolution.” Ask stu-dents to review the causes of the American Revolution and add the information to the left column.Have them complete the French Revolution column as they study the chapter. L1

    Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

    0544-0573 C18 TE-860703 3/11/04 1:58 PM Page 544


    Chapter OverviewVisit the Glencoe WorldHistory Web site at wh.glencoe.com and click on Chapter 5–ChapterOverviews to preview chapter information.

    Art or Photo here

    1802 1804 1806 1808 1810 1812

    1804Napoleon is crownedEmperor

    1815Duke of Wellingtonand his army defeat Napoleon at Waterloo


    Chapter OverviewVisit the Glencoe WorldHistory Web site at

    and click on Chapter 18–ChapterOverview to preview chapter information.


    Napoleon Crossing the Great St. Bernard by Jacques-Louis David David was the leading artist of the French Revolution.


    Duke of Wellington

    1801Napoleon reachesagreement with the pope

    1802Napoleon madeconsul for life

    1805British defeatFrench and Spanishat Trafalgar




    IntroducingCHAPTER 18

    IntroducingCHAPTER 18

    MORE ABOUT THE ARTJacques-Louis David Napoleon spread his image throughout Europe with copies of this portrait,commissioned in 1800, and others painted by the artist Jacques-Louis David. David had developeda neoclassical style early in his career that reflected the influence of Roman sculpture and empha-sized the civic virtues of self-sacrifice and devotion to duty. After 1789, David began to paint morerealistic scenes that depicted the people and events of the French Revolution. From 1799 to 1815,David was Napoleon’s official painter. During this period, he adopted a more romantic style thatpromoted a heroic image of France’s new leader. After Napoleon’s defeat, David was exiled to Brus-sels, where he died in 1825.

    Chapter ObjectivesAfter studying this chapter,students should be able to:1. identify and explain the causes

    of the French Revolution;2. explain how the French

    Revolution led to the end ofthe old regime;

    3. identify and explain thecauses of the Reign of Terror;

    4. identify and explain the Ageof Napoleon;

    5. identify and describe the riseand fall of Napoleon’s empire.

    Time Line Activity

    Have students examine the time lineon these pages to understand thephases of the French Revolution. How many years passed between thebeginning of the French Revolutionand the execution of Louis XVI?(about 4) How many years passedbetween his execution and the coupd’état that toppled the French gov-ernment? (about 6) How many yearsdid Napoleon rule? (about 16) L1


    Chapter OverviewIntroduce students to chaptercontent and key terms by havingthem access Chapter Overview18 at .wh.glencoe.com

    FCAT MA.A.3.4.3

    Dinah Zike’s Foldables are three-dimensional, interactive graphicorganizers that help students practice basic writing skills, reviewkey vocabulary terms, and identifymain ideas. Have students completethe foldable activity in the DinahZike’s Reading and Study Skills Foldables booklet.

    0544-0573 C18 TE-860703 3/11/04 1:59 PM Page 545


  • 546

    IntroducingA Story That MattersDepending on the ability levelsof your students, select from thefollowing questions to reinforcethe reading of A Story ThatMatters.• Do you believe the Bastille

    was stormed to set prisonersfree, because it was a symbolof oppression, or as the firststep to overthrow the Frenchmonarchy? (Answers mayvary.)

    • What is the differencebetween a revolt and revolu-tion? (revolt: renouncing alle-giance; armed uprising; vigorousdissent; revolution: a suddenradical, complete change; anoverthrow of one government infavor of another) L1 L2

    About the ArtEncourage students to study thepainting of the storming of theBastille. Divide students intotwo groups. Ask one group towrite descriptions of the storm-ing of the Bastille from the pointof view of a common soldierdefending the prison. The othergroup should write descriptionsfrom the point of view of a mem-ber of the mob. L2

    HISTORY AND YOUThe revolutionaries believed in the political ideals of “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.” The Bastille was attacked,in part, because it was a symbol of the very opposite of these ideals—royal oppression and unfair treatmentunder the law. Have students discuss the symbolic significance of structures, buildings, works of art, or monu-ments in our own country that represent our political ideals, such as the Statue of Liberty, the White House, theWashington Monument, Mt. Rushmore, and any other monuments with which students are familiar. What dothese works represent? Why are they important to our society? L2


    Fall of the Bastillen the morning of July 14, 1789, a Parisian mob of someeight thousand men and women in search of weapons

    streamed toward the Bastille, a royal armory filled with armsand ammunition. The Bastille was also a state prison.Although it contained only seven prisoners at the time, in theeyes of those angry Parisians it was a glaring symbol of thegovernment’s harsh policies. The armory was defended bythe Marquis de Launay and a small garrison of 114 men.

    The assault began at one o’clock in the afternoon when agroup of attackers managed to lower two drawbridges over themoat surrounding the fortress. The mob was joined by mem-bers of the French Guard, who began to bombard the fortresswith cannon balls. After four hours of fighting, 98 attackers laydead or dying. Only one defender had been killed.

    As more attackers arrived, de Launay realized that he andhis troops could not hold out much longer and surrendered.Angered by the loss of its members, the victorious mob beatde Launay to death, cut off his head, and carried it aloft in tri-umph through the streets of Paris.

    When King Louis XVI returned to his palace at Versaillesafter a day of hunting, he was told about the fall of theBastille by the duc de La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt. Louisexclaimed, “Why, this is a revolt.” “No, Sire,” replied theduke, “It is a revolution.”

    OThe storming of the Bastille

    Why It MattersThe French Revolution began a newage in European political life. Theold political order in France wasdestroyed. The new order wasbased on individual rights, represen-tative institutions, and loyalty to thenation rather than the monarch. Therevolutionary upheaval of the era,especially in France, created newpolitical ideals, summarized in theFrench slogan, “Liberty, Equality,and Fraternity.” These ideals trans-formed France, then spread to otherEuropean countries and the rest ofthe world.

    History and You Using print orInternet sources, familiarize yourselfwith the lyrics to The Marseillaise,God Save the Queen, and The StarSpangled Banner. How do they varyin subject matter, tone, theme, andstyle, and how are they similar? Create a chart listing your findings.



    0544-0573 C18 TE-860703 3/11/04 2:01 PM Page 546

  • 547

    1 FOCUSSection OverviewThis section describes the prob-lems and conditions in Francethat led to the revolution in 1789and the establishment of a lim-ited monarchy in 1791.

    CHAPTER 18Section 1, 547–553CHAPTER 18Section 1, 547–553

    Project transparency and havestudents answer questions.


    Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS1. clergy or bishops, abbots, and parish priests 2. 1%3. doctors, lawyers, merchants, and business managers

    The French Revolution Begins


    3Chapter 18

    Which group of people were at the top of the social pyramid of France?

    What percentage of thetotal population of Francedid this group represent?

    Which groups of peoplemade up the middle class?

    1 2 3

    First Estate—Clergy(1% of population)

    Second Estate—Nobility(2% of population)

    Third Estate(97% ofpopulation)

    Bishops & Abbots

    Parish Priests

    High leaders in government and

    the military

    Large landowners and nobles

    Middle Class• Doctors • Merchants• Lawyers • Business Managers



    B E L L R I N G E RSkillbuilder Activity

    Daily Focus Skills Transparency 18–1


    Reproducible Masters• Reproducible Lesson Plan 18–1• Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 18–1• Guided Reading Activity 18–1• Section Quiz 18–1• Reading Essentials and Study Guide 18–1

    Transparencies• Daily Focus Skills Transparency 18–1

    MultimediaInteractive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROMExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROMPresentation Plus! CD-ROM

    1787Bad harvests lead tofood shortages

    The French Revolution Begins

    Preview of Events

    1789National Assembly adopts Declaration of the Rights of Man

    ✦1780 ✦1790 ✦1800

    A correspondent with the London Times sent this report to his newspaper editor onJuly 20, 1789:

    “The number of armed men in Paris is supposed to amount to 300,000 men, andthey called themselves the Militia. The way by which so many people have procuredarms is, that all the public storehouses where weapons were lodged, have been bro-ken open, as well as several private houses plundered, which they thought containedthem. The Archbishop of Paris is among the number of those who have been sacrificedto the people’s rage. He was assassinated at Versailles on Tuesday night. The city ofParis is entirely surrounded with a guard, and not a soul suffered to go out who has anappearance of wealth.”

    —History in the First Person, Louis L. Snyder and Richard B. Morris, eds., 1951

    The correspondent may not have realized the full significance of the events hereported, but the French Revolution had begun.

    Background to the RevolutionThe year 1789 witnessed two far-reaching events: the beginning of a new

    United States of America and the beginning of the French Revolution. Comparedwith the American Revolution, the French Revolution was more complex, moreviolent, and far more radical. It tried to create both a new political order and a new

    Voices from the Past

    CHAPTER 18 The French Revolution and Napoleon 547


    1791National Assembly completesnew constitution

    Guide to ReadingMain Ideas• Social inequality and economic

    problems contributed to the French Revolution.

    • Radicals, Catholic priests, nobles, andthe lower classes opposed the neworder.

    Key Termsestate, relics of feudalism, bourgeoisie,sans-culottes

    People to IdentifyLouis XVI, Olympe de Gouges

    Places to LocateVersailles, Paris, Austria, Prussia

    Preview Questions1. How was the population of France

    divided into three estates?2. How did the fall of the Bastille save

    the National Assembly?

    Reading StrategyCause and Effect As you read, use aweb diagram like the one below to listthe factors that contributed to the FrenchRevolution.



    Guide to Reading

    Answers to Graphic: Third Estatedemands one vote per deputy →denied by king → National Assembly;relics of feudalism → popular upris-ing; other causes include food short-ages, unemployment

    Preteaching VocabularyAsk students to list synonyms forrelic. If necessary, they may use a dic-tionary or thesaurus. Then, have stu-dents brainstorm some examples ofwhat is meant by relics of feudalism.L1 L2

    0544-0573 C18 TE-860703 3/11/04 2:03 PM Page 547

  • 548

    2 TEACH

    CHAPTER 18Section 1, 547–553CHAPTER 18Section 1, 547–553

    varied from area to area, and over half of the peas-ants had little or no land on which to survive.

    Serfdom no longer existed on any large scale inFrance, but French peasants still had obligations totheir local landlords that they deeply resented.These relics of feudalism, or aristocratic privileges,were obligations that survived from an earlier age.They included the payment of fees for the use of vil-lage facilities such as the flour mill, communityoven, and winepress, as well as contributions to theclergy.

    Another part of the Third Estate consisted ofskilled craftspeople, shopkeepers, and other wageearners in the cities. In the eighteenth century, a risein consumer prices that was greater than the increasein wages left these urban groups with a decline inbuying power. The struggle for survival led many ofthese people to play an important role in the revolu-tion, especially in Paris.

    The bourgeoisie (BURZH•WAH•ZEE), or middleclass, was another part of the Third Estate. Thisgroup included about 8 percent of the population, or2.3 million people. They owned about 20 to 25 per-cent of the land. This group included merchants,bankers, and industrialists, as well as professionalpeople—lawyers, holders of public offices, doctors,and writers.

    548 CHAPTER 18 The French Revolution and Napoleon

    social order. Indeed, it has often been seen as a majorturning point in European political and social history.

    The causes of the French Revolution include bothlong-range problems and immediate forces. Thelong-range causes are to be found in the condition ofFrench society. Before the revolution, French societywas based on inequality. France’s population of 27million was divided, as it had been since the MiddleAges, into three orders, or estates.

    The Three Estates The First Estate consisted of theclergy and numbered about 130,000 people. Thesepeople owned approximately 10 percent of the land.They were exempt from the taille (TAH•yuh),France’s chief tax. The clergy were radically divided.The higher clergy, members of aristocratic families,shared the interests of the nobility. The parish priestswere often poor and from the class of commoners.

    The Second Estate, the nobility, included about350,000 people. Nobles owned about 25 to 30 percentof the land. They played an important, and even acrucial, role in French society in the eighteenth cen-tury. They held many of the leading positions in thegovernment, the military, the law courts, and thehigher church offices. Moreover, they possessedmany privileges, including tax exemptions. Like theclergy, they were exempt from the taille.

    The nobles sought to expand their power at the expense of themonarchy. Many noblessaid they were defend-ing liberty by resistingthe arbitrary actions ofthe monarchy. They alsosought to keep theircontrol over positions inthe military, the Church,and the government.

    The Third Estate, orthe commoners of soci-ety, made up the over-whelming majority ofthe French population.Unlike the First andSecond Estates, the Third Estate was divided byvast differences in occupation, level of education,and wealth.

    The peasants, who constituted 75 to 80 percent ofthe total population, were by far the largest segmentof the Third Estate. As a group, they owned about 35to 40 percent of the land. However, landholdings

    The Three Estates in Pre-Revolutionary France


    1.5% 0.5%



    25% 100%

    First Estate: Clergy Second Estate: Nobility Third Estate: Commoners

    TaxationLand ownershipPopulation

    The Third Estate included peasants, craftspeople, andthe bourgeoisie. In the Third Estate, peasants ownedabout 40 percent of the land in France, and thebourgeoisie owned about 25 percent.

    1. Drawing Inferences From looking at thegraphs, what inferences can you draw about whyrevolution occurred in France?

    Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 18–1

    I. Background to the Revolution (pages 547–549)

    A. The French Revolution and the beginning of the United States of America both hap-pened in 1789, and both had far-reaching consequences.

    Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

    Chapter 18, Section 1

    Did You Know? After Marie Antoinette convinced Louis XVI toresist the attempts of the National Assembly to abolish feudalismand institute the Declaration of Rights, she became the main targetof protestors.

    Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

    Economics Remind students thatthe immediate causes of the FrenchRevolution were financial. Ask stu-dents to explain why people oftenbecome more upset over issues ofeconomic conditions than over a lackof political freedom. Ask: What eco-nomic events precipitated theAmerican Revolution? (British taxa-tion on colonists) L2 INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITYINTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS ACTIVITY

    Literature/English Language Arts As a way of using literature as a key to understanding history,have your students read Charles Dickens’s A Tale of Two Cities. Provide students with study guidesto help them with the nineteenth-century language and style of writing. Students, in cooperationwith an English teacher, might wish to develop the study guides. Then divide the class into groupsand assign each group responsibility for reading different parts of the novel. Each group will createa presentation for its part of the book. The presentations can be given as a series. L2

    Answer:1. Two percent of the population

    owned 35 percent of the land. Thepeasants constituted about 75 per-cent of the population and wereheavily taxed to support the nobil-ity and the clergy. The commonpeople made up 98 percent of thepopulation, owned about 65 per-cent of land, and paid 100 percentof the taxes. Each estate had onevote. Even though the Third Estatemade up 98 percent of the popula-tion, it would always be outvotedby the First Estate and the SecondEstate, which would always vote tokeep their tax exemptions.


    12 FCAT LA.E.2.4.1

    0544-0573 C18 TE-860703 3/11/04 2:04 PM Page 548

  • 549

    Connecting Across TimeDiscuss with students the con-cept of “one person, one vote.”Why did the First and SecondEstates in France oppose thisconcept? Discuss with studentsthe election of 2000 in the UnitedStates and the controversy sur-rounding electoral votes versuspopular vote in our own coun-try. L2

    CHAPTER 18Section 1, 547–553CHAPTER 18Section 1, 547–553

    Guided Reading Activity 18–1

    Name Date Class

    The French Revolution Begins

    DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions as you read Section 1.

    1. What two far-reaching events took place in 1789?

    2. How did the French Revolution compare to the American Revolution?

    3. Describe the Three Estates of French society before the revolution.

    4. Give a definition of the term bourgeoisie.

    Guided Reading Activity 18-1

    Answer: It would probably have beenbusier, since the French economy wasin a slowdown at the time of the revo-lution and there were food shortagesand rising food prices. L1


    Answer: peasants; craftspeople,shopkeepers, and wage earners; andthe bourgeoisie, or middle class,which included merchants, bankers,industrialists, and professionals suchas lawyers, holders of public offices,doctors, and writers

    Members of the middle classwere unhappy with the privi-leges held by nobles. At thesame time, they shared a greatdeal with the nobility. Indeed,by obtaining public offices,wealthy middle-class individu-als could enter the ranks of thenobility. In the eighteenth cen-tury, thousands of new noblefamilies were created.

    In addition, both aristocratsand members of the bourgeoisiewere drawn to the new politicalideas of the Enlightenment.Both groups were increasinglyupset with a monarchical system resting on privilegesand on an old and rigid social order. The oppositionof these elites to the old order ultimately led them todrastic action against the monarchy.

    Financial Crisis Social conditions, then, formed along-range background to the French Revolution.The immediate cause of the revolution was the nearcollapse of government finances.

    The French economy, although it had beenexpanding for 50 years, suffered periodic crises. Badharvests in 1787 and 1788 and a slowdown in manu-facturing led to food shortages, rising prices forfood, and unemployment. The number of poor, esti-mated by some at almost one-third of the popula-tion, reached crisis proportions on the eve of therevolution.

    An English traveler noted the misery of the poor inthe countryside: “All the country girls and women arewithout shoes or stockings; and the plowmen at theirwork have neither shoes nor stockings to their feet.This is a poverty that strikes at the root of nationalprosperity.”

    In spite of these economic problems, the Frenchgovernment continued to spend enormous sums oncostly wars and court luxuries. The queen, MarieAntoinette, was especially known for her extrava-gance. The government had also spent large amountsto help the American colonists against Britain.

    On the verge of a complete financial collapse, thegovernment of Louis XVI was finally forced to call ameeting of the Estates-General to raise new taxes.This was the French parliament, and it had not metsince 1614.

    Identifying What groups were partof the Third Estate?

    Reading Check

    From Estates-General to National Assembly

    The Estates-General was composed of representa-tives from the three orders of French society. TheFirst and Second Estates had about three hundreddelegates each. The Third Estate had almost six hun-dred delegates, most of whom were lawyers fromFrench towns. To fix France’s financial problems,most members of the Third Estate wanted to set up aconstitutional government that would abolish thetax exemptions of the clergy and nobility.

    The meeting of the Estates-General opened at Ver-sailles on May 5, 1789. It was troubled from the startwith a problem about voting. Traditionally, eachestate had one vote. That meant that the First andSecond Estates together could outvote the ThirdEstate two to one.

    The Third Estate demanded that each deputy haveone vote. With the help of a few nobles and clerics,that would give the Third Estate a majority. The king,however, declared he was in favor of the current sys-tem, in which each estate had one vote.

    The Third Estate reacted quickly. On June 17, 1789,it called itself a National Assembly and decided todraft a constitution. Three days later, on June 20, thedeputies of the Third Estate arrived at their meetingplace, only to find the doors locked.

    The deputies then moved to a nearby indoor ten-nis court and swore that they would continue to meet

    549CHAPTER 18 The French Revolution and Napoleon

    Les Halles, the market area of Paris, is pictured with theGrand Chatelet in the background. Would this markethave been quieter or busier twenty years beforethe revolution? Why?







    Activating Prior Knowledge Before students begin to absorb any new knowledge, remind themof what they already know. Ask students what they already know about taxes in the United States.As students read the section, have them write down the basic information about how the threeestates were taxed during the Ancient Regime, the period before the French Revolution. Have stu-dents compare this information to their understanding of taxation today. L1

    Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activitiesin the TCR.

    0544-0573 C18 TE-860703 3/11/04 2:05 PM Page 549

  • DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONDIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONReading Support Have students carefully read this section. Then, have students develop and present a newscast on the beginning of the French Revolution. The students should play roles,such as reporters, representatives of each estate, and peasants. The newscast should include: 1) areporter describing some of France’s long-range problems, as well as some of the immediateissues that led to the revolution; 2) interviews with different representatives of the estates; 3) areporter interviewing women on the role that they believe they should be playing in the revolutionand subsequent governments; and 4) highlights of events that took place on June 20, July 14, andAugust 26, 1789. This type of active involvement is useful for students who need review andunderstanding of main ideas. L2550

    Critical ThinkingGuide students in a discussion ofwhether they believe the FrenchRevolution was caused more by economic issues or politicalgrievances people had againstthe leadership of France. L2

    CHAPTER 18Section 1, 547–553CHAPTER 18Section 1, 547–553

    The Destruction of the Old RegimeThe peasant revolts and fear of foreign troops had

    a strong effect on the National Assembly, which wasmeeting in Versailles. One of the assembly’s first actswas to destroy the relics of feudalism, or aristocraticprivileges. On the night of August 4, 1789, theNational Assembly voted to abolish the rights oflandlords, as well as the financial privileges of noblesand clergy.

    Declaration of the Rights of Man On August 26,the National Assembly adopted the Declaration ofthe Rights of Man and the Citizen. Inspired by theAmerican Declaration of Independence and Constitu-tion, and the English Bill of Rights, this charter ofbasic liberties began with a ringing affirmation of “thenatural and imprescriptible rights of man” to “liberty,property, security, and resistance to oppression.”

    Reflecting Enlightenment thought, the declarationwent on to proclaim freedom and equal rights for allmen, access to public office based on talent, and anend to exemptions from taxation. All citizens were tohave the right to take part in the making of laws.Freedom of speech and the press were affirmed.

    550 CHAPTER 18 The French Revolution and Napoleon

    until they had produced a French constitution. Theoath they swore is known as the Tennis Court Oath.

    Louis XVI prepared to use force against the ThirdEstate. The common people, however, saved theThird Estate from the king’s forces. On July 14, a mobof Parisians stormed the Bastille (ba•STEEL), anarmory and prison in Paris, and dismantled it, brickby brick. Paris was abandoned to the rebels.

    Louis XVI was soon informed that he could nolonger trust the royal troops. Royal authority had col-lapsed. Louis XVI could enforce his will no more. Thefall of the Bastille had saved the National Assembly.

    At the same time, popular revolutions broke outthroughout France, both in the cities and in the coun-tryside. A growing hatred of the entire landholdingsystem, with its fees and obligations, led to the pop-ular uprisings.

    Peasant rebellions took place throughout Franceand became part of the Great Fear, a vast panic thatspread quickly through France in the summer of1789. Citizens, fearing invasion by foreign troops thatwould support the French monarchy, formed militias.

    Examining Why did the Third Estateobject to each estate’s having one vote in the Estates-General?

    Reading Check

    History through Art

    The Tennis Court Oath by Jacques-LouisDavid Members of the National Assembly sworethat they would produce a French constitution.What caused members to fear that the NationalAssembly would be dissolved by force?

    Answer: the fact that the doors oftheir meeting place were locked L1

    History through Art

    Politics Ask students to explainwhy economic difficulties coupledwith a lack of political cooperationoften leads to a rise of politicalextremist groups. What other exam-ples of this phenomenon can stu-dents identify? L3

    Answer: because the First and Sec-ond Estates together could outvotethe Third Estate two to one

    Turning Points in World HistoryThe ABC News videotapeincludes a segment on theFrench Revolution.




    FCAT LA.A.2.4.1

    0544-0573 C18 TE-860703 3/11/04 2:07 PM Page 550

  • 551

    EnrichAsk students to explain the sig-nificance of the date 1789. Thenhave students create a time lineof the important events of 1789discussed in this section. (1789:May 5, Meeting of Estates-General;June 17, National Assembly; June20, Tennis Court Oath; August 4,National Assembly abolishes land-lords and financial privileges;August 26, Declaration of theRights of Man and the Citizen;October 6, Louis returns to Paris)L1

    Writing ActivityHave students prepare speechesthat might have been made bywomen organizing the march toVersailles in 1789. Speechesshould include reasons for themarch. L2

    Connecting Across TimeThe French Revolution gave riseto the idea of a national holiday.In the United States, we havemany national holidays. Ask students: “If you could add anational holiday commemorat-ing an important person ornational event, what would itbe? How would it be celebrated?”L1

    CHAPTER 18Section 1, 547–553CHAPTER 18Section 1, 547–553

    A National HolidayThe French Revolution gave rise to the concept of the

    modern nation-state. With the development of themodern state came the celebration of one day a year asa national holiday—usually called Independence Day.The national holiday is a day that has special signifi-cance in the history of the nation-state.

    In France, the fall of the Bastille on July 14, 1789, hasbeen celebrated ever since as the beginning of theFrench nation-state. Independence Day in the UnitedStates is celebrated on July 4. On July 4, 1776, the Sec-ond Continental Congress approved the Declaration ofIndependence.

    In Norway, people celebrate Constitution Day as anational holiday on May 17. On that day in 1814, Nor-way received a constitution, al