The Evolution of Psychology

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The Evolution of Psychology. *Schools of Psychology. Key Points Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Behaviorism Humanism. Notes:. (Packet) 5 Perspectives Cornell Notes: What’s the story of early psychology? How did it develop? . Summary:. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of The Evolution of Psychology

The Evolution of Psychology

The Evolution of Psychology

*Schools of Psychology

(Packet) 5 Perspectives Cornell Notes: Whats the story of early psychology? How did it develop? Key PointsStructuralismFunctionalismPsychoanalysisBehaviorismHumanism

Summary:Notes:The Birth of PsychologyWilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, Germany noticed that what he and his friends were studying was neither medicine nor philosophy.The new discipline was named Psychology**Note: Wundt is considered the Father of Psychology.

Stanley Hall, the first American psychologist, established a research lab in the U.S. and is the founder of the American Psychological Association.

Structuralism: the howEdward Titchner (Cornell University)Job of structural psychologist to:Analyze consciousness basic elements through introspectionlike chemists were doing with matterLike trying to understand how a car works by examining its partsEX: understand our senses: touch, vision, hearingInvestigate how our basic elements of consciousness are connectedPut an apple in your mouth. It tastes sweet. Feels cold and slightly rough. When I bite into it, its crispy. In this way, we begin to understand how we connect consciously to the experience of tasting an apple.** Structuralism focused on how our senses affected us

Functionalism: the whyWilliam JamesJob of functional psychologist to understand the function of our consciousness, how humans adapt to our situations.Natural Selection causes us to modify our behavior based on our conscious observations to have survival and reproductive advantages.Who cares how the car works? The question is why do we feel we need a car? What is attractive about having a car? How have cars changed our behavior in society?Put an apple slice in your mouth. What impact does the conscious experience of tasting that apple have on your life? Does it relax you? Does it comfort you? Does it spark a memory?

Psychoanalytic TheorySigmund FreudPsychoanalytic psychologist attempt to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorder by focusing on the unconscious mind. Freud felt that a persons sexual urges made them do things they did not want to do: libido.

BehaviorismJohn B. WatsonBehaviorlists studied a persons observable behavior. Ex: shopping, eating, human interactionBehavioralists thought it impossible to study a persons consciousness or unconsciousness.Psychologists should study ONLY observable behaviors.Environmental factors play an important part on who we are.

B.F. SkinnerControl behavior by manipulating outcomes and responses (in other words, environment)


Carl RogersHumanists believed that humans unique qualities make us different, and allow us to grow and adapt.Humanists believed that each human has a sense of self that drives him/her to reach lifes full potential.

Summary: Write down at least three cause-effect relationships you can identify in the evolution of Psychology as a discipline.

*Schools of Psychology ParagraphR= RestateA= AnswerC= Cite EvidenceE= Expand your answerQuestion: Which of the five original schools of psychology would you have joined had you been alive at the time of their inception? Why? (R) As someone who is interested in how people learn, (A) I would choose to be a functionalist. (C) Functionalism interests me more than structuralism (its rival), because it focuses more on processes rather than on static points (4). (E) Functionalism would focus on a learners thought process rather than on a concrete, resultant thought. I could then unravel the mystery of how learning through perception takes place.Share and Compare: Schools of Psychology ParagraphAfter finishing, get up and find someone who picked the opposite school than you did. Here are the opposites:Structuralism vs functionalismPsychoanalysis vs behaviorismBehaviorism vs humanismShare your perspective on why the school of psych that you picked was the best, most interesting, etc.

The Birth of Psychology Taboo Vocab. ActivitySkim pgs. 1-7 You will be put into groups of 4-5Youll be assigned a person and terms/phrases that you will have to act out and describe without using any of the words in your terms/phrases. Audience members must GUESS THE PERSON referenced first on your list.You may cue your audience at the beginning of your performance by telling them what page your material is on and how many terms/phrases have been assigned to you.

The Right WordWundt (3), Hall (3), Titchener (4),James (4),Freud (7-8)Watson (6), Skinner (8), Rogers (10)

Key to Taboo ActivityWundt (3), father of psychology, first lab(oratory)Hall (3), American Psychological Association, first lab(oratory) in AmericaTitchener, Structuralism, introspection (4)James, Functionalism, natural selection (4)Freud (7), Psychoanalysis (8), Unconscious (7)Watson (6), Behaviorism (6), observable behaviorSkinner (8), Behaviorism, free willRogers, Humanism, self-concept (10)

(Packet) Modern PsychologyUse pgs. 11-18 for the following activity. Write three facts about each of these modern types of psychology. You may include definitions, how each developed, and key concepts. applied psychology, clinical psychology, cognition, biological perspectives, cultural diversity (sociocultural perspectives),evolutionary psychology

Applied Psychology Synthesis ProjectSituation: Georgie is obsessed about his appearance. He gets up two hours early every day to wash and style his hair. His siblings are constantly upset with him because he wont let them use the mirror.

Applied Psychology Synthesis Project: Divide up into groups of 3-4.Group #1: PsychoanalysisGroup #2: BehaviorismGroup #3: HumanismGroup #4: CognitionGroup #5: Biological PerspectivesGroup #6: Sociocultural PerspectivesGroup #7: Evolutionary Psychology

Applied Psychology Synthesis Ctd.On an index card, write a 5-point summary of your assigned school of psychology

Ex.Biological PerspectivesBrain structure impacts behavior.We inherit behaviors from our parents.Our formation in the womb impacts our future behavior.Etc.

Applied Psychology Synthesis Activity Cotd.Situation: Georgie is obsessed about his appearance. He gets up two hours early every day to wash and style his hair. His siblings are constantly upset with him because he wont let them use the mirror. Based on the school of psychology that has been assigned to you write an explanation for Georgies behavior as part of a visual you make. Use key words from each theory in your explanation to bolster your explanations credibility.Each group choose a representative. Present.

Sociocultural Perspective5 facts:1. People from different cultures have different thought processes and behaviors.2. Psychologists realized in the late 20th century that most of their research had been done on white males.3. Psychologists in the late 20th century acknowledged that there are no general principles of behavior that would be applicable to all of humanity.4. Middle class values dominated peoples assumptions about behavior. 5. Psychologists began recognizing that enthnocentricism was a factor in impeding cultural explanations for peoples behaviors.

Georgie is from icelandic culture where hair grooming is a matter of family honor. He is adopted, and his siblings are Americans, and since Georgie looks like them, few people know . Georgies family and teachers have criticized him heavily, yet Georgie hasnt taken Psychology and does not know that this criticism is a result of ethnocentricism. Georgie visits a psychologist and is ashamed that the psychologist tells him that he has OCD. Georgie is so upset that he goes to a school counselor and explains Icelands emphasis on hair styling. She contacts Georgies family and explains her view on what is going on. Georgie talks with his family about how he feels about his hair and why. They make a deal that he will get ready in his room so that his siblings can use the restroom and they will stop making fun of him.

I love my hair! Mama would be proud! If she hadnt got eaten by that whale . . .

(Packet) Psych CareersWrite one question on psychology careers before the informational presentation (use pgs. 11-21 as a starting point if you cannot think of a question). As you see the informational PowerPoint, seek for an answer to your question. Write down at least three facts that stand out to you, including on topics related to your question.Open your book to pg. 20-21. In which of these psychological fields are you the most interested? Why? Write your answer in RACE form. Add any new questions you may have to your original question.R.A.F.T.: Say What?R= Role- who is the writer?A= Audience- to whom are you writing?F= Format-what format should the writing be in?T= Topic-What are you writing about?

R.A.F.T. ExampleR= FreudA=B.F. SkinnerF=Hate MailT=BehaviorismDr. Skinner-Just thought Id let you know that youre a big hypocrite! This insistence that the unconscious should be eliminated from all scientific psychological studies makes no sense even according to your own standards. Motivations, some unconscious, underlie all of our behaviors. Even for your blasted pigeons, their motivation for pushing that stupid little lever in their cages is hunger. Can you see hunger? No! So, Mr. Behaviorist, how can you possibly consider those experiments scientific and claim that my case studies in psychoanalysis arent?Contemptuous disdain,Sigmund FreudHERE ARE YOUR CHOICESRATitchenerJamesJamesTitchenerFreudWatson, SkinnerWatson, SkinnerFreud RogersWatson or FreudPersonal Application ActivityMake the following chart on a fresh piece of paper.

SubtitleMeClass MembersDeveloping Sound Study HabitsImproving Your ReadingGetting More Out of LecturesImproving Test-Taking StrategiesGeneral TipsTips for Multiple-Choice ExamsTips for Essay Exams[Pac