The DIY Punk Rock DevOps Playbook

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The DIY Punk Rock DevOps Playbook CTO [email protected] Bryan Cantrill @bcantrill

Transcript of The DIY Punk Rock DevOps Playbook

The DIY Punk RockDevOps Playbook

[email protected]

Bryan Cantrill


1990s/2000s: Architectural big album rock

• The late 1990s saw the rise of three-tier architectures consisting of presentation, application logic and data tiers

• Many names for roughly the same notion: “Service-oriented architecture”, “Model/View/Controller”, etc.

• The AJAX+REST revolution of the mid-2000s gave rise to true web applications in which application logic could live on the edge

• Led to a punk uprising...

Post-AJAX punks

• Why should HTTP be restricted to the web?

• Why should REST be restricted to web apps?

• Why should JavaScript be restricted to the client?

• Instead of having one monolithic architecture, why not have a series of (smaller) services that merely did one thing well?

• In case this sounds vaguely familiar...

Proto-punk: The Unix philosophy

• The Unix philosophy, as articulated by Doug McIlroy:

• Write programs that do one thing and do it well

• Write programs to work together

• Write programs that handle text streams, because that is a universal interface

• The single most important revolution in software systems thinking!

• Applying it to HTTP-based services...

Punk architecture: Microservices

• Microservices do one thing, and strive to do it well

• Replace a small number of monoliths with many services that have well-documented, small HTTP-based APIs

• Larger systems can be composed of these smaller services

• And there is an organizational analogue: microservices can break large organizations into smaller, more effective ones

Punks in prod: Deploying microservices

• Microservices are tautologically small

• One physical machine per service is clearly uneconomical…

• ...but deploying many orthogonal services on a single machine is a well-known operational nightmare (e.g. conflicting dependencies, shared fault domain)

• The key is to virtualize — but at what layer of the stack?

• Virtualization has ramifications with respect to performance and density — which is to say, economics

Hardware-level virtualization?

• The historical answer to virtualization — since the 1960s — has been to virtualize the hardware:

• A virtual machine is presented upon which each tenant runs an operating system that they choose (and must manage)

• There are as many operating systems on a machine as tenants!

• Can run entire legacy stacks unmodified...

• ...but operating systems are heavy and don’t play well with others with respect to resources like DRAM, CPU, I/O devices, etc.

• With microservices, overhead dominates!

Platform-level virtualization?

• Virtualizing at the application platform layer addresses the tenancy challenges of hardware virtualization, and presents a much more nimble (& developer friendly!) abstraction...

• ...but at the cost of dictating abstraction to the developer

• This is the “Google App Engine” problem: developers are in a straightjacket where toy programs are easy — but sophisticated applications are impossible

• Virtualizing at the application platform layer poses many other challenges with respect to security, containment, etc.

OS-level virtualization!

• Virtualizing at the operating system hits a sweet spot:• A single operating system (i.e. a single kernel) allows for efficient use of

hardware resources, maximizing tenancy and performance

• Disjoint instances are securely compartmentalized by the operating system

• Gives tenants what appears to be a virtual machine (albeit a very fast one) on which to run higher-level software: PaaS ease with IaaS generality

• Also: boots like a bandit!

• Model was pioneered by FreeBSD jails and taken to their logical extreme by Solaris zones — and then aped by Linux containers

OS-level virtualization at Joyent

• Joyent runs OS containers in the cloud via SmartOS — and we have run containers in multi-tenant production since ~2006

• Adding support for hardware-based virtualization circa 2011 strengthened our resolve with respect to OS-based virtualization

• This is especially true for microservices: as services get small, overhead and latency become increasingly important — and OS containers become a bigger and bigger win

• We emphasized their operational characteristics — performance, elasticity, tenancy — and for many years, we were a lone voice...

Containers as PaaS foundation?

• Some saw the power of OS containers to facilitate up-stack platform-as-a-service abstractions

• For example, dotCloud — a platform-as-a-service provider — built their PaaS on OS containers

• Struggling as a PaaS, dotCloud pivoted — and open sourced their container-based orchestration layer...

...and Docker was born

Docker revolution

• Docker has used the rapid provisioning + shared underlying filesystem of containers to allow developers to think operationally

• Developers can encode deployment procedures via an image

• Images can be reliably and reproducibly deployed as a container

• Images can be quickly deployed — and re-deployed

• Docker complements the DIY ethos of microservices

• Docker will do to apt what apt did to tar

Broader container revolution

• The Docker model has pointed to the future of containers

• Docker’s challenges today are largely operational: network virtualization, persistence, security, etc.

• Security concerns are not due to Docker per se, but rather to the architectural limitations of the Linux “container” substrate

• For multi-tenancy, state-of-the-art for Docker containers is to run in hardware virtual machines (!!)

• Deploying OS containers in hardware virtual machines negates their economic advantage!

The future of containers in production?

• Can we achieve an ideal world that combines the development model of Docker with the deployment model of SmartOS?

• To facilitate this ideal, we at Joyent have:

• Added the ability to run Linux binaries in a SmartOS container

• Added a Docker API end point to SmartDataCenter, the container-native stack that runs our public cloud

• Open sourced everything

• Here’s to the punk rock revolution of microservices + containers!