The Books of Poetry. Book Pain & sufferingJob Song of Solomon Ecclesiastes Psalms Proverbs Problem...

The Books of Poetry

Transcript of The Books of Poetry. Book Pain & sufferingJob Song of Solomon Ecclesiastes Psalms Proverbs Problem...

The Books of Poetry


Pain & sufferingJobJob

Song of Song of SolomonSolomon





Prayer & Worship


Meaning & significance



God as…God as…




Lover of His people

On his face before God

Man as…Man as…

Before the throne of


Receiving instruction

Under the sun

In a love relationship

Poetic Poetic LiteratureLiterature


Song of Solomon

Wisdom Wisdom LiteratureLiterature




Poetic Poetic LiteratureLiterature

Narrator is viewed as a normal man

Wisdom Wisdom LiteratureLiterature

Narrator is viewed as the wise voice of


Touch the heart Touch the mind

Focus on human emotion

Focus on wisdom

Love for God and for others

Living before God and with others

The Book of Suffering

Setting for the Story


The StoryThe Story

• The Heavenly Challenge

• Job’s Calamities

• Satan’s Second Accusation

• Job’s Continuing Endurance

• Job’s Three Friends

The Cast of CharactersThe Cast of Characters

• Job

• Mrs. Job

• God

• Satan

• Three Friends– Eliphaz– Bildad– Zophar

• Elihu

Dialogue & Discourse

Chapters 1-2

Historical prologue:

Job Tested

Chapters 3-31

Job’s three


Chapters 33-37

Elihu’s speeches

Chapters 38-41

God speaks

Chapter 42

Historical epilogue:

Job Restored

Prose Section Poetry Section

Plain language Highly ornate

Written in pure Hebrew

Contains many expressions characteristic of Chaldaean

When God Finally Speaks...When God Finally Speaks...

• He does not give Job any answers to his questions

• He does not give Job any comfort in his situation

Job 38:1-3Job 38:1-3

Then the LORD answered Job out of the whirlwind and said,

"Who is this that darkens counsel by words without knowledge?

Now gird up your loins like a man, and I will ask you, and you instruct Me!

Job 38:4-7Job 38:4-7"Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth?

Tell Me, if you have understanding, who set its measurements, since you know?

Or who stretched the line on it?

On what were its bases sunk?

Or who laid its cornerstone, when the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?"

Job 40:1Job 40:1Then the LORD said to Job, "Will the faultfinder contend with the Almighty? Let him who reproves God answer it."

Job 42:1-2Job 42:1-2Then Job answered the LORD,

and said, “I know that Thou canst do all things, And that no purpose of Thine can be thwarted.”

Job 42:5-6Job 42:5-6"I have heard of Thee by the

hearing of the ear; but now my eye sees Thee; therefore I retract, and I repent in dust and ashes."

Job 42:7Job 42:7And it came about after the LORD

had spoken these words to Job, that the LORD said to Eliphaz the Temanite, "My wrath is kindled against you and against your two friends, because you have not spoken of Me what is right as My servant Job has.

Job 42:8-9Job 42:8-9“Now therefore, take for yourselves

seven bulls and seven rams, and go to My servant Job, and offer up a burnt offering for yourselves, and My servant Job will pray for you. For I will accept him so that I may not do with you according to your folly, because you have not spoken of Me what is right, as My servant Job has.”

Lessons from JobLessons from Job• God is both all-loving and all-powerful• There are no simple answers• Expression of grief & trouble is

appropriate, but not to pass judgment on God

• God is in control, even when it is not obvious to our eyes

• God has a purpose in what he allows, even if we do not know what it is

Lessons from JobLessons from Job• Tragedy can serve as a wake-up call

• God has not remained distant from us in our pain

• Job is about God’s condemnation

Will you really annul My judgment?

Will you condemn Me that you may be justified? (Job 40:8).

God was condemned in Christ.

The Hymnbook of God

Characteristics of the PsalmsCharacteristics of the Psalms

• A thousand years of history• Musical instruments• Quoted in New Testament• Relates our response to God• A “sensory” book

What are the different types of What are the different types of Psalms?Psalms?

• Praise Psalms

• Songs of Thanksgiving

• Royal Psalms

• Wisdom Psalms

• Psalms of Remembrance

• Psalms of Lament

• Imprecatory Psalms

Book 1 Book 2 Book 3 Book 4 Book 5 Chapters 1-41

Chapters 42-72

Chapters 73-89

Chapters 90-106

Chapters 107-150

Mostly written by David

Mostly by Asaph

Mostly anonymous

Mostly by David

How blessed is the man who does not... Walk... In the

counsel... Of the wicked

Stand... In the path... Of sinners

Sit... In the seat... Of scoffers

Psalm 1Psalm 1

But his delight is in the law of the LORD, And in His law he meditates day and night.

Psalm 1:3Psalm 1:3He will be like a tree firmly planted by streams of water,Which yields its fruit in its season And its leaf does not wither; And in whatever he does, he prospers.

Psalm 2:1-2Psalm 2:1-2

Why are the nations in an uproar,

And the peoples devising a vain thing?

The kings of the earth take their stand,

And the rulers take counsel together

Against the LORD and against His Anointed.

Psalm 2:6-7Psalm 2:6-7

6 But as for Me, I have installed My King Upon Zion,

My holy mountain."

7 I will surely tell of the decree of the LORD:

He said to Me, 'Thou art My Son,

Today I have begotten Thee.

Psalm 2:8-9Psalm 2:8-9

8 'Ask of Me, and I will surely give the nations as Thine inheritance,

And the very ends of the earth as Thy possession.

9 'Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron,

Thou shalt shatter them like earthenware.'"

Book 1 Book 2 Book 3 Book 4 Book 5 Chapters 1-41

Chapters 42-72

Chapters 73-89

Chapters 90-106

Chapters 107-150

Mostly written by David

Mostly by Asaph

Mostly anonymous

Mostly by David

The title Elohim is used much morethan is the name Yahweh

Psalm 42:1-3Psalm 42:1-31 As the deer pants for the water brooks,

So my soul pants for Thee, O God.

2 My soul thirsts for God, for the living God;

When shall I come and appear before God?

3 My tears have been my food day and night,

While they say to me all day long,

"Where is your God?"

Psalm 42:4Psalm 42:4These things I remember, and I pour out my soul within me.

For I used to go along with the throng and lead them in procession to the house of God,

With the voice of joy and thanksgiving, a multitude keeping festival.

• You cannot rest on yesterday’s experiences• Mutual support & encouragement

Psalm 42:5Why are you in despair, O my soul?

And why have you become disturbed within me?

Hope in God, for I shall again praise Him

For the help of His presence.

Psalm 45:1Psalm 45:1For the choir director; according to the Shoshannim.

A Maskil of the sons of Korah.

A Song of Love.

My heart overflows with a good theme;

I address my verses to the King;

My tongue is the pen of a ready writer.

Psalm 45:7-8Psalm 45:7-87 Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated wickedness;

Therefore God, Thy God, has anointed Thee With the oil of joy above Thy fellows.

8 All Thy garments are fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia;

Out of ivory palaces stringed instruments have made Thee glad.

Book 1 Book 2 Book 3 Book 4 Book 5 Chapters 1-41

Chapters 42-72

Chapters 73-89

Chapters 90-106

Chapters 107-150

Mostly written by David

Mostly by Asaph

Mostly anonymous

Mostly by David

Focus upon Israel, Jerusalem andthe Temple

Psalm 89:1-2Psalm 89:1-2Maskil of Ethan the Ezrahite.

I will sing of the lovingkindness of the LORD forever;

To all generations I will make known Your faithfulness with my mouth.

2 For I have said, “Lovingkindness will be built up forever;

In the heavens You will establish Your faithfulness.”

Psalm 89:3-4Psalm 89:3-4I have made a covenant with My chosen;

I have sworn to David My servant,

4 I will establish your seed forever

And build up your throne to all generations.


Book 1 Book 2 Book 3 Book 4 Book 5 Chapters 1-41

Chapters 42-72

Chapters 73-89

Chapters 90-106

Chapters 107-150

Mostly written by David

Mostly by Asaph

Mostly anonymous

Mostly by David

An exclusive use of Yahweh

Psalm 100:1-31 Psalm for Thanksgiving.

Shout joyfully to the LORD, all the earth.

2 Serve the LORD with gladness;

Come before Him with joyful singing.

3 Know that the LORD Himself is God;

It is He who has made us, and not we ourselves;

We are His people and the sheep of His pasture.

Psalm 100:4-54 Enter His gates with thanksgiving,

And His courts with praise.

Give thanks to Him; bless His name.

5 For the LORD is good;

His lovingkindness is everlasting,

And His faithfulness to all generations.

Book 1 Book 2 Book 3 Book 4 Book 5 Chapters 1-41

Chapters 42-72

Chapters 73-89

Chapters 90-106

Chapters 107-150

Mostly written by David

Mostly by Asaph

Mostly anonymous

Mostly by David

Psalm 110:1A Psalm of David.

The LORD says to my Lord:

“Sit at My right hand,

Until I make Thine enemies a footstool for Thy feet.”

The Psalms of Praise

Psalms 113-118

(Sung at Passover)

Psalm 118:21-23

21 I shall give thanks to Thee, for Thou hast answered me;

And Thou hast become my salvation.

22 The stone which the builders rejected

Has become the chief corner stone.

23 This is the LORD's doing;

It is marvelous in our eyes.

Psalm 120:1-2Psalm 120:1-2

1 A Song of Ascents, of David.

I Was glad when they said to me,

"Let us go to the house of the LORD."

2 Our feet are standing

Within your gates, O Jerusalem,

Psalm 120:3-4Psalm 120:3-43 Jerusalem, that is built

As a city that is compact together;

4 To which the tribes go up, even the tribes of the LORD--

An ordinance for Israel--

To give thanks to the name of the LORD.

Psalm 134:1-31 A Song of Ascents.

Behold, bless the LORD, all servants of the LORD,

Who serve by night in the house of the LORD!

2 Lift up your hands to the sanctuary,

And bless the LORD.

3 May the LORD bless you from Zion,

He who made heaven and earth.

The Value of the PsalmsThe Value of the Psalms

• A Commentary of the Old Testament

• Liturgy for Worship

• A Pattern for Prayer

• Wisdom for Living

The Book of WisdomThe Book of Wisdom

Title of the bookTitle of the book

The proverbs of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel (Proverbs 1:1).


From theroot word

Proverbs 1:2-42 To know wisdom and instruction,

To discern the sayings of understanding,

3 To receive instruction in wise behavior,

Righteousness, justice and equity;

4 To give prudence to the naive,

To the youth knowledge and discretion,

Proverbs 1:5-6

5 A wise man will hear and increase in learning,

And a man of understanding will acquire wise counsel,

6 To understand a proverb and a figure,

The words of the wise and their riddles.

Proverbs 1:7

The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge;

Fools despise wisdom and instruction.

• A Fear that Drives Away• A Fear that brings Wonder

PsalmsPsalmsBook of Worship

ProverbsProverbsBook of Wisdom

Speaks to our Spirit Speaks to our Intellect

Life in the prayer closet

Life out in the street

Teach us how to be holy before God

Teach us how to practice holiness

before menLove the Lord with all your heart, soul, and


Love your neighbor as yourself

1:1-6 1:7 10:1 21:1 30:1 31:1

Prologue Appeal to Wisdom

One-verse maxims Larger Couplets

Good Woman

Purpose of the Proverbs

Wisdom Personified

Proverbs of Solomon

Proverbs of Hezekiah

Words of Agur

Words of King Lemuel

Lessons from the ProverbsLessons from the Proverbs

• The Universal need for Wisdom

• The Universal Arena of Wisdom

• What is Wise is also what is Good

• Principles rather than Promises

• A real view of the real world

• Christians are called to be street-smart


The Question of Life

Song of





Esther Passover Shabuot

(Pentecost) Fall of

Jerusalem Sukkot

(Tabernacles) Purim

Nisan 14 Sivan 8 Ab 9 Tishri 15 Adar 14

April 17 June 9 August 8 September 24 March 19

Note: English equivalent dates are only close Note: English equivalent dates are only close approximationsapproximations

Solomon’s DiarySolomon’s Diary

1-2 3 4-5 6-9 10-12

All of life is emptiness,

but man ought to

enjoy goodness because it

is from God

There is profit in

seeing God as the giver of all of the seasons of


Instead of being

fearful, enjoy life

while it lasts because it

is a gift from God

Man sees life as a struggle, but God

gave life to be enjoyed

Because of the

emptiness of this life, man ought to fear the Lord and follow His


2nd Sermon

3rd Sermon

4th Sermon

5th Sermon

1st Sermon

Remember the Lord because…Remember the Lord because…

• You aren’t getting any Younger.

• God has designed you to the Empty without Him.

• Now is the Time to Prepare for Eternity.


The Love Song of the Scriptures

Interpretations of the BookInterpretations of the Book• Allegorical Interpretation: Entire book is

seen as an allegory of the Lord’s love for His people Israel.

• Cultic Interpretation: Poems for use in marriage ritual.

• Shepherd Interpretation: Views Solomon as the villain.

• Typical Interpretation: Type of the church• Natural or Literal Interpretation

Cast of CharactersCast of Characters

• Solomon: Shelomoh “Peaceful”

• Shulamith: Feminine of Shelomoh

Romance &Honeymoon

(Chapters 1-4)

Happily everafter

(Chapters 7-8)

Marital Problems(Chapters 5-6)

Lessons from the Song of Lessons from the Song of SongsSongs

• God is concerned with all of life

• God is concerned with our sexuality

• All of life reflects our relationship with


• The Scriptures contain love songs

• We are a part of a sacred romance

The Prophets

© John Stevenson, 2009

PentateuchPentateuchGenesis, Exodus, Leviticus,

Numbers, Deuteronomy

Historical Historical BooksBooks

Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1-2 Samuel, 1-2 Kings, 1-2 Chronicles,

Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther

Poetic Poetic BooksBooks

Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon

Prophetic Prophetic BooksBooks

Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel,

Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah,

Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi

What is a Prophet?What is a Prophet?

• They functioned as Preachers

• They functioned as Predictors

• Prophet versus Priest

Northern Kingdom Ends !


Ahaz Hezekiah Manassah


740 716735 697 687

Ministry of Isaiah

Ministry of Micah

Ministry of Hosea


The Pre-Exilic Prophets

Isaiah 1:4Alas, sinful nation,

People weighed down with iniquity,

Offspring of evildoers,

Sons who act corruptly!

They have abandoned the Lord,

They have despised the Holy One of Israel,

They have turned away from Him.

Literally “Seed of Evil Ones.”

Isaiah 1:10Hear the word of the LORD,

You rulers of Sodom;

Give ear to the instruction of our God,

You people of Gomorrah.

Isaiah 1:11"What are your multiplied sacrifices to Me?” says the LORD.

"I have had enough of burnt offerings of rams,

And the fat of fed cattle.

And I take no pleasure in the blood of bulls, lambs, or goats.

Isaiah 1:21How the faithful city has become a harlot,

She who was full of justice!

Righteousness once lodged in her,

But now murderers.

Isaiah 1:26-2726 Then I will restore your judges as at the first,

And your counselors as at the beginning;

After that you will be called the city of righteousness, A faithful city."

27 Zion will be redeemed with justice

And her repentant ones with righteousness.

Hosea 1-3Hosea 1-3

Hosea’s Marriage

Hosea 4-13Hosea 4-13 Hosea 14Hosea 14

Hosea’s Message

Gomer’s…• Unfaithfulness• Discipline• Restoration

The case of God’s covenant lawsuit is set forth, showing

how Israel has been the unfaithful bride

Ultimate restoration

Hear this word which the LORD has spoken against you, sons of Israel, against the entire family which He brought up from the land of Egypt, 2 you only have I chosen among all the families of the earth; therefore, I will punish you for all your iniquities."

Amos 3:1-2

The Lord God hassworn by Hisholiness,"Behold, the daysare coming uponyouWhen they willtake you awaywith meat hooks,And the last ofyou with fishhooks.” (Amos4:2).

Micah 6:6-76 With what shall I come to the LORD

And bow myself before the God on high?

Shall I come to Him with burnt offerings,

With yearling calves?

7 Does the LORD take delight in thousands of rams,

In ten thousand rivers of oil?

Shall I present my first-born for my rebellious acts,

The fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?

Micah 6:8He has told you, O man, what is good;

And what does the LORD require of you

But to do justice, to love kindness,

And to walk humbly with your God?


620 610 600 590 580 570 560












Joel?Jerusalem & Temple Destroyed

Fall ofNineveh

Babylonian Captivity

Jeremiah 31:31-32“Behold, days are coming,”

declares the LORD, “when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, 32

not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,” declares the LORD.

Jeremiah 31:33“But this is the covenant which I

will make with the house of Israel after those days," declares the LORD, “I will put My law within them, and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.

Jeremiah 31:34And they shall not teach again,

each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, ‘Know the LORD,’ for they shall all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,” declares the LORD, “for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.”

Old Old CovenantCovenant

Let us go up to the house of the


New New CovenantCovenant

Go unto all the world and make disciples of the


Jerusalem Church

The Glory of the LordThe Glory of the Lord• Ezekiel sees the glory of the presence of the

Lord within His temple (8:4).• The glory of God is seen at the doorway to

the temple (9:3).• It next leaves the doorway and moves out to

the Eastern Gate (10:18).• It moves completely out of the city of

Jerusalem: And the glory of the LORD went up from the midst of the city, and stood over the mountain which is east of the city (Ezekiel 11:23).

Ezekiel’s Vision John’s Revelation

A Temple within the City The New Jerusalem

• Ezekiel is taken in this vision to a very high mountain (40:2)

• John is carried in the Spirit to a great and high mountain (21:10)

• A man uses a rod to measure the dimensions of the temple (40:5-ff)

• An angel measures the city with a rod (21:15-17)

• The entire temple area is a perfect square (42:15-20)

• The entire city is a perfect cube (21:16)

Ezekiel’s Vision John’s Revelation

A Temple within the City The New Jerusalem

• The presence of the glory of the Lord enters the temple (43:3-4)

• No need of sun or moon because the Lord illumines His city (22:5)

• No foreigner is admitted into the temple (44:9)

• Nothing unclean and no unbeliever is allowed into the city (21:8, 27)

• A river of water flows out of the temple (47:1)

• A river of the water of life comes from the throne of God (22:1)

Ezekiel’s Vision John’s Revelation

A Temple within the City The New Jerusalem

• There are a total of 12 gates around the city (48:30-34)

• There are 12 gates to the city (21:21)

• The name of the city shall be: “The Lord is there” (48:35).

• The throne of God shall be there (22:3)

Ezekiel 43:4-5

And the glory of the LORD came into the house by the way of the gate facing toward the east. 5 And the Spirit lifted me up and brought me into the inner court; and behold, the glory of the LORD filled the house.

1:1 8:1

Written in the Third PersonWritten in the First


Seven Historical Seven Historical NarrativesNarratives

Four Prophetic Four Prophetic VisionsVisions

Written in Aramaic

Written in HebrewHebrew

Prophetic History relating to the Gentiles

Prophetic History relating to the Jews



Seleucus•Antiochus IV•Hostage in Rome•Escape•Appointments in Judah

Antiochus EpiphanesAntiochus Epiphanes• Comes on the heels of Alexander’s


• Magnifies itself against the Jews and against their God

• He puts a stop to the sacrificial system and makes alterations to the Law

• He attempts to overturn the truth of the Scriptures

• He has power over the nation of Israel

Antiochus EpiphanesAntiochus Epiphanes• His sway over the Temple endures for

approximately 3 and a half years (2300 mornings and evenings).

• Then the holy place is ultimately properly restored

Daniel 11:31Daniel 11:31

And forces from him will arise, desecrate the sanctuary fortress, and do away with the regular sacrifice. And they will set up the abomination of


Haggai & ZechariahHaggai & Zechariah

Malachi 3:1

"Behold, I am going to send My

messenger, and he will clear the way

before Me. And the Lord, whom you

seek, will suddenly come to His

temple; and the messenger of the

covenant, in whom you delight,

behold, He is coming," says the

LORD of hosts

Malachi 4:2

But for you who fear My name

the sun of righteousness will rise with

healing in its wings; and you will go

forth and skip about like calves from

the stall.