The Poetical Books Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. They don’t relate...

The Poetical Books Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. They don’t relate historical experiences. Rather they relate the experiences of heart. Unlike the Pentateuch and twelve historical books, the poetical books do not advance the story of the nation Israel . Instead, they delve deeply into crucial questions about pain, God, wisdom, life, and love—all in the present tense.

Transcript of The Poetical Books Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. They don’t relate...

The Poetical Books

Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Solomon. They don’t relate historical experiences. Rather they relate the experiences of heart.

Unlike the Pentateuch and twelve historical books, the poetical books do not advance the story of the nation Israel. Instead, they delve deeply into crucial questions about pain, God, wisdom, life, and love—all in the present tense.

Introduction – Poetical Books

Three Kinds of Poetry1. Lyric Poetry – (ex. Psalms)

2. Didactic Poetry – (ex. Proverbs , Ecclesiastes)

3. Dramatic Poetry – ( Job, Song of Solomon)

Poetry – Introduction ...Continues....

Two Key Elements of Hebrew Poetry:

1. Parallelism

2. Figures of Speech

**Hebrew poetry is characterized by vivid figures of speech:

Poetry – Introduction Continues...


A. Synonymous – The thought of the first line is basically repeated in different words in the second line (Psalms 2:4; 3:1; 7:17)

B. Antithetical – The thought of the first line is emphasized by a contrasting thought in the second line (Psalms 1:6; 34:10). They are often identified with “but”.

Poetry – Introduction Continues...


C. Synthetic - The second line explains or further develops the idea of the first line (Ps 1:3; 95:3).

D. Climatic - The second line repeats with the exception of the Last terms (Psalms 29:1).

E. Emblematic - One line conveys the main point, the second line illuminates it by an image (Psalms 42:1; 23:1).

Poetry Introduction .... Continues....

Figures of Speech1. Simile (Ps. 1: 3-4)2. Metaphor (Ps. 23:1)3. Implication ( Ps. 22;16, Jer. 4:7)4. Hyperbole- The use of exaggeration to

emphasize a point (Ps. 6:6; 78:27; 107:26).5. Rhetorical Questions (Ps. 35:10, 56:8,

94:6; 106:2).

Poetry Introduction ..... Continues

6. Metonymy (ps.5:9; 18:2; 57:9; 73:9)7. Anthropomorphism - Assigning an

appropriate part of human body to God’s Person to convey some truth about God. (Ps. 11:4; 18:15; 31:2; 32:8)

8. Zoomorphism – (Ps 17:8; 36:7; 63:7; 91:4)9. Personification – Assigning the characteristics

of a human to lifeless objects (Ps 35:10; 77:16; 96:11, 104:19).

10. Apostrophe – Addressing lifeless objects (Ps 114:5.

Poetry – Introduction Continues....

Another technique in Hebrew Poetry is the Alphabetic acrostic – the first Hebrew letter in a line is the first letter of the alphabet, the second is the second letter of the alphabet, and so on.

**There are also three books of wisdom within the poets: Job, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes.


Theme: Blessings through suffering

Date Written: 2000 – 1800 B.C.

Author: Unknown ...Setting: Land of Uz

Job - Introduction

The book of Job is considered by many Bible scholars to be the oldest book in the Bible. Job probably lived during the same time period as Abraham. Like Abraham, Job is a wealthy and upright man who fears God.

The Book begins with a heavenly debate between God and Satan, moves through three cycles of earthly debates between Job and his friends, and concludes with a dramatic “divine diagnosis” of Job’s problem.

Job – Introduction Continues...

In the end, job acknowledges the sovereignty of God in his life and receives back more than he had before his trials.

Iyyōb is the Hebrew title for the book. It could be derived from the Hebrew word for persecution, it means “Persecuted one”.

Some Sources of Suffering

The fall of man – Genesis 3:16-19The consequences of your sins – Galatians 6:7The sins of others – Genesis 37:26-28Unavoidable consequences – Luke 10:30Unavoidable disaster –Luke 13:1-5Consequences of your beliefs – Philippians

1:29; 2 Timothy 3:12God’s Plan greater Plan – Job 1:1 – 2:13

Life lessons from Job

Spiritual affairs are going on in heaven that you know nothing about.

Life issues cannot always be understood in human terms

God’s people do suffer. Bad things do happen to good people.

You cannot always judge a person’s spirituality by his or her pain or prosperity.

God always has a reason for what you are asked to endure.

Suffering should improve your worship as you draw closer to God and His comfort.

Survey of Job

Chapters 1 -2 The Dilemma of Job (Controversy between God and Satan)

Chapters 4 – 37 The Debates of Job (3 cycles of Debate and the final Defense of Job)

Chapters 38 to 42 The Deliverance of Job (Controversy of God and Job)


Theme: PraiseDate Written: 1410 – 450 B.C.Author: Various authorsSetting: Heaven and Earth.

Psalms - Introduction

The Psalms are poetic expressions of human and religious feeling, and are divided into five books that comprise a total of 150 individual psalms. The Psalms span the ten centuries from Moses to the days after the Jewish people’s exile.

They consist of a wide variety of styles and purposes and emotions, such as lament, thanksgiving, praise, worship, pilgrimage, petition, and penitence.

Psalms – Introduction Continues...

The Book of Psalms is the largest and perhaps most widely used book in the Bible.

The Psalms were set to the accompaniment of stringed instruments served as the Temple hymnbook and devotional guide for the Jewish people.

Major Contributors of the Psalms

Book Book 1 (1-41)

Book 2(42-72)

Book 3(73-89)

Book 4(90-106)

Book 5(107 - 150)

Chief Author

David David/Korah

Asaph Anonymous


Number of Psalms

41 31 17 17 44

TopicalLikeness toPentateuch

Genesis:Man and Creation

Exodus: Deliverance and Redemption

Leviticus: Worship and Sanctuary

Numbers:Wilderness and wandering


Possible Compiler

David Hezekiah or Josiah

Hezekiah or Josiah

Ezra or Nehemiah

Ezra or Nehemiah

Possible Dates of Compilation

c. 1020 – 970 B.C.

c. 970 – 610 B.C.

c. 970 – 610 B.C.

Until c. 430 B.C.

Until c. 430 B.C.

Psalms - Book One (Psalms 1 -41)

David is designated as being the author of almost half of the Psalms (73 of the 150 Psalms). He authored all the Psalms in this first book. David’s wide range of experience as a shepherd, musician, warrior, and king are reflected in his psalms. The Psalms in this book are basically songs of praise and worship. The most well-known psalm in this section is Psalm 23, which begins with the familiar and well- loved word, “The LORD is my shepherd” (Psalms 23:1)

Psalms – Book Two (Psalms 42-72)

David and sons of Korah ( a group of singers and composers) account for most of the psalms in book two. Most of the Psalms in this grouping are hymns of national interest and describe God’s nature and His judgment of the wicked and the deliverance of the righteous. David’s public song of repentance after his sinful affair with Bathsheba is located in this section. In it David cries out, “have mercy upon me, O God, according to Your lovingkindness” (Psalm 51:1). These Psalms help us reserve a sense of wonder and thankfulness toward God in our worship.

Psalms – Book Three (Psalms 73-89)

Asaph was appointed by David as leader of one the temple choirs (1 Chronicles 25:1), and is the author of the majority of the Psalms in this section. This book of “songs” celebrate the sovereignty of God, God’s hand in history, His faithfulness, and covenant with David. These psalms remind us that the worship of our great God should be continual. The Psalmist declared, I will sing of the mercies of the Lord forever; with my mouth will I make known Your faithfulness to all generations” (Psalms 89:1).

Psalms – Book Four (Psalms 90-106)

Although five of these psalms are attributed to David, most of them were written anonymously. Primarily these psalms are anthems of praise and reflection, and prayer by Moses is the opening psalm in this section. Moses reminds us that our time on this earth is limited and we are to use it wisely. He tells us to “number our days, that we may gain a heart of wisdom” (Psalm 90:12).

Psalms – Book Five (Psalms 107 – 150)

Many of these psalms attributed to David, and many are anthems of praise. They exalt God’s works, recount the blessings of righteous living, and the longest psalm (Psalm 119) praises God for His wonderful Word. The poetry in this book reminds us that the most perfect sacrifice we can offer to God is a faithful and Obedient life.

Life lessons from the Psalms

The Psalms give you a better understanding of God.

The Psalms can guide you in your ongoing relationship with God.

The Psalms are a source of comfort in times of pain and distress.

The Psalms remind you often of God’s control over all things.

The Psalms provide a model for praise and worship.


Theme: Practical wisdomDate Written: 971 – 681 B.C.Author: Primarily SolomonSetting: Everyday Life

Proverbs - Introduction

While David is the author of a majority of the Psalms, his son, Solomon, is the author of most of the book of Proverbs.

The Book of Proverbs is the most practical book in the Old Testament because it gives simple illustrations and insights about the basic realities of everyday life.

The book of Proverbs is meant to be to your practical life what the book of Psalms is to your devotional life.

Proverbs – Introduction Continues...

The key word in Proverbs is wisdom, “the ability to live life skillfully”.

Proverbs provides God’s detailed instruction for His people to deal successfully with the practical affairs of everyday life: how to relate to God, parents, children, neighbours, and government.

According to First Kings 4:32, he spoke 3000 proverbs and 1,005 songs. Only about 800 of his 3000 proverbs are included in the two Solomonic collections in this book.

Proverbs – Introduction Continues...

Who are the contributors of Proverbs? 1. Solomon 2. Proverbs of Solomon Copied by

Hezekiah’s Men (25:1 – 29:27. 3. Agur (30) 4. Lemuel (31)

Survey of Proverbs

Purpose of Proverbs 1:1 -1:7Proverbs to Youth 1:8 – 9:18Proverbs of Solomon 10:1 – 24:34Proverbs of Solomon (Hezekiah) 25:1

– 29:27Words of Agur 30:1 - 30:33Words of Lemuel 31:1 – 31:31

Life Lessons from Proverbs

Chose God’s ways. He will lead you into making right decisions.

Chose your words carefully. They reveal your inner character.

Chose to work diligently. God will be honored, and you will profit and gain skills in your labors.

Chose your friends carefully. They are a reflection of you.

Chose to develop moral character and devotion to God. This is success in God’s eyes.


Theme: All is vanity apart from God.

Date Written: 940 - 931 B.C.Author: SolomonSetting: The end of Solomon’s life

Ecclesiastes - Introduction

This book is an autobiography written by King Solomon at the end of his life after he strayed away from God.

Ecclesiastes is a profound recording an intense search by the Preacher for meaning and satisfaction in life.

The Key word in Ecclesiastes is vanity, the futile emptiness of trying to be happy apart from God.

Life lessons Ecclesiastes

All your activities in life should be seen and measured in the light of eternity.

Nothing in this life will bring true meaning and happiness—not wealth, fame, pleasure, or success. Only in God can you find real fulfllment.

There is much less that you can depend on than you might think!

True happiness comes only from obedience to God.

Survey of Ecclesiastes

The Thesis that “All Is Vanity” (1:1-11)The Proof that “All Is Vanity” (1:12 - 6:12)

The counsel for Living with Vanity (7:1 - 12:14)


Theme: Love and MarriageDate Written: 971 – 965 B.C.Author: SolomonSetting: Early in Solomon’s reign

Song of Solomon - Introduction

Song of Solomon is a love song written by Solomon (1:1) and abounding in metaphors and oriental imagery. Historically, it depicts the wooing and wedding of a shepherdess by King Solomon, and the joys and heartaches of wedded love.

Allegorically, it pictures Israel as God’s espoused bride

(see Hosea 2: 19-20), and the church as the bride of Christ.

Song of Solomon Introduction Continues...

This book is called by many names: Song of Songs, Song of Solomon or “ The Best Song”.

This song was written primarily from the point of view of the Shulamite, the reason could be Solomon’s relationship with the Shulamite was the only pure romance he ever experienced even though he had many wives.

This book is arranged like scenes in a drama with three main speakers: the bride (Shulamite), the king (Solomon), and a chorus (daughters of Jerusalem).

Christ in Song of Solomon

In the Old Testament, Israel is regarded as the bride of Yahweh ( See Is. 54:5-6; Jer. 2:2; Ezek. 16:8-14; Hosea 2:16-20). In the New Testament, the church is seen as the bride of Christ (see 2 Cor. 11:2; Eph. 5:23-25; Rev. 19:7-9; 21:9). The Song of Solomon illustrates the former and anticipates the latter.

Song of Solomon...Introduction Continues...

Is this book fictional, allegorical or historical??

1.Fictional – Fictional drama that portrays Solomon’s courtship of and marriage to a poor but beautiful girl from the country.

2.Allegorical – it illustrate the truth of God’s love for his people.

3.Historical – it is a poetic record of Solomon’s actual romance with a Shulamite woman.

Survey of Song of Solomon

Title (1:1)Falling in Love (1:2 - 3:5)United in Love (3:6 - 5:1)Struggling in Love (5:2 - 7:10)Maturing in Love (7:11 – 8:14)