TEXTILE WASTE MINIMISATION

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TEXTILE WASTE MINIMISATION Alternatives for waste volume reduction in the textile sector. Minimisation measures in the production process and in the consumption. LIFE05 ENV/E/000285 1.- OBJECTIVES This project aims to elaborate a common Procedure for Waste Management applicable for all the textile subsectors and to validate and demonstrate the efficiency of several applications for the textile wastes volume reduction. Also to validate the enterprise benefits applying these waste reduction technologies through identification of the main available technologies. Wastes to be considered are dangerous and non dangerous wastes. The goal of this project is also the validation of the benefits for the enterprises applying these waste reduction technologies through comparative studies, procedures development, validation in pilot demonstrations and dissemination. It attends the different methodologies regarding the application of best practices and Best Available Techniques (BAT’s) to minimize wastes generated by the textile sector. 2.- INTRODUCTION The objective of this document is to summarise the findings and conclusions of the European project RESITEX “Alternatives for waste volume reduction in the textile sector through the application of minimisation measures in the production process and in the consumption”. LIFE05 ENV/E/000285. Project funded by the European Commission through the LIFE-Environment Programme and developed by AITEX, as project coordinator together with ATEVAL, CITEVE and ATP. This document incorporates: · Identification, classification and description wastes from different textile industry subsectors: spinning, weaving, clothing and finishing. · Identification, classification and description waste reduction technologies applicable to different textile subsectors: spinning, weaving clothing and finishing. · Identification minimization technologies applicable to reduce each specific generate wastes by textile industry.
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  • TEXTILE WASTE MINIMISATION

    Alternatives for waste volume reduction inthe textile sector.Minimisation measures in the productionprocess and in the consumption.LIFE05 ENV/E/000285

    1.- OBJECTIVES

    This project aims to elaborate a common Procedure for WasteManagement applicable for all the textile subsectors and to validate anddemonstrate the efficiency of several applications for the textile wastesvolume reduction. Also to validate the enterprise benefits applying thesewaste reduction technologies through identification of the main availabletechnologies. Wastes to be considered are dangerous and non dangerouswastes.

    The goal of this project is also the validation of the benefits for theenterprises applying these waste reduction technologies throughcomparative studies, procedures development, validation in pilotdemonstrations and dissemination. It attends the different methodologiesregarding the application of best practices and Best Available Techniques(BATs) to minimize wastes generated by the textile sector.

    2.- INTRODUCTION

    The objective of this document is to summarise the findings andconclusions of the European project RESITEX Alternatives for wastevolume reduction in the textile sector through the application ofminimisation measures in the production process and in the consumption.LIFE05 ENV/E/000285.

    Project funded by the European Commission through the LIFE-EnvironmentProgramme and developed by AITEX, as project coordinator togetherwith ATEVAL, CITEVE and ATP.

    This document incorporates:

    Identification, classification and description wastes from different textileindustry subsectors: spinning, weaving, clothing and finishing.

    Identification, classification and description waste reduction technologiesapplicable to different textile subsectors: spinning, weaving clothingand finishing.

    Identification minimization technologies applicable to reduce eachspecific generate wastes by textile industry.

  • Purified wastewater is poured to the river. In this casethe problem is apparently the colour but all contaminationparameters are very low and comply with the law limits(COD < 160 mg/L, NNH3 < 15 mg/L, SST < 80 mg/L, Cl-
  • According to the European waste codes it is established a second waste classification. CONSLEG: 2000D0532-01/01/2002. Consolidated TEXT produced by the CONSLEG system of the Official Publications of EuropeanCommunities.

    It is divided into 20 chapters, most of which are industry-based, although some are based on materials andprocesses. Individual waste types are detailed in the subchapters and are assigned a six-digit code thatcomprises two digits for the chapter, two for the subchapter and two specific to the waste type.

    It is included in the following Chart, the European Waste Code from the European Waste List (EWC) foreach waste produces from textile industry:

    Chart 1: Classification according to the European waste codes (EWC)

    Chemical wastes, dyes, print pastes.

    Classification Waste European wastecode (EWC)

    Non dangerouspackaging wastes

    Paper packaging wastes.

    Wooden packaging wastes.

    Metallic packaging wastes.

    15 01 01

    15 01 02

    15 01 03

    15 01 04

    Dangerous naturepackaging wastes

    Paper packaging wastes.

    Plastic packaging wastes.

    Metallic packaging wastes.

    15 01 10

    15 01 10

    15 01 11

    Non dangerous wastes

    Textile wastes.

    Sludge for wastewater treatment.

    08 03 18

    04 02 22

    04 02 20

    Printing toners.

    Dangerous wastes

    Grease and oil impregnated rags.

    Used oils.

    Fluorescent tubes.

    Accidental leaks over sepiolite substratums.

    Contaminated textile wastes with chemicals.

    Solvent wastes.

    Waste of electric and electronic equipment (with metals).

    Batteries.

    15 02 02

    13 02

    20 01 21

    15 02 02

    15 02 02

    04 02 14

    16 02 13

    16 06 01-03

    04 02 16

    Plastic packaging wastes.

    LIFE05 ENV/E/000285

  • 5.- IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION WASTE REDUCTIONTECHNOLOGIES APPLICABLE TO DIFFERENT TEXTILE SUBSECTORS: SPINNING,WEAVING CLOTHING AND FINISHING.

    It has been established a classification in four categories, from more general concepts;(optimization of water and energy consumption) to more concrete concepts as specificnew textile technologies (digital printing, plasma treatments).

    5.1.- Good Management Environmental Practices

    General good management practises range from staff education and training, improvingthe quality and quantity of chemicals use, to optimising water consumption and optimisingthe use of energy.

    The textile industry is composed of a wide number of sub-sectors, covering the entireproduction cycle from the production of raw materials to semi-processed and final products.Four main sub-sectors have been identified: spinning, weaving clothing and finishing.

    S: Spinning; W/C: Weaving/Clothing; F: Finishing

    GOOD MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICES S W/C F

    1Staff education and training. Creating an environmental chain, basedon the appropriate education and environmental awareness of all ofthe employees, supported by existing practices and procedures.

    X X X

    2Improving the quality and quantity of chemicals used, including regularrevision and maintenance of recipes, equipment and systems forautomated control of process parameters.

    X X

    3 Optimising and reducing water consumption: reusing and recyclingwater. X X

    4 Optimising and reducing energy consumption. X XX

    5Reducing packaging. Using higher volume and reusable packaging,whenever possible. This kind of specifications should be implementedand checked before consumable product / machinery acquisition.

    X XX

    6 Evaluation of the work flow with flowcharts and mass balances. X X

    7Implementation of efficient stock management, avoiding old chemicalwaste products, which are difficult and expensive to treat, or otherconsumable products. Reduction of the variability of used productscould also contribute for less wastes production.

    X X

    8"Zero wastes" concept. Introduction of waste minimisation in theconception and development of new products. Looking to the life-cycleof the product and using the friendliest environmental substances andmaterials.

    X XX

    9

    Production management by colour. Good production managementduring the day or week, starting from light colours to darker ones. Forinstance in dyeing process by this procedure, less washing machinerequirements are necessaries between different batch processes, allowingwater saving.

    XX

    LIFE05 ENV/E/000285

  • 5.2.- Selection and Substitution of Chemicals used,

    A number of schemes for ecotoxicological assessment and classifications, substitution ofthe harmful substances are often available options to reduce the environmental impactof a processes.

    S: Spinning; W/C: Weaving/Clothing; F: Finishing

    The reduction technologies cross in red colour have not been detected in thevisited companies. 82% of reduction technologies are total or partially implementedin the visited companies.

    SELECTION AND SUBSTITUTION OF USED CHEMICALS S W/C F

    10Substitution of conventional surfactants with high toxicity (e.g.Polyaromatic hydrocarbons APEO, NPE) by biodegradable or bioeliminablesurfactants.

    X X

    11 Substitution of complexing agents by biodegradable or bioeliminablecompounds that do not contain Nitrogen or Phosphor in their molecules. X X

    12 Replaced conventional printing paste with less harmful compounds,based in polyacrylic cid or polyethilenglycol. X X

    13 Substitution of conventional antifoaming agents by mineral-oil freeproducts, like silicones more bioeliminable. X X

    14 Substitution of sodium hypochlorite by Hydrogen peroxide in bleachingprocesses, in order to reduce AOX.

    15Substitution of carriers. Conventional active substances based onchlorinated aromatic compounds can be replaced with less harmfulcompounds such as benzylbenzoato and N-alkylphthalimide.

    16Substitution of conventional dispersing agents by optimised productsbased on fatty acid esters or mixtures of modified aromatic sulphonicacids, agents more bioeliminable and hydrosoluble.

    17 Substitution of conventional sulphur dyestuffs by new formulations ofsulphur dyestuffs. They are free of sulphurs and polysulphurs.

    18 Used peroxides to oxide sulphur dyestuffs in order to reduce AOX.

    19 Selection new reactive dyestuffs, that can provide very good levels offastness.

    20 Substitution of conventional rinsing by enzimatic treatment, dying withreactives dyes.

    21 Substitution of chrome salts in wool dyeing by other agents:bromeacrylamide or pre-methalised dyes.

    22 Avoid the use of detergents and complexing agents in the rinsing withhot rinsing.

    23 Selection of textile dyes according to their wastewater relevance.

    24Substitution of mineral oils, lubricants and knitting oils by alternativecompounds with high level of biodegradability or at least bioeliminabilityand hydrosoluble.

    25Use organic coagulants instead of inorganic ones like aluminium sulphate,usually reduces the amount of sludge produced in wastewater treatmentplants. The sludge's characteristics usually enable its agricultural value.

    25 Pigment printing pastes with optimised environmental performance.

    X X

    X X

    X X

    X X

    X X

    X X

    X

    X

    X X

    X X

    X

    X X

    X

    XX

    LIFE05 ENV/E/000285

  • 5.3.- Minimisation of Resources and Subproducts Recycling

    These concepts are in the second place in the strategy of waste management and areavailable to apply to the textile industry.

    S: Spinning; W/C: Weaving/Clothing; F: Finishing

    The reduction technologies cross in red colour have not been detected in thevisited companies. 82% of reduction technologies are total or partially implementedin the visited companies.

    MINIMIZATION OF RESOURCES AND SUBPRODUCTS RECYCLING S W/C F

    27Minimising the printings volume paste supply system (e.g. Diameters of pipesand squeegees), has major effects in reducing printing paste losses in rotary-screen printing.

    X

    28 Recover and recycle residual printing pastes. X X

    29 Recover and re-use residual printing pastes. (e.g. Making isolation panel tobuilding materials). X

    30 Cover scoured bath to avoid leave heat. X X

    31 Recover and re-use ahnidrous grease from raw wool scour with decantationequipments and hydro-extractors. X

    32 Re-use rinse water for the next dyeing or reconstitution and re-use the dye bathwhen technical considerations allow. X

    33 Waste water neutralisation pH treatment with fumes gases from coogenerationboiler. X

    34 Glycol re-used in the production of polyester and polyamide. X35 Recover and re-use bath desizing with encymes. X

    36Reduce water consumption in cleaning operations of printing equipments (e.g.:"start/stop control of cleaning of the printing belt", "reusing of the cleanestpart of the rinsing water from the squeegees, screens and.

    XX

    37Reduce energy consumption (e.g.: "heat-insulation of pipes, valves, tanks andmachines", "segregation of hot and cold wastewater streams and recovery ofheat from the hot stream").

    X

    38 Disposal of biological textile sludge to agricultural land.

    39 Combine tertiary treatments with membrane techniques for recycling wastewater.

    XX

    XX

    40

    Energetic valorisation of cotton waste. Burning of cotton waste mixed withwood in boiling equipment, taking advantage of high calorific value of cotton(18 - 21 KJ/g). Reduction of energy consumption and the amount of waste tobe stored on lanfills. Increase on air emissions. Constraint: the existence ofboilers that burn wood.

    X

    41 Short fibres value. Reuse of short fibres wastes to produce thicker yarns wherethe length of the fibre is not an important issue. X

    42

    NaOH recuperation from washing steps. Effluents from washing steps aftermercerization, with 5% of NaOH content, could be evaporated up toconcentrations of about 25-45%. Multi-effect evaporators could be used,increasing process efficiency and decreasing energy consumption when comparedto normal evaporating systems. Micro filters for NaOH cleaning and store tanksshould be introduced as auxiliary equipment.

    X X

    X

    X X

    LIFE05 ENV/E/000285

  • 5.4.- Equipment and New Technologies

    New equipments and technologies are appearing and developing textile processesand in some cases they are substituting the old processes in benefit to theenvironment.

    EQUIPMENT AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES S W/C F

    43 Install automated dosing and dispensing systems which measure theexact amount of chemicals and auxiliaries required. X

    44

    Combine desizing, scouring and bleaching in one single step for cottonwoven fabrics and its blends with synthetic fibres. New auxiliaries,formulations, automatic dosing and steamers allow the "Flash Steam",procedure with telescopes desizing, alkaline cracking and pad-steamperoxide bleaching into a single step.

    X

    X

    X

    45Introduce encymatic catalised processes. Pectinases have shown promisein replacing the traditional alkaline scouring treatment. Enzymes makethe substrate more hydrophilic, which could explain more bleachability.Amylases and amyglucosilases for desizing treatments.

    X

    46Use "easy care" treatment, formaldehyde-free or formaldehyde-poor(< 0,1% formaldehyde content in the formulation) cross-linking agentsin the textile industry.

    X

    47 Substitute overflow-flood rinsing method in favour of drain and fill. XX

    48Printing with digital techniques. In digital printing the selected dyes aredosed on-demand, based on computed requirements. This avoidsprinting paste wastes.

    XX

    49Use of liposomes as auxiliaries in wool dyeing with acid dyestuffs. Thatallows good dye bath exhaustion at 80C and 40 minutes. Advantages:lower superficial damage of wool fibre, energy saving, no electrolyteuse and lower COD load in the wastewater.

    X

    50Dyeing processes using equipments fitted with automatic controllers offilling volume, temperature and other dyeing cycle parameters, indirectheating and cooling systems, hoods and doors to diminishing vapourlosses.

    X

    51 Introduce wastewater treatments to reduce the contaminated load,using mainly biological treatment. XX

    52

    Simultaneous twist and cord formation. Specific equipment for cordproduction that allows two operations at the same time, using a tensionregulator. Fewer operations are needed to obtain the cord, reducingtextile wastes from the intermediate processes. Reduction of wasteproduction, energy consumption and production time. Usually used fortechnical textiles.

    X

    53Biological denim washing for reducing of stone wastes. Use of biologicalsystems (enzymes) instead of stones to produce special finishing effectson fabrics. The enzymes destroy fibre-dye bonds and allow fibre whitecolour to become visible, confering numerous special effects.

    X

    54Use CAD/CAM system on clothing, allowing plan cut optimisation andtextile wastes reduction. Reduction of textile wastes and productiontime. Increasing of energy consumption.

    X

    55Using of ozone systems for wastewater colour removal instead ofcoagulation/flocculation, in waste water plants, reduces the amount ofproduce sludge. Increasing of oxygen consumption and energy. Constraint:some dyes are ozone resistant.

    X

    56 Plasma technology: Change of fibre wettability (hydrophilic, hydrophobic,increase in dyestuff affinity properties) anti-felt finishing in wool. X

    S: Spinning; W/C: Weaving/Clothing; F: Finishing

    The reduction technologies cross in red colour have not been detected in thevisited companies. 82% of reduction technologies are total or partially implementedin the visited companies.

    LIFE05 ENV/E/000285

  • RESITEX Project "Alternatives for waste volume reduction in the textile sector through the application of minimisation measures in the production process and in the consumtion" LIFE05/ENV/E/000285.

    Project funded by the European Commission through the LIFE-Environment Programme. The total cost of the project is 358.054 e, and the EU contribution is 131.129 e.

    RESITEX Project was performed from December, 1st 2005 to November, 30th 2007.

    Project coordinated by AITEX, in collaboration with ATEVAL, CITEVE and ATP.

    6.- HOW CAN WASTES GENERATE BY TEXTIL INDUSTRY BE REDUCED?

    The RESITEX findings and conclusions can be summarized in the following charts. The different minimisation technologiesare shown for each kind of textile industry wastes generated, non dangerous and dangerous.

    AIT E X

    Plaza Emilio Sala, 1 E-03801AlcoiTel. 34 96 554 22 00 Fax 34 96 554 34 94

    e-mail: [email protected] www.textil.orgwww.observatoriotextil.com

    www.madeingreen.com

    R ESIT E X

    www.aitex.es/resitex

    CLASSIFICATION

    NONDANGERIUS

    Paper packaging wastes.

    EWC

    Plastic packaging wastes.

    Wooden packaging wastes.

    Metallic packaging wastes.

    Textile wastes.

    Sludge for water treatment.

    Printing toners.

    15 01 01

    15 01 02

    15 01 03

    15 01 04

    04 02 22

    04 02 20

    08 03 18

    REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 27, 28, 36, 42, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49

    1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 27, 28, 36, 42, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49

    1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 27, 28, 36, 42, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49

    1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 27, 28, 36, 42, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49

    1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49

    1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 38, 42

    1, 5, 8

    WASTE

    CLASSIFICATION

    DANGERIUS

    Paper packaging wastes.Plastic packaging wastes.

    EWC

    15 01 10

    REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10,11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 42, 48

    Metallic packaging wastes. 15 01 11 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10,11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 42, 48

    Grease and oil impregnated rags.Accidental leaks over sepiolite substrateContaminated textile wastes with chemicals.

    15 02 22 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10,11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19,21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 42

    Used oils. 13 02 1, 2, 5, 8

    Solvent wastes. 04 02 191, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 38, 42

    Residuos de disolventes. 04 02 141, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10,11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 43, 44

    Waste of electric and electronic equipment (withmetals).

    16 02 13 1, 5, 7, 8

    Batteries. 16 06 01-03 5, 6, 8

    Chemical wastes, dyes, print pastes. 04 02 16 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10,11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18,19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 43, 44, 47, 48, 49, 51

    WASTE