Supportive and motivating environments in schools

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The conference Developing Strength and Resilience in Children, 1-2 Nov. 2010 in Oslo.

Transcript of Supportive and motivating environments in schools

  • 1.Main factors to make wellbeing and learning a reality Anne G. Danielsen (PhD) Oslo, 2010

2. 1. Background 2. Outcomes: Wellbeing and learning 3. Aim 4. Theoretical perspective 5. Previous research 6. Research questions 7. Methods 8. Results 9. Conclusions 10. Implications Anne G. Danielsen 3. Anne G. Danielsen 4. a risk or resource for students wellbeing (Samdal, 1999) Anne G. Danielsen 5. Subjective wellbeing Positive development in children and youth Focus on Developing strengths Positive responses to adversity Strenghtening important institutions Complements, does not replace, risk behaviour- and disability-approaches Main purpose: Identitfying supportive and motivating factors that may relate to wellbeing and learning of students (Danielsen, 2010). Anne G. Danielsen 6. (a) positive subjective experiences, like subjective wellbeing , self-determination, self- efficacy and self-regulated learning (academic initiative) (b) positive personality a perspective on human beings as self-organizing, self-directed, adaptive entities, e.g. self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) and social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1997), and (c) positive institutions e.g. schools, bringing out the best in positive character and subjective experiences (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). School setting: the major extra-familial environment Anne G. Danielsen 7. Belonging at school: economic or educational success as adults long-term health and wellbeing (OECD, 2004) Success in education: individuals opportunities to live a successful life (Ottawa Charter to Health Promotion, 1986; Masten & Coatsworth, 1998; OECD, 2004). Individuals wellbeing and learning prerequisite for societies to achieve sustainable socio-economic and democratic development (OECD, 2004) Anne G. Danielsen 8. Chapter 9a. The pupils school environment Section 9a-1. General requirements All pupils attending primary and secondary schools are entitled to a good physical and psychosocial environment conducive to health, wellbeing and learning. Anne G. Danielsen 9. Subjective Wellbeing Quality of life or happiness peoples own evaluations of their lives, both affective and cognitive Anne G. Danielsen 10. life satisfaction, as for school students in Norway, and school satisfaction, considering school as one of the important life domains of wellbeing such as work, family, friends, or community (Huebner, Suldo, Smith, & McKnight, 2004a; Huebner, Valois, Suldo, Smith, McKnight, Seligson et al., 2004b). Anne G. Danielsen 11. an important cognitive aspect of subjective wellbeing (Huebner, Valois, Paxton, & Drane, 2005) views of life conditions and wellbeing experienced and assessed by the individuals themselves (Huebner et al., 2004) global, cognitive judgments of ones life (Pavot, Diener, Colvin, & Sandvik, 1991) a persons evaluation of various areas of his or her life (such as the school context) Anne G. Danielsen 12. A right to feel good about themselves and the institutions in which they function (Verkuyten & Thijs, 2002) An important outcome of schooling in itself An affective variable, students enjoyment and evaluation of their school experiences (Huebner & Gilman, 2006) Social belonging and inclusion (PISA-studies; educational policy documents) Liking school: (Health Behaviour in School-aged Children-studies) Disaffection with school may reflect alienation or disconnection from school and withdrawal from school activities Anne G. Danielsen 13. Engagement in challenging, task oriented behaviour (Larson, 2000) Self-regulated learning; motivational processes Goal setting, effort, positive beliefs, valuing learning (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997) Obtain better results (more likely) Become lifelong learners (more likely) Major new goal of education (OECD, 2004) Contribution to creating a good life (Report No. 16 [2006-2007] to the Norwegian Parliament) Anne G. Danielsen 14. a critical developmental period in shaping patterns of mental health (WHO, 2000) and health enhancing-behaviors (Larson, Wilson, Mortimer, 2002). Both growth and problems are potential outcomes of the adolescent period, depending on the kind of care and opportunities that adults and institutions afford (Roeser, Eccles, Sameroff, 1998). improving a students school initiative may prevent student boredom, disaffection, and drop-out from school (cf. Finn, 1989; Fredricks et al.).Anne G. Danielsen 15. Apply a positive psychological perspective School-related factors Lower secondary schools, i.e. grade 8-10 relate positively to students Life satisfaction, School satisfaction and Academic initiative Anne G. Danielsen 16. Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) What are supportive and motivating environments in schools according to self-determination theory? Anne G. Danielsen 17. Warmth vs Hostility Structure vs Caos Autonomy- Support vs Coercion Self- determined Motivation - Engagement Life satisfaction School satisfaction Academic initiative Relatedness Competence Autonomy Supportive and Motivating Environments Active en- couragement Student needs Student motivation Outcomes Anne G. Danielsen Figure 1 18. Relatedness; belonging and feeling connected to others Competence; to control outcomes and to experience effectance, such as having a sense of mastery over ones capacity to act in the environment Autonomy; to be agentic, to feel like the origin of ones actions, and to have a voice, initiative, input or choice in determining our own behavior (Ryan & Deci, 2000; Deci & Ryan, 2000). Anne G. Danielsen 19. Interpersonal involvement Competence-involving structure Autonomy-support Reeve (2002); Reeve et al. (2008) Anne G. Danielsen Warmth vs Hostility Structure vs Chaos Autonomy- Support vs Coercion 20. Interpersonal involvement (Reeve, 2005) The creation of social bonds a) the other person cares about my welfare b) the other person likes me (Baumeister & Leary, 1995) Support for relatedness provided by teachers a sense of being close to students, a sense of warmth, affection, and acceptance of students (Reeve, 2006; Reeve et al., 2008) pedagogical caring (Goldstein, 1999; Wentzel, 1997; Noddings, 2005). can be important to students development of secure relations to adults (Furrer & Skinner, 2003) Anne G. Danielsen Warmth vs Hostility 21. Competence-involving structure Continued feed-back provided by teachers: clear expectations, optimal challenges, and timely, informative, consistent, sensitive, and responsive feedback (in contrast to chaos or laissez-faire) suggestions for how future performance can be improved, may reduce perceptions of uncertainty help the student in developing a sense of perceived control over possible stressful circumstances (Rosenfeld et al., 2000, Hattie, 2009; Hattie & Timperley, 2007; OECD, 2005; Reeve, 2002). Anne G. Danielsen Structure vs Chaos 22. Autonomy-supportive teachers help students develop a sense of congruence between their classroom behavior and their inner motivational resources provide students with high-quality interpersonal relationships (Reeve, 2002). Responsive, supportive, motivate through interest, asking students what they want (Reeve; Reeve & Jang, 2006). enhanced motivation, engagement, learning, and psychological wellbeing (Reeve & Halusic, 2009) Anne G. Danielsen Autonomy- Support vs Coercion 23. two independent contextual variables can be complementary and mutually supportive Teachers can provide little or much competence-involving structure Teachers can be controlling or autonomy-supportive A lack of structure yields not an autonomy-supportive environment but instead one that is permissive, indulgent, or laissez-faire (Reeve, 2006, p. 231). Anne G. Danielsen 24. Anne G. Danielsen 25. Most young adolescents report relatively high levels of life satisfaction (Currie, Gabhainn, Godeau, Roberts, Smith, Currie et al., 2008). 11, 13 and 15-year-old school-students in 41 countries and regions across Europe and North America. social support from family, teachers, and peers is associated with perceived life satisfaction (Diener & Fujita, 1995). Anne G. Danielsen 26. School may be one of the life domains with the largest impact on students life satisfaction (Huebner, Laughlin, Ash & Gilman, 1998) Literature in this area is scant (Suldo, Riley, & Shaffer, 2006). Knowledge about the impact of school satisfaction on students life satisfaction: important for understanding how school- related resources influence (and change) health and well-being. Anne G. Danielsen 27. if the school context provides social support for relatedness, competence and autonomy (Baker et al., 2003). Associated with increased school satisfaction In accordance with self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) Anne G. Danielsen 28. Large cross-country differences in the prevalence of students reporting to like school (Currie, et al., 2008). Female students tend to report higher levels of school satisfaction than males do, but this gender gap narrows between ages 11 and 15. Compared with other countries; Norwegian students tend to report very high levels of liking school (Currie et al.) and also a very high sense of belonging to their school (ILS, 2006). Anne G. Danielsen 29. -such as perceived teacher support care, understanding, fairness, and friendliness, appear very influential on students school satisfaction (Rosenfeld et al., 2000; Reddy, Rhodes, & Mulhall, 2003; Hamre & Pianta, 2006; Skinner et al., 2008). Anne G. Danielsen 30. Youth initiative studied in different social contexts, structured voluntary activities, but also in school, family, and when students spend time with peers in more unstructured ways during schoolwork, students report low intrinsic motivation. (Larson, 2000; Hansen et al., 2003; Larson et al., 2005) . acade