Sunan Tiptipakorn, D.Eng. - Chem...

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  • Polymeric Materials

    Sunan Tiptipakorn, D.Eng.

    Department of Chemistry,

    Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science,

    Kasetsart University, Kamphaen Saen Campus,

    Nakorn Phathom, 73140 Thailand.

  • Introduction

    Material Science

    Relationship

    Performance

    StructureProcessingProperties

  • Materials

    Semiconductors

    MetalsPolymers

    - organic polymers- inorganic polymers

    CeramicsComposites

  • Polymers

  • Thermoplastics

    Thermosetting

    - can be recycledExample:- PE, PP, PVC

    -can not be recycledExample:- polyurethane, epoxy

    - no melting temp.

    Ref.: http://cltad.arts.ac.uk

    Ref.: http://www.emeraldinsight.com

    Ref.:http://www.resinsystems.com/products/highvoltageinsulators.html

  • Organic Polymers

  • Main Organic Polymers

    6 types of well known thermoplastics

  • http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Extruder_section.jpg

    http://www.synaflex.com/Products/ExtrudedRubberProducts

    Extruder

  • Polyethylene (PE)

    PE granules: (1)Natural form, (2) and (3) are colored with dyes

    Ethylene monomer polyethyleneor

    orRef.:http://www.yurak.com

    (Ethene) (polyethene)

  • Ref.: www.thaigoodview.com

    HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)

    high crystallinity (Linear PE)Ref.:www.hdpe-containers.com/pipette-droppers.htm

    LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene)

    Low crystalinity (Branched PE)

    Ref.: http://www.waterwiseliners.co.za/Pondimages/ldpe%20pond.JPG

  • Ref.:http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/learning_modules/chemistry/03.TU.02/?section=7

    Branched Chains and Linear Chains

  • Free Radical Polymerization

    Ref.: http://pslc.ws/mactest/radical.htm

    High Temp.High Pressure

    LDPEPVCPS

    Examples:-

  • Ziegler and Natta Catalyst

    TiCl4 + Aluminium co-catalyst

    Examples:HDPE, PP

    Coordination Polymerization

    Low TemperatureLow Pressure

    Ref.: http://chem.chem.rochester.edu/~chem421/zn.htm

  • Polypropylene (PP)

    Ref.: www.vcharkarn.com/varticle/38233/2

    Ref.:http://www.chemicals-technology.com/projects/hmcpolymers-thailand/

  • Ref.:http://www.steinwall.com/ART-polypropylene.html

    Three Types of Polypropylene

  • Polystyrene (PS)

  • Types of Polystyrenes

  • Polyvinyl chloride

    Polymerization: free

    radical

    chain

    polymerization

    Morphology: highly

    amorphous,

    ~11%

    crystallinity

    Glass

    transition temperature: ~84 oC

    Ref.:http://www.vcharkarn.com/varticle/38233/2

  • Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)

    Ref.:http://www.vcharkarn.com/varticle/38233/2

  • Organic Polymers

    - Low performance @ high Temp.- Swelling organic solvent- Flexibility @ low range of Temp.- Low flame resistance- Not suitable for artificial organs

    Drawbacks

    Low Cost / AffordabilityElectrical InsulationAbrasive ResistanceEasiness to ProcessLight-weight

    Benefits

  • Inorganic Polymers

  • 1) Addition of Side GroupsMethodology

    Addition polymerization of vinyl monomer

    C CXH

    H H Vinyl monomer

    Steric effect

    Free Radical Polymerization

    ExamplesX = SiCH3 ; OSiCH3 ; C6 H5 PO

    Coordination Polymerization

  • 1) Addition of Side Groups (cont.)

    Acrylonitrile

    Vinyl monomer

    Methyl Methacrylate

    StyreneCopolymer with

  • 2) Coordination polymerizationof organometallic reagent

    with organic polymer (e- donor)

    M

    M = inorganic

    Example

    Coordination bonding

  • 3) Synthesis via polymers withinorganic substance in main chain3.1 Non-metallic inorganic substances

    (Si, P, S, O, N)

    3.2 Transition metalsMainchain

    ExamplesPoly(organosiloxane) or SiliconePhosphazene polymerMetallo-backbone polymer

  • Polyorganosiloxane (Silicone)

    Most commonly used : poly(dimethylsiloxane)

    (CH3)2SiCl2

    Si

    O

    Si

    CH3H3C O

    H3C

    CH3

    O Si

    O

    Si

    CH3CH3

    CH3

    CH3

    H2O

    -HCl

    octamethylcyclotetrasiloxanehydrolysis

    acid or base

    O Si

    CH3

    CH3

    npoly(dimethylsiloxane)

    (MW > 25,000)

    O2 penetration: artificial organs

    dimethyldichlorosilane

  • Phosphazene Polymer

    Conductive Polymer N PR

    R nn> 15000

    Raw Materials: PCl5 + NH4 Cl

    Ring-opening polymerizationMacromoleular substitution reactionDirect condensation

  • N PR

    R nn> 15000

    Phosphazene Polymer (cont.)

    R changes Properties changes

    Cl - Inorganic rubber- Organic solvent swelling- Reacted with water

    OCH2 CF3 - water resistant

    Applications: Dyes, gasket, O-ring, and etc.

  • Natural

    Inorganic Polymers

  • CharacteristicsThree dimensional structureRigid and Brittle

    AsbestosRef.: http://www.treehugger.com/2009/06/14-week/

    Silicate

    Silica glass

    Ref.:http://beachcomberonsaipan.blogspot.com

    Natural Inorganic Polymers

    Ref.: http://minerals.caltech.edu/Silica_Polymorphs/index.html

  • PolysilicateTetrahedral structure

    Silicic acid

    -4H2 O

    Ref.: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Silicic_acid.jpg

    Si OHHO

    OH

    O- Na+

    Condensation

    http://minerals.caltech.edu/Silica_Polymorphs/index.html

  • Most well known polysilicate : Silica (SiO2 )

    Amorphous

    Crystalline:

    Quatz

    Tridymite

    Cristobalite

  • Molecular Alignments of Tetrahedral Moleculesin Various Patterns of (SiO4 )4-

  • Zeolite

    Crystalline aluminosilicate

    http://img.alibaba.com/photo/10872242/Zeolite_From_Indonesia.jpg

    (SiO4 )4- and (AlO4 )5-Polysilicate aliminate

    To Soften water; act as catalyst in petrochemical plants

    Tetrahedral

  • Basic Zeolite Structure

    Ref.: http://www.cheresources.com/zeolitezz.shtml

    Ref.:http://www.moutere.com/stories/storyReader$39

    Legend: Circle = Oxygen, Square = Silicon, aluminium

    Tetrahedral

  • Ionomer Main chain: Hydrocarbon or Fluorocarbon

    Na+

    http://www.jsce.co.kr/polymer_lecture/ionomer.html

    Side chain: Carboxylic or sulfonic group

    Ref.: http://www.jsce.co.kr/polymer_lecture/ionomer.html

  • Ref.: http://www.jsce.co.kr/polymer_lecture/ionomer.html

  • Primer Coating

    http://www.honeypixel.com/clients/inglewood/index.php?page=news-item-1

    Applications of Ionomers

    Golf ball

    http://www.wemixallup.com/car-center-f35/car-paint-detailing-research-t180.htm

  • Ceramics

  • Ceramics Compounds ofSilicatesOxidesCarbidesNitridesAluminates

    Strong covalent bond with network structureHigh strength and modulusHigh thermal Resistance

    Brittle

    Ref.:http://www.ttc.most.go.th/

    Ref.:http://www.selectcon.com/Ref.:http://www.ceramickitchenware.com/

  • Manufacturing Steps

    [email protected] High Temperatureand High Pressure

    Milling to micron scale

    Ref.: http://sandblastingabrasives.com/

    Ref.: http://www.thaiceramicsociety.com/pc_burn_oxygen.php

  • Sol-gel Process

    1. Mixing metal with alcohol to form metal alkoxide

    Ti + C2 H5 OH Ti(OCH2 CH3 )(s) + 2H22. Dissolving metal alkoxide and mixing with water

    Ti(OCH2 CH3 )(solution) + 4H2 O Ti(OH)4(s) +4C2 H5 OH

    3. Dehydrating Ti(OH)4 with acid or baseTi + H2 O Complex of Titanium Oxide and hydroxide

    Three dimensional network…..Gel

    4. Burning gel @ 200-500oC

  • Ceramic Composites

    Ceramics + Additives

    Increase Toughness

    Cutting machine, Grinding wheel

    Ceramic Fiber of SiC or carborundum

    Polydimthyl silane Ceramic Fiber400oC

    [email protected]00oCto removeH2 and C atom

  • CeramicsAlumina: Circuit Board

    Ref.:http://dea.brunel.ac.uk/cleaner/Electronics_Projects/Handbook_2.htm

    SiC:Abrasive resistant materials

    http://www.gravescompany.com/cabmate.htm

    Quartz: piezoelectricRef.: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/636716/108321/Typical-components-of-a-quartz-watch

    La-Ba-Cu:Superconducting Ceramic

  • Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials to generate an electric

    field or electrical potential in response to applied mechanical stress.

    Ref.:http://wever.wordpress.com/2008/07/

  • Reinforcing Elements

    Glass Fiber

    Cellulose Fiber

    Carbon Fiber

    Aramid Fiber or Kevlar

    Pure Resin

  • Carbon Fiber

    Most commonly used Acrylic Fiber: Polyacrylonitrile

    300oC

    http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/carfsyn.htm

    Step 1

  • Step 2

    http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/carfsyn.htm

  • Step 3

    http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/carfsyn.htm

  • http://www.psrc.usm.edu/macrog/carfsyn.htm

    Step 4

  • Thermoplastic Elastomer

  • Thermoplastic Elastomer

    Copolymer Behaviors:Melt when heating (Thermoplastics)Elastic (Elastomer)

    Example

    Butadiene + High Impact Polystyrene

    Ref.: http://pslc.ws/macrog/kidsmac/rubber.htm

    PS Butadiene PS

  • SBS Rubber

    Polystyrene = tough hard plastic durability.Polybutadiene = rubbery material rubber-like properties.

    http://pslc.ws/macrog/kidsmac/rubber.htm

  • References:

    1. Schaffer J.P. et al., The Science and Designof Engineering Materials, R.D. Irwin Inc.,Chicago, 1995.

    2. Allen S.M. and Thomas e.L., The structureof materails, The MIT Series in Materials Scienceand Engineering, John Wiley and Sons. Inc.,New York, 1999.

    3. Allcock H.R. and Lampe F.W.,Contemperary Polymer Chemistry, 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall, New York, Jersey, 1990.

  • Thank youfor your kind

    attention

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