Summer Training Report on Plc and Scada[1](1)

download Summer Training Report on Plc and Scada[1](1)

of 33

  • date post

    27-Apr-2015
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    2.439
  • download

    79

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Summer Training Report on Plc and Scada[1](1)

A Summer Training Report On Programmable Logic Controller to partial fulfillment of Bachelor of Electronics Instrumentation & Control

2011-12 Submitted By:PoojaMandal

Enrl no.:- 08E1EBEIM3XP036 Department of E.I.C.E

Submitted to:Miss Pooja Bhardwaj Asst. Professor Department of E.I.C.E Engineering College ,Bikaner (An Autonomous institute of rajasthan govt.)

1

SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON PLC AND SCADA

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTI am thankful to the institute DIAC for providing necessary facility to carry out my training successful. It is my duty to record my sincere thanks and gratitude towards the institute staff who helped me in bringing this project to its present form. The valuable guidance and interest taken by them has been a motivator and source of inspiration for me to carry out the necessary proceedings for the project to be completed successfully. Also, I am highly obliged to the head of our training and plancement cell mrs. Richa yadav who provided me such a great opportunity to do my summer training in a reputed institute like dynamic institute of automation and control.

[2]

SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON PLC AND SCADA

CONTENTS

A)AUTOMATION B)PLC 1) INTRODUCTION 2) HISTORY 3) ADVANTAGES 4) APPLICATION AREAS 5) HARDWARE 6) PLC OPERATION 7) COMMUNICATIONS 8) PLC PROGRAMMING SOFTWARES 9) PLC PROGRAMMING 10) LADDER LOGIC 11) COUNTERS & TIMERS 12) PLC APPLICATION EXAMPLE C)SCADA 13) INTRODUCTION 14) SYSTEM CONCEPTS 15) HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE 16) ALARM 17) REMOTE TERMINAL UNIT 18) COMMUNICATION 19) EVOLUTION 20) SECURITY ISSUES

[3]

SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON PLC AND SCADA

PREFACEAn industrial PLC and SCADA system is to for the development of automatic control of machinery. PLC and SCADA system are methods to achieve Automation. Automation industry has fast growth potential in a country like India, which has a large industry base. This report focuses on brief concepts of PLC and SCADA system, their development, and also mentions possible applications of these systems. Almost every industry that has some electrical machinery may need Automation Services. Attention is also paid to the security issues which have arisen with time.

Submitted By :Poojamandal Department of E.I.C.E

[4]

SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON PLC AND SCADA

AutomationAutomation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with the muscular requirements of work, automation greatly decreases the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Automation plays an increasingly important role in the world economy and in daily experience.

AUTOMATION IMPACTS1) It increases productivity and reduces cost. 2) Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous work. 3) Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments (i.e. fire, space, volcanoes, nuclear facilities, underwater, etc.) 4) Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed, endurance, etc. 5) Automation is often applied primarily to increase quality in the manufacturing process, where automation can increase quality substantially. 6) Automation reduces power consumption and reduces man power requirement. 7) Automation improves production quality. 8) Automation provides safer working conditions.

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or light fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a hard real time[5]

SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON PLC AND SCADA

system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise unintended operation will result.

THE HISTORY OF PLC S1) first Programmable Logic Controllers were designed and developed by Modicon as a relay replacer for GM and Landis. 2) These controllers eliminated the need for rewiring and adding additional hardware for each new configuration of logic. 3) The first commercial successful PLC, the 184, was introduced in 1973 and was designed by Michael Greenberg

PLC ADVANTAGEPLCs not only are capable of performing the same tasks as hard-wired control, but are also capable of many more complex applications. In addition, the PLC program and electronic communication lines replace much of the interconnecting wires required by hard-wired control. Therefore, hard-wiring, though still required to connect field devices, is less intensive. This also makes correcting errors and modifying the application easier. Some of the additional advantages of PLCs are as follows: 1) Smaller physical size than hard-wire solutions 2) Easier and faster to make changes. 3) PLCs have integrated diagnostics and override functions. 4) Diagnostics are centrally available. 5) Applications can be immediately documented.

6) Applications can be duplicated faster and less expensively. Areas of application1) Manufacturing / Machining 2) Food / Beverage 3) Metals 4) Power 5) Mining 6) Petrochemical / Chemical[6]

SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON PLC AND SCADA

Fig1 PLC Inside A PLCThe Central Processing Unit (CPU) contains an internal program that tells the PLC how to perform the following functions: 1) Execute the Control Instructions contained in the User's Programs. This program is stored in "nonvolatile" memory, meaning that the program will not be lost if power is removed 2) Communicate with other devices, which can include I/O Devices, Programming Devices, Networks, and even other PLCs. 3) Perform Housekeeping activities such as Communications, Internal Diagnostics, etc.[7]

SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON PLC AND SCADA

Fig 2 Majer component of common plc

Fig 3 Typical PLC control panel

THE CPUThe microprocessor or processor module is the brain of a PLC system. It consists of the microprocessor, memory integrated circuits, and circuits necessary to store and retrieve[8]

SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON PLC AND SCADA

information from memory. It also includes communications ports to other peripherals, other PLC's or programming terminals. Today's processors vary widely in their capabilities to control real world devices. Some control as few as 6 inputs and outputs (I/O) and others 40,000 or more. One processor can control more than one process or manufacturing line. Processors are often linked together in order to provide continuity throughout the process. The number of inputs and outputs PLCs can control are limited by the overall capacity of the PLC system hardware and memory capabilities. The job of the processor is to monitor status or state of input devices, scan and solve the logic of a user program, and control on or off state of output devices.

RAMRAM or Random Access Memory is a volatile memory that would lose its information if power were removed. This is why some processor units incorporate a battery back-up. The type of RAM normally used is CMOS or Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor.

ROMROM or Read Only Memory is a non-volatile type of memory. This means you don't need an external power source to keep information. In this type of memory, information can be read, but not changed. For this reason the manufacture sometimes calls this firmware. there for the.

EEPROMEEPROM or Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory is usually an add-on memory module that is used to back up the main program in CMOS RAM of the processor. In many cases, the processor can be programmed to load the EEPOM's program to RAM if RAM is lost or corrupted.

Input ModuleThere are many types of input modules to choose from. The type of input module used is dependent upon what real world input to the PLC is desired. Some examples of inputs are limit switches, electric eyes, and pushbuttons. DC inputs, such as thumbwheel switches, can be used to enter integer values to be manipulated by the PLC. DC input cards are used for this application. Since most industrial power systems are inherently noisy, electrical isolation is[9]

SUMMER TRAINING REPORT ON PLC AND SCADA

provided between the input and the processor. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) and Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) can cause severe problems in most solid state control systems. The component used most often to provide electrical isolation within I/O cards is called an optical isolator or optocoupler. The wiring of an input is not complex. The object is to get a voltage at a particular point on the card. Typically there are 8 to 32 input points on any one input module. Each point will be assigned a unique address by the processor. Analog input modules are special input cards that use analog to digital conversion (A to D) to sense variables such as temperature, speed, pressure, and position. The external device normally is connected to a controller (transducer) producing an electrical signal the analog input card can interpret. This signal is usually 4 to 20 Ma or a 0 to 10 volt signal.

Output ModuleOutput modules can be for used for ac or dc devices such as solenoids, relays, contractors, pilot lamps, and LED readouts. Output cards usually have from 6 to 32 output points o