Solar Photovoltaic Systems - ESF

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Solar Photovoltaic Systems Neal M. Abrams, Ph.D. Department of Chemistry SUNY ESF March 7, 2012

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SURE_2012.pptxMarch 7, 2012
!1.8x1012 Watts
!U.S. – 25% of total !15 100W light bulbs per
person
nasa.gov
How much do we need?
Area required for all US electricity production (~100 x 100 miles)
Where are the watts?
Matching the Need
! A 1 kilowatt (1,000 watt) system will generate nearly 1,000 kilowatt hours (kWh) per year of energy in cloudy climates
! Average consumer utility bill:
The Magic in the Panel
The Magic in the Panel
!Photons in sunlight hit the solar panel and are absorbed creating a dc source
!An array of solar panels converts solar energy into usable DC electricity. !Inverters convert the DC to
60 Hz AC to feed for on grid
!Power goes to a charge controller to charge batteries for off-grid
n-layer
p-layer
PV System Components
! Array – Set of PV cells that typically sit on a roof or a pole
! Inverter – Converts PV DC voltage to AC voltage with very low loss
! Batteries – Provide backup power for off-grid use ! In a net metering system,
batteries can still be used for backup power
! Electric meter – Connects the PV array to the grid to support net metering. ! Can spin backwards!
Required Components
On Grid
! Associated wiring and support structures
Off Grid
! The battery regulator (also known as a charge controller),
! Attachment structure and associated connections
!Wiring
! Associated wiring and support structures
Sunny Boy inverter ETM solar
Off Grid
! The battery regulator (also known as a charge controller),
! Attachment structure and associated connections
!Wiring
! Rechargeable batteries are most effective energy storage solution
! Remaining PV production capacity can be used up by the electrochemical conversion process of the battery.
! Battery storage capacity is rated in ampere hours
! Most PV systems use lead acid batteries. Nickel cadmium batteries are newer and have very high reliability.
Charge Controller
! Used to prevent over- and under- charging of the battery. 
! Typically necessary if the peak charging rate of the solar module is more than 1.5% of the battery ampere hour capacity.
! The quality of the regulator is a key factor in the reliability of the overall system. Aligns the depth of discharge with the battery temperature and the rate of discharge.
! Monitoring current and voltage throughout the system is important for safety and overall system performance.
Anatomy of a PV Installation
Silicon – the benchmark
! 80-90% market share
Photovoltaic types and benefits
!Multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si)
!Amorphous silicon (a-Si)
!Cadmium telluride, CdTe
!Copper indium gallium diselenide , CIGS !Very efficient in diffuse light conditions
!Dye-sensitized
PV Production Payback
! Current silicon PV technology requires 4 years to generate the energy required to produce it.
!Newer generation PV cells require only 2 years.
Alternatives
! Thin films and amorphous cells
! Solar concentrators
!Market is growing
! The US on-grid market increased to 914 MW in 2010, a growth rate of 101% over the prior year.
! California’s share dropped from 51% of the on-grid market, down from 30%, as New Jersey’s and Arizona’s market sizes soared.
! Led the market for >1 MW system sizes with a 31% share
! Chinese manufacturers grew their share from 11% to 37% of the US market.
The Growing Solar Industry
Source: Solarbuzz
The solar market grew 20% in 2009, in spite of the economic downturn!
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100,000
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500,000
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!Finding installers
! Syracuse has 1358 kWh/m2 per year (horizontal average)
! Germany: 8800 MW of PV
! USA: closing in on 1000 MW of PV
! Germany has 2.47 times as much area of land and water as NY
! Population of Germany: 82,422,299
! Population of NY: 18,976,457
True Market Drivers (current)
!NABCEP certified programs offered locally
! Federal tax incentives do not require NABCEP certification
! Permits required for
Advantages
!No emissions, no combustion, no radiation
!Low operating costs
!No Moving parts
!Lack of efficient energy storage
Our Ever Leaking Sun
just call it a “nice day”!