Skeleton, Joints And Bones

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  • 1. Skeleton, joints and bones

2. Functions of the skeleton 3. 1.- Protection Bone tissue is both hard and flexible Its very rigid and tough so it can protect delicate organs, in particular the brain 4. 2.- Support - The skeleton provides a rigid frame for the rest of the body to kind of hang off, kind of like a custom made coat hanger - all the soft tissues are supported by the skeleton. This allow us to stand up 5. 3.- Movement Bones are rigid and solid This means muscles can be attached via tendons 6. 4.- Produce blood cells All blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. As children, most of our bones produce blood. As we age this gradually diminishes to just the bones of the spine (vertebrae), breastbone (sternum), ribs, pelvis and small parts of the upper arm and leg. 7. Types of joints Ball and soket joint Is found in the hip-bone and the shoulder Allows the most movement of all joints 8. Sliding joint Found in the vertebral column, some bones of the wrist, Allows small sliding movement 9. Hinge joint Is found in your elbow and knee It allows bones to move like a hinge in a door 10. Fixed joint This type of joint is found in your skull It doesnt allow any movement at all 11. Joints allow movement 1.- Inamovable joints (Sinartrosic) You cant move them. E.g.: the skull 2.- Slightly movable (Anfiartrosic) You can move them a bit. E.g.: the spine 3.- Freely movable (Diartrosic) You can move them loads E.g.:shoulder, hip 12. Elements of joints Bone Sinovial membrane:cover all the joint around Cartilage:cover and protect the end of the bones Sinovial fluid: lubricating and cushioningTendon: connect the muscle and the bone 13. The knee femur cartilage Meniscos: allow more Coupling Ligaments: connect and hold bone to bone tibia fibula 14. atlas axis 1st. Dorsal vertebra 1st. Lumbar vertebra sacro coxis