Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

download Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

of 43

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    1/43

     

    Microtechnology and

    Nanotechnologyfor Semiconductor Devises

    Integrated Circuits and MEMS

    fabrication

    By

    Amna Z. Shaa

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    2/43

     

    How much is Micro and Nano?

    One Micrometer = 1/1000,000 Like if you have one -meter strin !on divided

    into mi!!ion "arts# each "art re"resents oneMicrometer 

    One Nanometer = 1/1000,000,000

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    3/43

     

    $emiconductor %echno!oy &""!ications

    Micro-'!ectronic (nterated )ircuits*)hi"s+ )

     &$() and .& *.ie!d-roramma!e &na!o &rray +

    $O) *$ystem on )hi"+

    Micro-'!ectro-Mechanic $ystems*M'M$+

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    4/43

     

    $emiconductors!

    '!ements have the "ro"erty of hihconductivity at hih tem"eratures and

    near!y ero conductivity at !owtem"eratures $i!icon, ermanium and a!!ium are %he

    most famous semiconductor materia!s $i!icon is the most dominant in the

    industry

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    5/43

     

    2hy $i!icon!!

    $im"!y, si!icon is each sand "rocessed inhih tem"erature so it3s chee" and

    avai!a!e

    'asi!y o4idied to form e!ectrica! insu!ator 

    Has e4ce!!ent mechanica! "ro"erties, it3sstrenth e4ceeds hih-strenth stee!

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    6/43

     

    %ransistor  %ransistor is a

    semiconductor e!ement

    Has three termina!s

     & sma!! current or vo!taea""!ied to one termina!contro!s the current

    throuh the other two (t is the key com"onent in

    a!! modern e!ectronics

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    7/43 

    2hat can %ransistor do?

    (n diita! circuits 5ery fast e!ectrica! switch

    .unction as !oic ate 6&M-ty"e memory

    (n ana!o circuits &m"!ify current sina!s &m"!ify vo!tae sina!s

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    8/43 

    %he .irst %ransistor 1789

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    9/43 

    5L$(- %ransistor :008

    $ide-intersection foran interated

    transistor  %oday3s techno!oy

    reached thenanometer sca!e

    70nm transistors areused in entium 8

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    10/43 

    %he %ransistor vs; the 5acuum%ue

    %ransistor Made from

    semiconductor  $ma!!

    .ast 6e!ia!e and effective

    5acuum %ue $imi!ar to Liht

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    11/43 

    'N(&) - %he first e!ectronic com"uter*178+

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    12/43 

    Had 19,000 vacuum tues

    Occu"ied 1> s m *1,900 s ft+

     weihed more than @0 %ans *0,000 !+

    )oasted AB00,000

    )onsumed :00 ki!owatts of e!ectrica!"ower 

    6ouh!y :,000 of the vacuum tues

    were re"!aced each month y a team ofsi4 technicians;

    cou!d "erform B,000 additions, @B>mu!ti"!ications or @9 divisions

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    13/43

     

    %he first interated circuit

     %he first interatedcircuit was deve!o"ed inthe 17B0s y Cack Di!y

    of %e4as (nstruments Di!yEs idea was to make

    a!! the com"onents andthe chi" out of the same!ock of semiconductormateria!

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    14/43

     

    Cack Di!y

    His idea founded anew industry

    Has Noe! "rice in"hysics year :000

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    15/43

     

    (nte! 8008 Micro-rocessor 

    17>1

    1000 %ransistors

    1 MH O"eration

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    16/43

     

    entium *(5+ micro"rocessor (nte!

    :00:

    0 Mi!!ion %ransistors

    @;0 F @; HO"erations

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    17/43

     

    Moor3s Law

    !"###"###

    !##"###

    !#"###

    !"###

    !#

    !##

    !

    !$%& !$'# !$'& !$$# !$$& (### (##& (#!#

    '#')

    '#(')i*')

    i+'),entium - 

    ,entium -  ,ro

    ! Billion! Billion/ransistors/ransistors

    Source0 IntelSource0 Intel

    ,ro1ected,ro1ected

    ,entium - II

    ,entium - IIII

    2

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    18/43

     

    roduction 6euirements

    %he "roduction of a chi" demands care atan atomic !eve!;

    %iny "artic!es !ike dust,a dead skin ce!!,oracteria ecome hue oGects that arei enouh to ruin a chi"

    chi" "roduction takes "!ace in a s"ecia!!ydesined room ca!!ed the )!ean 6oomI

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    19/43

     

    %he )!ean 6oom

     &ir circu!ation fi!terschane the aircom"!ete!y u" to tentimes a minute

    workers wear s"ecia!suits ca!!ed Junny

    suits .urniture is ui!t from

    s"ecia! materia!s thatdonEt ive off "artic!es

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    20/43

     

    )hi" .arication rocess 

    (main and Masks "roduction O4idiation

    'tchin Ke"osition )!eanin

    %estin ackain .ina! %est

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    21/43

     

    .arication "rocess in detai!..

    %he construction"!ans for the chi" are

    made and tested witha com"uter 

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    22/43

     

    Masks

    .rom the construction"!ans, masks with the

    circuit "atterns aremade

    Makin masks is themost cost!y "rocess

    in the entire microchi"farication

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    23/43

     

    %he $i!icon

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    24/43

     

    %he 2afer 

    %he si!icon is sawedinto thin wafers with a

    diamond saw wafers are then

    "o!ished in a numerof ste"s

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    25/43

     

    %he O4idiation

    %he si!icon wafer iscovered with a !ayer

    of insu!atin si!icono4ide

     & !ayer of si!icono4ide is rown on the

    to" of the si!iconwafer

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    26/43

     

    %he hotoresist

     & "hotoresist !ayer "uton to" of the si!icon

    o4ide %his materia! is

    sensitive to !iht, !ikethe fi!m in camera

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    27/43

     

    Maskin

    5-!iht is shonethrouh a mask and

    onto the chi"; On the"arts of the chi" thatare hit y !iht, the"rotective materia!

    reaks a"art

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    28/43

     

    'tchin

    %he wafer is"rocessed chemica!!y

    to remove the "artsof the "hotoresist fi!mthat e4"osed to !iht

    )hemica! sustances

    wi!! etch the surfaceof the non coveredsi!icon o4ide !ayer 

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    29/43

     

    Ke"osition

    %o form the activeareas, im"urities

    de"osited in theo"ened windows

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    30/43

     

    Kicin

    %he chi"s on thewafer are se"arated

    with a diamond sawto form individua!interated circuits

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    31/43

     

    Single die

    -Chip-

    2afer 

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    32/43

     

    Close look for chip surface

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    33/43

     

    ackain

     'ach chi" is "ackedinto the "rotective

    casin and suGectedto another series oftests

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    34/43

     

    Package Types

    Mi '! t M h i !

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    35/43

     

    Micro-'!ectro-Mechanica!$ystems *M'M$+

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    36/43

     

    M'M$ are faricated from e4treme!y thin!ayers of si!icon; %he si!icon !ayers can esha"ed into !evers, ears, and other

    mechanica! devices

    %he M'M$ com"onents are faricated y

    etch away "arts of the si!icon wafer or addnew structura! !ayers to form the mechanica!and e!ectromechanica! devices

    %h d t f M'M$3

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    37/43

     

    %he advantae of M'M$3stechno!oy

    M'M$ are very sma!!

    more sensitive, faster, use !ess enery

    and chea"er than !arer machines Have reat mechanica! "ro"erties

    the strenth-to-weiht ratio for si!icon is

    hiher than many other enineerinmateria!s

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    38/43

     

    M'M$ &""!ications

    (main systems

    motion sensors

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    39/43

     

    $ensors

     &utomoi!e air aacce!eration sensorsdetect the sudden

    chane in s"eed thatoccurs when avehic!e crashes

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    40/43

     

    1B0 mm-diameter

    micromotor rotateB0,000 r"m

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    41/43

     

    Biotechnology

    Kru de!ivery devices Microsco"ic need!es are

    ca"a!e of "rovidin

    "athways for mo!ecu!artrans"ort across the skiny o"enin micron-sca!eho!es in the skin, they

    avoid contactin nerves"ain!ess and !ood!ess

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    42/43

     

    (mae and )ommunications

    Micromirrors fier-o"tic

    communication ca!es

    mi!!ions of mova!emicromirrors re"!aces aconventiona! videocathode-ray tue to"roGect diita! video

    imaes

  • 8/16/2019 Semiconductor Devices (Amna)

    43/43

    %hanks

     &ny uestion??