Science 14 Unit A: Investigating Properties of Matter ...· Unit A: Investigating Properties of...
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Science 14 Unit A: Investigating Properties of Matter
Understanding Matter pp. 210-217
1.1 Chemicals All Around Us pp. 6 to 9
Read Did You Know p. 6
Chemicals are everywhere
Some chemicals are harmful to us and our environment, while others are helpful because they are dangerous, i.e. chlorine (kills bacteria in water)
Certain chemicals are hazards when mixed because of the products from the
chemical reaction created, i.e. poisonous gases
Chemicals can be dangerous when in storage too. Highly flammable chemicals, like gasoline, need to be stored away from living areas.
Discuss Table 1.1 p. 6
read labels for safety information and how to safely dispose of chemicals o Special sites for proper disposal
service stations that recycle chemicals like oil or batteries municipal collection sites
i.e. local fire stations, specific area of the landfill site, etc.
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) o WHMIS provides detailed information on how to store, handle, and dispose
of any chemical It also gives first aid information specific to that chemical.
o WHMIS information is given three ways: 1) Product Labels 2) Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
Gives details about the chemical including physical and chemical properties, how to handle, first aid, and disposal
3) Worker Education
Mandatory WHMIS training for people working with dangerous substances in their job.
Hazardous Household Product Symbols (HHPS) o symbols on products used at home o appear on products that are reactive or dangerous o alert you to potential hazards o red octagon, orange diamond, and yellow triangle
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS)
Hazardous Household Product Symbols (HHPS)
Safety Symbols Matching Exercise
Match the descriptions on the right with the items on the left.
______ 1) danger and corrosive HHPS
______ 2) caution and toxic
______ 3) warning and flammable
______ 4) caution and explosive
______ 5) warning and toxic
______ 6) caution and flammable
______ 1) Biohazardous Infectious Material WHMIS
______ 2) Compressed Gas
______ 3) Oxidizing Material
______ 4) Immediately Poisonous and Infectious
______ 5) Flammable and Combustible
______ 6) Toxic, Poisonous and Infectious
______ 7) Corrosive Material
______ 8) Dangerously Reactive
TASK: Complete the Find Out Activity, questions #1-4 on p. 8
A Closer Look at WHMIS
use the WHMIS label and MSDS provided on workbook pp. 6-8
Discuss CYU p. 9 #1-4
Sample WHMIS Label BLM 1-3
Recognize by unique dashed boarder.
Sample MSDS BLM 1-4
Indicates lots of information about the product.
Sample MSDS BLM 1-4
1.2 Describing Matter pp. 10-15
Matter anything that has mass and takes up space
The Particle Model of Matter (p. 10) 1. All substances are made of tiny particles. 2. All particles in a pure substance are the same.
Different pure substances are made of different particles. 3. Particles have spaces between them. 4. The particles are always in motion.
The speed of the particles increases/decreases when the temperature increases/decreases.
5. The particles in a substance are attracted to one another.
The attractive force/strength depends on the type of particle.
States of Matter explained by particle theory
SOLID substance that has a certain size and shape o particles do not need a container to keep their shape o particles are tightly packed and cannot move around freely,
LIQUID substance that has a certain size, but no definite shape o particles take the shape of their container, but always flow to
the lowest possible position
o particles have enough energy to pull away from each other, and slide around each other.
GAS substance that has no definite size or shape o particles take the shape and volume of their container
i.e. fill the container they are in o particles move freely, quickly and far apart
gases appears invisible because of the enormous empty space between individual particles
Read Off The Wall p. 11
the particle theory helps explain what happens when solutes dissolve in solvents
o spaces between all particles
Example: dissolving sugar in water
a water sample has many water particles, but also many empty spaces
same goes for a sample of sugar
you can see many grains (crystals) of sugar
each sugar crystal contains many invisible sugar particles
When sugar dissolves, the sugar particles in the crystals
separate and mix with the water particles.
Figure 2 below shows a model of sugar particles dissolving in water
As the sugar particles separate, the smaller water particles fit
into the spaces between the larger sugar particles.
water and sugar particles are attracted to each other, so they
move closer together when they are mixed
o as a result the total volume is often slightly less than the
volumes of the two separate components.
States of Matter BLM 1-5
Purpose Matter can take on three different states. These states are solid, liquid, and gas. Use this master to
review what happens the particles in each of these states.
What to Do sketch water molecules in each of the three states.
describe how the particles move in that state.
Refer to textbook p. 11 for help
Matter Sketch of Particles Description of Particles
Read Did You Know p. 12
Physical Properties BLM 1-6 Purpose: Practice identifying physical properties.
What to Do: Read the explanations in the charts and u se the clues or questions to help you complete the Example column. Refer textbook p. 12 for help
Physical Properties describe the characteristics of a substance. For example, shape, size,
smell, and colour are physical properties. Chemists tend to focus on
the physical properties in the following chart.
Property Explanation Example
state of matter These include solid, liquid, and gas. The state of a
substance is usually defined at room temperature.
What is the state of water?
melting point temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid What is the melting point of water?
freezing point temperature at which a liquid changes into a solid What is the freezing point of water?
boiling point temperature at which a liquid changes into a gas What is the boiling point of water?
conductivity refers to the ability to conduct or transfer
electricity or heat
Iron is a good conductor. Name a
substance that is not.
mass refers to the quantity of matter in a substance What is your mass?
Refers to the amount of mass in a specific volume
of a substance. Substances that have less density
float on those with more density.
Which is more dense: gold or water?
How do you know?
lustre Refers to the ability to reflect light or shine. Name a shiny substance.
refers to how a substance feels to the touch.
Words such as smooth, rough, bumpy, and slick
Describe the texture of a CD case.
hardness refers to whether or not a substance can be
Pure gold can be marked with a
fingernail. Is it harder than a paper
flexibility refers to how much a substance can be bent
Name one flexible material you use
malleability refers to how easily a substance can be reshaped
Wood is not malleable. Name a
substance that is.
ductility refers to metals ability to be stretched into a wire
Name two ductile substances.
Chemical Properties BLM 1-6
Purpose: Practice identifying chemical properties.
What to Do: Read the explanations in the charts and u se the clues or questions to help you complete the Example column. Refer to textbook p. 12 for help
Chemical Properties describe how a substance will react with other substances. The terms
explained in the chart below help describe these reactions.
The terms flammable and combustible are linked. o If a substance is combustible, it is likely also flammable. o Example: gasoline will undergo a combustion reaction to provide energy for a
cars engine. Obviously, the gasoline is not on fire within the car, however, if you
place a match into a gasoline tank, the gasoline will ignite in a vigorous blaze.
Gasoline burns and catches fire easily, therefore it would be classified as both
flammable and combustible.
Property Explanation Example
reactivity refers to whether and how quickly a substance
will react to other substances
Vinegar wears away stone over
many years but forms a frothy mass