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  • Science 14 Unit A: Investigating Properties of Matter

    Chapter 1

    Understanding Matter pp. 210-217

    WORKBOOK

    Name: _____________________________

  • 1

    1.1 Chemicals All Around Us pp. 6 to 9

    Read Did You Know p. 6

    Chemicals are everywhere

    Some chemicals are harmful to us and our environment, while others are helpful because they are dangerous, i.e. chlorine (kills bacteria in water)

    Certain chemicals are hazards when mixed because of the products from the

    chemical reaction created, i.e. poisonous gases

    Chemicals can be dangerous when in storage too. Highly flammable chemicals, like gasoline, need to be stored away from living areas.

    Discuss Table 1.1 p. 6

    read labels for safety information and how to safely dispose of chemicals o Special sites for proper disposal

    service stations that recycle chemicals like oil or batteries municipal collection sites

    i.e. local fire stations, specific area of the landfill site, etc.

    Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) o WHMIS provides detailed information on how to store, handle, and dispose

    of any chemical It also gives first aid information specific to that chemical.

    o WHMIS information is given three ways: 1) Product Labels 2) Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

    Gives details about the chemical including physical and chemical properties, how to handle, first aid, and disposal

    procedures.

    3) Worker Education

    Mandatory WHMIS training for people working with dangerous substances in their job.

    Hazardous Household Product Symbols (HHPS) o symbols on products used at home o appear on products that are reactive or dangerous o alert you to potential hazards o red octagon, orange diamond, and yellow triangle

  • 2

    Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS)

    Hazardous Household Product Symbols (HHPS)

  • 3

    HH

    PS

    WH

    MIS

  • 4

    Safety Symbols Matching Exercise

    Match the descriptions on the right with the items on the left.

    ______ 1) danger and corrosive HHPS

    ______ 2) caution and toxic

    ______ 3) warning and flammable

    ______ 4) caution and explosive

    ______ 5) warning and toxic

    ______ 6) caution and flammable

    ______ 1) Biohazardous Infectious Material WHMIS

    ______ 2) Compressed Gas

    ______ 3) Oxidizing Material

    ______ 4) Immediately Poisonous and Infectious

    ______ 5) Flammable and Combustible

    ______ 6) Toxic, Poisonous and Infectious

    ______ 7) Corrosive Material

    ______ 8) Dangerously Reactive

  • 5

    TASK: Complete the Find Out Activity, questions #1-4 on p. 8

    A Closer Look at WHMIS

    use the WHMIS label and MSDS provided on workbook pp. 6-8

    Discuss CYU p. 9 #1-4

  • 6

    Sample WHMIS Label BLM 1-3

    Recognize by unique dashed boarder.

  • 7

    Sample MSDS BLM 1-4

    Indicates lots of information about the product.

  • 8

    Sample MSDS BLM 1-4

    continued

  • 9

    1.2 Describing Matter pp. 10-15

    Matter anything that has mass and takes up space

    The Particle Model of Matter (p. 10) 1. All substances are made of tiny particles. 2. All particles in a pure substance are the same.

    Different pure substances are made of different particles. 3. Particles have spaces between them. 4. The particles are always in motion.

    The speed of the particles increases/decreases when the temperature increases/decreases.

    5. The particles in a substance are attracted to one another.

    The attractive force/strength depends on the type of particle.

    States of Matter explained by particle theory

    SOLID substance that has a certain size and shape o particles do not need a container to keep their shape o particles are tightly packed and cannot move around freely,

    only vibrate

    LIQUID substance that has a certain size, but no definite shape o particles take the shape of their container, but always flow to

    the lowest possible position

    o particles have enough energy to pull away from each other, and slide around each other.

    GAS substance that has no definite size or shape o particles take the shape and volume of their container

    i.e. fill the container they are in o particles move freely, quickly and far apart

    gases appears invisible because of the enormous empty space between individual particles

    Read Off The Wall p. 11

  • 10

    Dissolving

    the particle theory helps explain what happens when solutes dissolve in solvents

    o spaces between all particles

    Example: dissolving sugar in water

    a water sample has many water particles, but also many empty spaces

    same goes for a sample of sugar

    you can see many grains (crystals) of sugar

    each sugar crystal contains many invisible sugar particles

    When sugar dissolves, the sugar particles in the crystals

    separate and mix with the water particles.

    Figure 2 below shows a model of sugar particles dissolving in water

    As the sugar particles separate, the smaller water particles fit

    into the spaces between the larger sugar particles.

    water and sugar particles are attracted to each other, so they

    move closer together when they are mixed

    o as a result the total volume is often slightly less than the

    volumes of the two separate components.

  • 11

    States of Matter BLM 1-5

    Purpose Matter can take on three different states. These states are solid, liquid, and gas. Use this master to

    review what happens the particles in each of these states.

    What to Do sketch water molecules in each of the three states.

    describe how the particles move in that state.

    Refer to textbook p. 11 for help

    State of

    Matter Sketch of Particles Description of Particles

    SOLID

    LIQUID

    GAS

    Read Did You Know p. 12

  • 12

    Physical Properties BLM 1-6 Purpose: Practice identifying physical properties.

    What to Do: Read the explanations in the charts and u se the clues or questions to help you complete the Example column. Refer textbook p. 12 for help

    Physical Properties describe the characteristics of a substance. For example, shape, size,

    smell, and colour are physical properties. Chemists tend to focus on

    the physical properties in the following chart.

    Physical

    Property Explanation Example

    state of matter These include solid, liquid, and gas. The state of a

    substance is usually defined at room temperature.

    What is the state of water?

    melting point temperature at which a solid changes into a liquid What is the melting point of water?

    freezing point temperature at which a liquid changes into a solid What is the freezing point of water?

    boiling point temperature at which a liquid changes into a gas What is the boiling point of water?

    conductivity refers to the ability to conduct or transfer

    electricity or heat

    Iron is a good conductor. Name a

    substance that is not.

    mass refers to the quantity of matter in a substance What is your mass?

    density

    Refers to the amount of mass in a specific volume

    of a substance. Substances that have less density

    float on those with more density.

    Which is more dense: gold or water?

    How do you know?

    lustre Refers to the ability to reflect light or shine. Name a shiny substance.

    texture

    refers to how a substance feels to the touch.

    Words such as smooth, rough, bumpy, and slick

    describe texture.

    Describe the texture of a CD case.

    hardness refers to whether or not a substance can be

    marked easily

    Pure gold can be marked with a

    fingernail. Is it harder than a paper

    clip?

    flexibility refers to how much a substance can be bent

    without breaking

    Name one flexible material you use

    every day.

    malleability refers to how easily a substance can be reshaped

    Wood is not malleable. Name a

    substance that is.

    ductility refers to metals ability to be stretched into a wire

    or tube

    Name two ductile substances.

  • 13

    Chemical Properties BLM 1-6

    Purpose: Practice identifying chemical properties.

    What to Do: Read the explanations in the charts and u se the clues or questions to help you complete the Example column. Refer to textbook p. 12 for help

    Chemical Properties describe how a substance will react with other substances. The terms

    explained in the chart below help describe these reactions.

    The terms flammable and combustible are linked. o If a substance is combustible, it is likely also flammable. o Example: gasoline will undergo a combustion reaction to provide energy for a

    cars engine. Obviously, the gasoline is not on fire within the car, however, if you

    place a match into a gasoline tank, the gasoline will ignite in a vigorous blaze.

    Gasoline burns and catches fire easily, therefore it would be classified as both

    flammable and combustible.

    Chemical

    Property Explanation Example

    reactivity refers to whether and how quickly a substance

    will react to other substances

    Vinegar wears away stone over

    many years but forms a frothy mass