Sacred & Secular Religion and Politics Worldwide Pippa Norris and Ronald Inglehart.
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Sacred & Secular Religion and Politics Worldwide Pippa Norris and Ronald Inglehart Slide 2 Structure I. Theories of secularization Religiosity & existential security II. Research design III. Evidence Comparisons by type of society Failure of religious market theory in post-Communist nations Demographic patterns & religiosity IV. Conclusions Advanced industrial societies have become steadily more secular during the last 50 years Yet the world as a whole has more people with traditional religious beliefs than ever before Slide 3 Book Contents Slide 4 I:Theories of secularization Max Weber Enlightenment Rationality The loss of faith Emile Durkheim - Functionalism The loss of purpose Stark and Finke - Religious market theory After nearly three centuries of utterly failed prophesies and misrepresentations of both present and past, it seems time to carry the secularization doctrine to the graveyard of failed theories, and there to whisper requiescat in pace Stark and Finke. 2000. Acts of Faith. Public demand for religion is constant Supply-side competition among clergy energizes religiosity Religious participation explained by religious pluralism and freedom of religion Slide 5 Theory of secularization & security A#1 Societies differ in levels of basic human security A#2 Societies differ in their predominant religious culture Religious values Eg Importance of religion Importance of God Religious Participation Eg Attend religious services Daily prayer or meditation Religious Political Activism Eg Member religious groups Support religious party Religious beliefs Eg Within each religion Moral attitudes Demographic trends H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 Slide 6 II. Research design? Slide 7 World Values Survey 1981-2001 Slide 8 Classification of societies Catholic (28) Protestant (20) Orthodox (12) Muslim (13) Eastern (6) Post industrial Eg Austria, Belgium, Ireland, Italy Eg Australia, Britain, Finland, Germany, US Industrial Eg Argentina, Croatia, Mexico, Poland Eg Estonia, Latvia Eg Belarus, Bulgaria, Greece, Romania Eg Turkey, Bosnia- Herzegovin a Eg South Korea, Taiwan Agrarian Eg Dominican Rep, El Salvador, Peru Eg South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda Eg Armenia, Moldova Eg Algeria, Egypt, Indonesia, Nigeria Eg China, India, Viet Nam Sources:Type of predominant religion: CIA World Factbook; Type of society: HDI UNDP Slide 9 Measures INDIVIDUAL RELIGIOUS PARTICIPATION Apart from weddings, funerals and christenings, how often do you attend religious services? How often do you pray to God outside of religious services? COLLECTIVE RELIGIOUS PARTICIPATION Do you belong to any religious or church organizations? Do you do any unpaid voluntary work for religious or church organizations? Do you spend time with people at your church, mosque or synagogue? RELIGIOUS VALUES Irrespective of whether you go to church or not, would you say you are a religious person? Do you belong to a religious denomination? Do you get comfort and strength from religion? How important is God in your life? How important is religion in your life? RELIGIOUS BELIEFS Do you believe in heaven? Do you believe in hell? Do you believe in life after death? Do you believe people have a soul? Slide 10 III: Evidence Slide 11 Measures of religious participation Slide 12 Note: Religious participation: Q185 Apart from weddings, funerals and christenings, about how often do you attend religious services these days? More than once a week, once a week, once a month, only on special hold days, once a year, less often, never or practically never. The proportion who attended Once a week or more. Source: World Values Survey (pooled surveys, 1981-2001) Slide 13 Religiosity by type of society Slide 14 Religiosity & Development Slide 15 Trends in belief in God 1947-2001 Ref Gallup polls & WVS Nation1947196819751981199019952001Change b.Sig. (P) Sweden806052384846-33.6 -.675.009 Netherlands8079646158-22.0 -.463.020 Australia95807975 -19.9 -.379.007 Norway8473685865-18.9 -.473.018 Denmark80535962-17.9 -.387.023 Britain7776737261-16.5 -.461.021 Greece9684-12.3 -.364- West Germany817268637169-12.0 -.305.169 Belgium78766567-11.2 -.487.145 Finland83 617372-10.8 -.296.167 France667372595756-10.1 -.263.162 Canada9589918588-7.2 -.387.075 Switzerland8477 -7.2 -.277.111 India989394-4.0 -.231.275 Japan3839374435-3.0 -.016.935 Austria857883-1.9 -.097.700 Italy8882 88-0.1.039.873 United States949894969394 0.4 -.027.533 Brazil9698993.0.056.152 ALL 10 1947-20018572-13.5 -.315.003 Slide 16 Trends in European church attendance, 1970-2000 Source: Eurobarometer annual surveys Slide 17 Religious participation by cohort Postindustrial Industrial Agrarian Slide 18 Religion & economic inequality Slide 19 Religiosity & household income, postindustrial societies Source: WVS 1981-2001 Slide 20 Religion & demographic trends (Source: World Bank 2003) Slide 21 IV: Conclusions Slide 22 Conclusions 1. Virtually all advanced industrial societies are moving towards more secular orientations. 2. Yet the world as a whole now has more people with traditional religious beliefs than ever before 3. The religion gap becomes increasingly salient on the global agenda, yet the consequences for international conflict remain unclear. Further details/chapters: www.pippanorris.com Slide 23 Religiosity among postindustrial nations Slide 24 Failure of market theory Post-communist societies