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ROCKET PROPULSION

Transcript of ROCKET PROPULSION

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANISATION

RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION

AC/323(AVT-096)TP/70

www.rta.nato.int

RTO EDUCATIONAL NOTES EN-023

AVT-096

Internal Aerodynamics in Solid Rocket Propulsion(Larodynamique interne de la propulsion par moteurs-fuses propergols solides)

The material in this publication was assembled to support a RTO/VKI Special Course under the sponsorship of the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT) and the von Krmn Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI) presented on 27-31 May 2002 in Rhode-Saint-Gense, Belgium.

Published January 2004

Distribution and Availability on Back Cover

NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANISATION

RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY ORGANISATION

AC/323(AVT-096)TP/70

www.rta.nato.int

RTO EDUCATIONAL NOTES EN-023

AVT-096

Internal Aerodynamics in Solid Rocket Propulsion(Larodynamique interne de la propulsion par moteurs-fuses propergols solides)

The material in this publication was assembled to support a RTO/VKI Special Course under the sponsorship of the Applied Vehicle Technology Panel (AVT) and the von Krmn Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI) presented on 27-31 May 2002 in Rhode-Saint-Gense, Belgium.

The Research and Technology Organisation (RTO) of NATORTO is the single focus in NATO for Defence Research and Technology activities. Its mission is to conduct and promote co-operative research and information exchange. The objective is to support the development and effective use of national defence research and technology and to meet the military needs of the Alliance, to maintain a technological lead, and to provide advice to NATO and national decision makers. The RTO performs its mission with the support of an extensive network of national experts. It also ensures effective co-ordination with other NATO bodies involved in R&T activities. RTO reports both to the Military Committee of NATO and to the Conference of National Armament Directors. It comprises a Research and Technology Board (RTB) as the highest level of national representation and the Research and Technology Agency (RTA), a dedicated staff with its headquarters in Neuilly, near Paris, France. In order to facilitate contacts with the military users and other NATO activities, a small part of the RTA staff is located in NATO Headquarters in Brussels. The Brussels staff also co-ordinates RTOs co-operation with nations in Middle and Eastern Europe, to which RTO attaches particular importance especially as working together in the field of research is one of the more promising areas of co-operation. The total spectrum of R&T activities is covered by the following 7 bodies:

AVT HFM IST SAS SCI SET

Applied Vehicle Technology Panel Human Factors and Medicine Panel Information Systems Technology Panel Studies, Analysis and Simulation Panel Systems Concepts and Integration Panel Sensors and Electronics Technology Panel

NMSG NATO Modelling and Simulation Group

These bodies are made up of national representatives as well as generally recognised world class scientists. They also provide a communication link to military users and other NATO bodies. RTOs scientific and technological work is carried out by Technical Teams, created for specific activities and with a specific duration. Such Technical Teams can organise workshops, symposia, field trials, lecture series and training courses. An important function of these Technical Teams is to ensure the continuity of the expert networks. RTO builds upon earlier co-operation in defence research and technology as set-up under the Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) and the Defence Research Group (DRG). AGARD and the DRG share common roots in that they were both established at the initiative of Dr Theodore von Krmn, a leading aerospace scientist, who early on recognised the importance of scientific support for the Allied Armed Forces. RTO is capitalising on these common roots in order to provide the Alliance and the NATO nations with a strong scientific and technological basis that will guarantee a solid base for the future. The content of this publication has been reproduced directly from material supplied by RTO or the authors.

Published January 2004 Copyright RTO/NATO 2004 All Rights Reserved ISBN 92-837-1103-3 Single copies of this publication or of a part of it may be made for individual use only. The approval of the RTA Information Management Systems Branch is required for more than one copy to be made or an extract included in another publication. Requests to do so should be sent to the address on the back cover.

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RTO-EN-023

Internal Aerodynamics in Solid Rocket Propulsion(RTO EN-023 / AVT-096)

Executive SummaryConsiderations of the optimal approaches to adapt space launchers to a changing market should lead to significant breakthroughs in solid rocket propulsion technology, mainly in the areas of reduced costs and improved performance characteristics. The goal of this NATO Research and Technology Organization (RTO) sponsored lecture series was to provide a forum for the review of various scientific and industrial aspects of solid rocket propulsion and an assessment of recent advances with emphasis on internal aerodynamics. The present lecture notes are intended as a natural follow-up to the AGARD-LS-180 Combustion of Solid Propellants organized in 1991. These RTO-AVT / VKI Special Course notes provide the state of the art in internal aerodynamics in solid rocket propulsion, in a way accessible to attendees coming from both academic and industrial areas. Two families of solid motors can be identified: tactical rockets and large boosters for launch vehicles. The military rockets are subjected to combustion instabilities while vortex shedding drives the instabilities in the large boosters. After an overview of the motor internal flow dynamics, combustion of solid propellants and metal particulates were presented. Numerical modeling of internal flow aerodynamics, two-phase flow and flow/structural interactions were addressed, before focusing on the motor flow and combustion instabilities. The main objective of these course notes is therefore to allow an information transfer between well-known scientists, leaders in the solid propulsion field, and demanding industries and laboratories. For these reasons, this proceeding appeals not only to experts already working in the domain, but also to newcomers to the field.

RTO-EN-023

iii

Larodynamique interne de la propulsion par moteurs-fuses propergols solides(RTO EN-023 / AVT-096)

SynthseLa considration des approches optimales de ladaptation des lanceurs spatiaux un march en pleine volution devrait conduire des progrs dcisifs dans le domaine des technologies de la propulsion par moteurs-fuses propergols solides, principalement du point de vue de la diminution des cots et de lamlioration des caractristiques de performance. Ce Cycle de conferences, organis par lOrganisation OTAN pour la recherche et la technologie (RTO) a eu pour objectif de servir de forum pour lexamen de diffrents aspects scientifiques et techniques de la propulsion par moteurs-fuses propergols solides, ainsi que pour lvaluation des derniers progrs raliss, en particulier en arodynamique interne. Lactuel support de cours reprsente la suite naturelle du cycle de confrences AGARD-LS-180 sur La combustion des propergols solides organis en 1991. Ce support de cours spcial RTO-AVT/VKI prsente ltat actuel des connaissances dans le domaine de larodynamique interne de la propulsion par moteurs-fuses propergols solides, de manire rendre le sujet accessible des participants venant aussi bien de lindustrie que des universits. Deux grandes familles de moteurs-fuses propergols solides sont distinguer : les fuses tactiques et les grandes fuses dappoint pour lanceurs. Les fuses militaires sont sujettes des instabilits de combustion, tandis que les instabilits des grandes fuses dappoint sont occasionnes par le dcollement des tourbillons. Suite un aperu de la dynamique des coulements internes des moteurs, la combustion des propergols solides et des particules mtalliques a t prsente. La modlisation numrique de larodynamique des coulements internes, ainsi que les interactions des coulements bi-phase et des coulements/structures ont t examines, avant de considrer les flux internes des moteurs et les instabilits de combustion. Ce support de cours a donc pour objectif de permettre un change dinformations entre des scientifiques renomms, minents dans le domaine de la propulsion par propergol solide, et les industries et les laboratoires qui s'intressent leur travail. Pour ces raisons, ces documents seront apprcis non seulement par les spcialistes du domaine, mais aussi par les nophytes.

iv

RTO-EN-023

Table of ContentsPage Executive Summary Synthse List of Authors/Lecturers iii iv vi

Reference Introduction to Solid Rocket Propulsion by P. Kuentzmann Overview of Motor Internal Flow Dynamics by V. Yang Flow-Structural Interaction in Solid Rocket Motors by J.W. Murdock and W.A. Johnston Combustion of Solid Propellants by G. Lengell, J. Duterque and J.F. Trubert A Summary of Aluminum Combustion by M.W. Beckstead Part I Survey of Recent Al2O3 Droplet Size Data in Solid Rocket Chambers, Nozzles, and Plumes by M. Salita Motor Flow Instabilities Part 1 by F. Vuillot and G. Casalis Motor Flow Instabilities Part 2: Intrinsic Linear Stability of the Flow Induced by Wall Injection by G. Casalis and F. Vuillot Numerical Modeling of Internal Flow Aerodynamics Part 1: Steady State Computations by J-F. Gury Numerical Modeling of Internal Flow Aerodynamics Part 2: Unsteady Flows by J-F. Gury Combustion Instabilities in Solid Propellant Rocket Motors by F.E.C. Culick 1 2 3 4 5 6

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