Rikard pennell aea_2012_final

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  • 1. Integrating GIS & Cost Analyses: MappingSchool Transportation for Foster Youth Dr. Joan Pennell R.V. Rikard [email protected] [email protected] Professor & Center Director Research Manager Center for Family & Community Engagementhttp://www.cfface.org

2. Fostering Youth Educational Success (YES!) http://cfface.chass.ncsu.edu/Fostering_Yes/index.php Who are the Partner Organizations? What is Fostering YES?Cumberland County Department of A project to support foster youthSocial Services, Public Schools,success in their school, home, andMental Health, and County Court community. This project gives foster youthcollaborate with North Carolina a say in their educational planningand State University.builds community capacity. Why is the Project Needed?Who funds the Project? Foster youth have frequent changesA U.S. Department of Health & Humanin where they live and go toServices, Administration for Child and school, leading to increased grade-Families, Childrens Bureau grant supports level retentions. On average, fosterthe project. youth in Cumberland County attend six schools. 3. Trauma & Academic Performance Foster youth traumatized by: Child abuse and neglect Removal and placement Separation from school of origin & friends Trauma leads to hyper arousal, lack of self-control,& learning disabilities Enter care with histories of absences, truancy,expulsions, and school transfer These problems compounded in care Age out of care at risk of depression,homelessness, unemployment, & incarceration 4. Impact of School Changes A positive school experience can offsettrauma and promote wellbeing Fostering Connections 2008 legislationmandates child welfare to strive for schoolstability Foster youth experience educationalinstability--transfers, delays, disruptions,ostracism Lose average of 4-6 months of educationalprogress for every school move 5. Purpose:1. Develop a pragmatic method to estimate transportation costs as well as maximizing revenue streams and strategic placement of foster youth.2. The method employs a set of focused cost models and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data to develop and inform strategic planning. 6. Data Sharing StrategyFoster Youth ID CCS School Performance Data DSS GIS Data(School of OriginAddress, School Placement Address, Foster Placement Adress)NOTE: Foster Youth ID is first three letters of last name, 4 digit birth year, 2 digit birth month, 2 digit birth date.For example: ABC20000131 7. Location: Cumberland County, NC 8. DataCumberland MatchCumberlandCountyProcess Public with 1stSchools DSS PlacementAddressN =278N = 137 N =268 9. Data (cont.)Concern: is there a significant difference between youthwith and without first placement address? Lack of demographic data (i.e., age, sex,race/ethnicity). However, using grade level of youth as of July, 2011. With alpha at 0.05 and df-t: 263.7; p= 0.48579. No concern of significant difference. 10. MethodsWhat we know:1. Hourly wage for Cumberland County SocialWorker is $26.16.2. The average weekly price of gasoline from July2008 July 2011 is $2.821What we dont know:1. Distance (in miles) and,2. Duration (in minutes) to transport a foster youth.1. Energy Information Administrationhttp://tonto.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=PET&s=EMM_EPMR_PTE_R1Y_DPG&f=W 11. Methods (cont.)Develop a Google Maps Application ProgrammingInterface (API) to calculate distance and duration 12. It is possible to generate a database of averagemiles and average minutes using a Google MapsAPI. 13. First Placement 14. Second Placement 15. Third Placement 16. Foster Youth Transportation Cost per Placement Event$12,000.00n = 106$10,000.00$8,000.00 n = 134 n = 58$6,000.00$4,000.00$2,000.00 $- First SecondThird Placement Event 17. Limitations1. Limited demographic data,2. Limited educational data,3. Few explanatory variables,4. Cross sectional, and5. Only examine fiscal costs not human costsBUT.1. Some very stark findings,2. Emphasis on cost, time, and movement 18. ImplicationsCumberland County DSS automated datacollection system Placement and Removalsand Family Planning Meetings.State of NC moving to data sharing system: NCEducational Stability Task Force.Adoption of metric to measure progress forexample: Number of Retentions, Number ofSchool Moves. 19. ReferencesBateman, I. J., Garrod, G. D., Brainard, J. S., & Lovett, A. A. (1996). Measurementissues in the travel cost method: A geographical information systems approach.Journal of Agricultural Economics, 47(1-4), 191205. doi:10.1111/j.1477-9552.1996.tb00684.xBoardman, A. E., Greenberg, D. H., Vining, A. R., & Weimer, D. L. (2001). Cost-BenefitAnalysis: Concepts and Practice (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey:Prentice Hall.Carlson, D., Reder, S., Jones, N., & Lee, A. (2006). Homeless student transportationproject evaluation ( No. WA-RD 665.1). Washington State Transportation Center(TRAC). Retrieved from http://evans.washington.edu/files/665.1.pdf 20. ReferencesNational Working Group on Foster Care and Education. (2011, July). Education is thelifeline for youth in foster care. Research Highlights on Education and FosterCare. Retrievedfrom http://www.casey.org/Resources/Publications/pdf/EducationalOutcomesFactSheet.pdfRay, A. (1984). Cost-benefit analysis: Issues and methodologies. World Bank.Stotland, J., McInerney, M., Feierman, J., Burdick, K., McNaught, K., & Kelly, K. (2011). Fostering Connections Implementation Toolkit (p. 140). Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/child/education/publications/t oolkit_combined_with_cover.authcheckdam.pdfWang, F. (2006). Quantitative methods and applications in GIS. CRC Press.Yuan, M. (2001). Representing complex geographic phenomena in GIS. Cartographyand Geographic Information Science, 28(2), 8396. 21. Integrating GIS & Costs Analyses: MappingSchool Transportation for Foster YouthDr. Joan Pennell R.V. [email protected] [email protected] & Center Director Research ManagerCenter for Family & Community Engagement http://www.cfface.org