Retail buying behaviour

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  • 1.QuestionsCHAPTER 2 4 1 How do customers decide which retailer to go to and what merchandise to buy? What social and personal factors affect customer purchase decisions? How can retailers get customers to visit their stores more frequently, and buy more merchandise during each visit? Why and how do retailers group customers into market segments? 4-1

2. Stages in the Buying ProcessCHAPTER 2 4 14-2 3. Types of NeedsCHAPTER 2 4 1 Utilitarian Needs satisfied when purchases accomplish a specific task. Shopping needs to be easy, and effortless like Sams or a grocery store. Hedonic needs satisfied when purchases accomplish a need for entertainment, emotional, and recreational experience as in department stores or specialty stores. 4-3 4. Hedonic Needs that Retailers can SatisfyCHAPTER 2 4 1 Stimulation Ex: Background music, visual displays, scents Satisfy need for power and status Ex: Canyon Ranch upscale health resorts Adventure Treasure hunting for bargains 4-4 5. Information SearchCHAPTER 2 4 1 Amount of Information Search Depends on the value from searching versus the cost of searching Factors Affecting Amount of Information Search Product Characteristics Complexity Cost Customer Characteristics Past experience Perceived risk Time pressure Market Characteristics Number of alternative brands 4-5 6. Sources of Information Internal Past experiences Memory External Consumer reports Advertising Word of mouthCHAPTER 2 4 1Digital Vision / Getty Images Dynamic Graphics/Picture Quest4-6 7. How Can Retailers Limit the Information Search?CHAPTER 2 4 1 Information from sales associates Provide an assortment of services Provide good assortments Everyday low pricing CreditRoyalty-Free/CORBIS4-7 8. Evaluation of AlternativesCHAPTER 2 4 1 Multiattribute attitude model: Customers see a retailer, product, or service as a collection of attributes or characteristics Predict a customers evaluation of a retailer, product, or service based on Its performance on relevant attributes the importance of those attributes to the customer4-8 9. Information Used in Evaluating RetailersCHAPTER 2 4 14-9 10. Getting into the Consideration SetCHAPTER 2 4 1 Consideration set: the set of alternatives the customer evaluates when making a selection Retailers develop programs influencing topof-mind awareness Get exposure on search engines like Google Try to be the top of the page More stores in the same area (e.g., Starbucks) 4-10 11. Methods for increasing the chance of store visit after getting into the consideration setCHAPTER 2 4 1 Increase Performance Beliefs of Your Store Decrease Performance Beliefs About Competitor Increase Importance Weight of Attributes on which You Have an Advantage Add a New Benefit on which You Excel4-11 12. Purchasing Merchandise or ServicesCHAPTER 2 4 1Customers do not always purchase a brand with the highest overall evaluation. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Jill Braaten, photographer The high-rated item may not be available in the store. How can a retailer increase the chances that customers will convert their merchandise evaluations into purchases?4-12 13. Postpurchase EvaluationCHAPTER 2 4 1 Satisfaction A post-consumption evaluation of how well a store or product meets or exceeds customer expectations Becomes part of the customers internal information that affects future store and product decisions Builds store and brand loyalty4-13 14. Types of Buying DecisionsCHAPTER 2 4 1 Extended Problem Solving High financial or Social Risk Limited Problem Solving Some Prior Buying Experience Habitual Decision Making Store Brand, Loyalty4-14 15. Extended Problem SolvingCHAPTER 2 4 1Consumers devote time and effort analyzing alternatives Financial risks purchasing expensive products or services Physical risks purchases that will affect consumers health and safety Social risks consumers will believe product will affect how others view them 4-15 16. What do Retailers Need to do for Customers Engaged in Extended Problem SolvingCHAPTER 2 4 1 Provide a Lot of Information Use Salespeople rather than advertising to Communicate with customers Reduce the Risks Offer Guarantees Return Privileges Royalty-Free/CORBIS4-16 17. Limited Problem SolvingCHAPTER 2 4 1Purchase decisions process involving moderate amount of effort and time Customers engage in this when they have had prior experience with products or services Customers rely more upon personal knowledge Majority of customer decisions involve limited problem solving(c) Brand X Pictures/PunchStock4-17 18. What do Retailers Need to do for CustomersEngaged in Limited Problem Solving?CHAPTER 2 4 1 It depends If the Customer Is Coming to You, Provide a Positive Experience and Create Loyalty Make Sure Customer is Satisfied Provide Good Service, Assortments, value Offer Rewards to Convert to Loyal Customer If the Customer Goes to Your Competitors Store, Change Behavior Offer More Convenient Locations, Better Service and Assortments 4-18 19. Encouraging Impulse BuyingCHAPTER 2 4 1 Impulse buying: one common type of limited problem solving Influence by using prominent pointof- purchase (POP) or point-of-sale (POS)PhotoLink/Getty Images Have Salespeople Suggest Add-ons Have Complementary Merchandise Displayed Near Product of Interest Use Signage in Aisle or Special Displays Put Merchandise Where Customers Are Waiting4-19 20. Habitual Problem SolvingCHAPTER 2 4 1Purchase decision process involving little or no conscious effort For purchases that arent important to the consumer For merchandise consumers have purchased in the past For consumers loyal to brands or a store 4-20 21. What do Retailers Need to do for CustomersEngage in Habitual Decision MakingCHAPTER 2 4 1 It depends If the customer habitually comes to you, reinforce behavior Make sure merchandise in stock Provide good service Offer rewards to loyal customer If the customer goes to your competitors store, break the habit Offer special promotions 4-21 22. Customer Loyalty Brand Loyalty Committed to a Specific Brand Reluctant to Switch to a Different Brand May Switch Retailers to Buy Brand Store Loyalty Committed to a Specific Retailer Reluctant to Switch RetailersCHAPTER 2 4 14-22 23. Social Factors Influencing the Buying Decision ProcessCHAPTER 2 4 14-23 24. Family Influences Buying DecisionsCHAPTER 2 4 1 Purchases are for entire family to use Whole family participates in decision making process Retailers work to satisfy needs of all family members Kids in the U.S. spend over $200 billion on personal items. They directly influence the purchase of another $300 billion worth of items such as food and clothing. 4-24 25. Reference GroupsCHAPTER 2 4 1 Reference groups affect buying decisions by: Offering information Providing rewards for specific purchasing behaviors Enhancing a consumers self-image(c) image100/PunchStock A reference group is one or more people whom a person uses as a basis of comparison for beliefs, feelings and behaviors.4-25 26. CultureCHAPTER 2 4 1 Culture is the meaning, beliefs, morals and values shared by most members of a society Western culture: individualism Eastern culture: collectivism Subcultures are distinctive groups of people within a culture 4-26 27. Approaches for Segmenting MarketsCHAPTER 2 4 1 Geographic segmentation groups customers according to where they live. Demographic segmentation groups consumers on the basis of easily measured, objective characteristics such as age, gender, income, and education.4-27 28. Approaches for Segmenting MarketsCHAPTER 2 4 1 Geodemographic segmentation uses both geographic and demographic characteristics to classify consumers. Lifestyle, or psychographics , refers to how people live, how they spend their time and money, what activities they pursue, and their attitudes and opinions about the world in which they live.4-28 29. Approaches for Segmenting MarketsCHAPTER 2 4 1 Buying situations can influence customers with the same demographics or lifestyle. Benefit segmentation groups customers seeking similar benefits.4-29