Report of Aerodrome Certification Simulation Exercise - – Report of Aerodrome Certification...

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Transcript of Report of Aerodrome Certification Simulation Exercise - – Report of Aerodrome Certification...

  • ReportofAerodromeCertificationSimulationExercise

    KOLNDORF

  • EASA Report of Aerodrome Certification Simulation Exercise Kolndorf November 2011 Page 2 of 48

    INTRODUCTION

    The Aerodrome Rulemaking section has spent the last year developing the rules for oversightauthorities, aerodrome operator organisations, aerodrome design and operations following theadoption of Regulation 1108/2009 that extended the responsibility of EASA to Aerodromes andATM.Thiswasachievedwiththehelpofexpertsfromtheindustryintheformofdedicatedworkinggroups.

    Totesttheresultsofthisworkandtoensuretherulesdevelopedbygroupcouldbeimplemented,theaerodrome rulemaking sectionundertooka simulationexercise to createaCertificationBasis(CB) for an existing yet fictitious certificated aerodrome. To ensure the exercise covered all theknown alternative measures available to an NAA undertaking the exercise in the future, therulemakingsectiondevelopeditsownmodelaerodrome,knownasKolndorftouseasabasisfortheexercise.

    It is important to note that the exercise stopped short of certificating the operation of theaerodromeandmerelylookedatcreatingtheCB.Themitigationmeasuredevelopedtomanagethehazardscreatedbytheexistingdeviationsandnoncomplianceswouldnormallybe included intheAerodrome Manual and taken into account by the NAA while assessing the operation andmanagementoftheaerodrome.

    DESCRIPTIONOFAERODROME

    KolndorfaerodromeisaCode4EaerodromelocatedbetweenamountainousareatotheSouthandthe coast to the North. It has a single runway of 3000m and parallel taxiway leading to aconventionalaprondivided into stands.Theeast/west runwayhasa cliff starting650m from thebeginningofRunway09.TheprecisionapproachrunwaycanbeuseddowntoCATIIIa.Therunwayelevationis330feetAMSL.

  • EASA Report of Aerodrome Certification Simulation Exercise Kolndorf November 2011 Page 3 of 48

    TheaerodromehasanumberofdeviationslistedonitsexistingnationalCertificate,thosebeing:

    1. TheRESAatthewesternendoftherunwayis60m.

    2. Distancebetweentaxiwayandrunwaycentrelinesis160m.

    3. Longitudinalslopeontheparalleltaxiwayis1.7%.

    4. Industrialbuildingsinfringethetaxiwaystripby3.5m.

    5. Therunwayaimingpointhasdifferentmarking.

    6. TheaprontaxiwayhasOrangeandBluecentrelinemarking.

    7. ApproachlightsforRunway09aretruncatedatadistanceof600mfromRunwayThreshold.Foritems1,2,3,5,6&7safetyassessmentsweredonewhichsupportthesituationandthathavebeenapprovedbytheNAA.

    CERTIFICATIONEXERCISE

    TheexercisebeganwiththeaerodromemanagementrequestingtheNAAcertificatetheaerodromeunder thenewEASA rules.This requestwas initiallydeniedbecause theaerodromemanagementhadnotincludedtheirproposedCBintheinitialrequest.

    Proposalwasrecent,withtheaccompanyingCBproposal.TheinitialCBproposalformisincludedasAttachmentAtothisreport.This formwasusedduringthe firstmeetingbetweentheaerodromeandtheNAA.Itsoonbecameclearthattheinitialformwastoodetailedandwouldprovedifficulttocomplete if the aerodromewasmore complex than the onewe had designed for the exercise,therefore,followingourfirstdaysattemptatcertifyingtheaerodrome,itwasdecidedanewformwasneeded.

    TheseconddaydawnedwithanewCBform,includedasAttachmentBtothisreport.Thenewformreduced the amount of detail and introduced the single column concept for the status of theaerodromes physical characteristics. This allowed the applicant to merely state whether theinfrastructuremet the Certification Specifications (CS) or not, and if not, the answer could beincludedinthecommentscolumn.

    The improved form couldalsobeused formultiple runwaysandallowed theapplicant to supplyadditionalpagesforeachrunwayifrequired.

    Note:TheCBformsincludedinAttachmentsA&BareexamplesdevelopedbyEASAforthesimulationexercise.NAAsarefreetodevelopadifferentformthattheyfeelbettersuitstheirneeds.

    Now that the form had been modified to everyones liking, the certification process began inearnest. A number of times during the discussions, we had to remind ourselves that we wereconsideringanexistingcertificatedaerodromeandone thatwouldbeknown to theNAAandhadprobablybeensubjecttoanumberofoversightaudits.Therefore,theneedto provecompliancewouldbesignificantlyreducedwhencomparedtocertificatinganunknownaerodrome, i.e.anewaerodrome.

    Theexpectedcoupleofdaystorunthroughthecertificationprocessactuallytookeightdays.MostofthetimewasspentdecidingwhichdeviationsqualifiedasanEquivalentLevelofSafety(ELOS),aSpecialCondition(SC)ortheDeviationAcceptanceandActionDocument(DAAD).Thisprocesswasnecessaryas the term deviationor variationdoesnotexist in thenewcertificationprocess.AlldeviationshavetobeallocatedaseitheranELOS,SCorDAAD.

  • EASA Report of Aerodrome Certification Simulation Exercise Kolndorf November 2011 Page 4 of 48

    Reviewingeachdeviation in turn,webeganwith theRESA.TheCSstates that theminimumRESAshouldbe90m,butshouldaimtoachieve240m.TheRESAatthe09endoftherunwaycouldonlyachieveadistanceof60m.This,whenaddedtothe60mofrunwaystrip,gaveatotalsafetydistanceof120mfromtheendoftherunway.Followingasafetyassessmentofthesituation,theaerodromehadelectedto installanEMASarrestingsystembeginningattheendoftherunwayandextendingthe full120m,designed toFAAspecification.TheNAAaccepted that theaerodromeoperatorhaddoneall thatwaspossible tomaintaina safe runwayenvironmentand thereforeagreed that theappropriatetoolstoaddressthissituationwasanELOS.

    Note: This tool was chosen by the team because the aerodrome had demonstrated anEquivalent Level of Safety to the provision of standard RESA, as described in the CS, byprovidingtheEMAS.

    Thenextitemonthedeviationlistwasthetaxiwayseparationdistancefromtherunway.Accordingto the CS this should be 180m; however, the aerodrome could only achieve 160m withoutconsiderable construction work and expense. To move the taxiway to the correct separationdistancewouldbeimpossibleduetotheproximityofthesurroundingenvironment.Therefore,theonlyoptionwouldbetomovetherunwayclosertothesea.Therewasanexistingconditionontheoperationofthetaxiwaythatstatedmovementofaircraft isnotallowedonthetaxiwaywhentherunwayiscontaminatedandcrosswindcomponentismorethan10kts,whilearrivingaircraftareonfinalsto land.Theteamarguedthatthis conditioncouldbeextendedto includeoperation in lowvisibility. Thiswas agreed by the aerodrome operator andwould be included in the AerodromeManual. Therefore, the NAA agreed to place a Special Condition on the Certificate stating theextendedconditionsagreedbytheaerodromeoperator.

    Note:TheSCwaschosenastheappropriatetoolinthiscasebecauseitmettheconditionoftheCS.DescribedintheBasicRegulationwhenthecertificationspecificationsestablishedbytheEASAarenotadequateorareinappropriatetoensureconformityoftheaerodromewiththeessentialrequirementsofAnnexVato theRegulation (EC)No216/2008.TheCS inthiscase was deemed inappropriate because to meet it would incur substantial cost anddisruptiontotheaerodromeoperator.Followingasafetyassessment,theaerodrome,alongwiththeNAA,hasagreedasetofconditionsthatdemonstratethesafeuseofthetaxiwayinallweatherconditions,thereforeanSCwasseenastheappropriatetool.

    Thenextdeviationwasthelongitudinalslopeonthetaxiway.TheCSstatesthisshouldnotbeabove1.5%,whereas in this case itwas 1.7%. The aerodrome operator had a safety assessment thatproposed mitigation measures that included additional inspections of the taxiway during icingconditionsandapplicationofdeicerwhenthoseconditionswarrantedit.TheaerodromeoperatorhadalsoinstalledsignagetoindicatethebeginningandendoftheslopeandincludedanentryintheAIPwarning pilotsof the hazard and theneed tomanagebothbraking andpower settings. Thetaxiwaywouldbeclosedwhensufficient frictioncouldnotbeachieved insevere icingconditions.Similartotheaboveexample,toachievethecorrectlongitudinalslopewouldincursubstantialcostsanddisruption.Theprojectwould involveregradingmostofthegroundsurroundingthe lengthoftaxiwayandwouldprobablyimpactontherunwayprofile.Therefore,theteamagreedaSCwastheappropriatetoolinthiscase.

    Note: The SC was chosen because the aerodrome operator was affected by the naturalgroundoftheaerodromeandtomeettheCSwould involve chasingthe levelsformostofthe aerodrome before meeting the CS. Not a sensible option for the benefit of 0.2%.Additionally, theaerodromeoperatorhasdevelopedmitigationmeasures thatensured thesafeoperationaluseofthetaxiway.

    Inadditiontothecircumstancesdescribedabove,bothoptionsresultedinanSCbecauseofthe long termnatureof the situation,whereaswith theother toolsavailable, there is thepossibilitytoreviewfollowinganydevelopmentsontheaerodrome.

  • EASA Report of Aerodrome Certification Simulation Exercise Kolndorf November 2011 Page 5 of 48

    The next deviationwas the industrial building affecting the taxiway strip. The taxiway had beendesignedatatimewhenCodeEdimensionsonlyincludedwingspanofupto,butnotincluding60m(Boeing 747 classic), then, following the introduction of the B747400, increased to 65m. Theaerodrome became the victim of this change to the Aerodrome Reference Code and has littleopportunitytomeettherequiredCSwithoutdemolishingthe industrialbuildings.The introductionof thenew ruleshas resulted in theaerodromeoperatorundertakinga safetyassessmentof thehazard and concluding that nothing has to be done to ensure safety of the aircraft passing therestriction.Therefore,isproposedthatthisitembetransferredtotheDAADwiththeactionthatanyfuturedevelopmentthataffectstheareawilltakeintoaccounttheremovalofthedeviation.

    Note:ThedecisiontoplacethisitemontheDAADresultedfromthefactthat littlecouldbedoneatthistimetoachievetheCS,againwithoutsubstantialcostanddisruption.However,the safety assessment had indicated that the restriction on the taxiway strip did notadverselyaffectthesafetyoftheaircraftanditispossiblethattheaerodromewillbeabletodemolishtheindustrialbuildingsinthefutureandmovethetaxiwaytot