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Religious Education World Religions 3101/3106 A Curriculum Guide February 2005 GOVERNMENTOF NEWFOUNDLAND ANDLABRADOR Division ofProgramDevelopment

Transcript of Religious Education World Religions 3101/3016 · This religious education curriculum acknowledges...

Religious EducationWorld Religions 3101/3106

A Curriculum GuideFebruary 2005

GOVERNMENTOFNEWFOUNDLANDANDLABRADOR

Division ofProgramDevelopment

TABLE OF CONTENTS

iRELIGIOUS EDUCATION 3101/3106 - CURRICULUM GUIDE

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements .................................................. iii

SECTION I: Program Overview and RationaleVision Statement ..............................................................1Rationale for Religious Education ......................................1Key Principles Underlying Religious Education....................4Meeting The Needs of all Learners ......................................5Effective Assessment Evaluation Practices ............................18

SECTION II: Curriculum Design and ComponentsIntroduction .....................................................................23Curriculum Outcomes Framework .....................................23Meeting the Essential Graduation LearningsThrough Religious Education ............................................24General Curriculum Outcomes for ReligiousEducation .........................................................................27Key-Stage Curriculum Outcomes .......................................27

SECTION III: Course DescriptionWorld Religions 3101/3106 ...............................................31

SECTION IV: Specific Curriculum OutcomesOverview of Specific Curriculum Outcomes .......................33World Religions 3101/3106 ...............................................35

SECTION V: AppendixAppendix ..........................................................................53Recommended Reading .....................................................53

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Acknowledgements

The High School Religious Education Curriculum Guide for WorldReligions 3101/3106 was developed by a High School ReligiousEducation Curriculum Committee . The Department of Educationwishes to acknowledge the time, energy and expertise provided by thefollowing educators in the development of this guide:

Alice Collins, Dean of Education, Memorial University ofNewfoundland

Randy Head, Department Head, Social Studies, O'Donel HighSchool, Mount Pearl

Bryce Hodder, Chairperson, Program Development Specialist forReligious Education, Division of Program Development, Departmentof Education

Tom Hounsell, Assistant Principal, St. Paul's Junior High School, St.John's

Suzelle Lavallée, Program Development Specialist, French FirstLanguage, Division of Program Development, Department ofEducation

Phillip Noel, Program Specialist, Vista District

Fred Wood, Department Head, Social Studies, Queen ElizabethRegional High School, Foxtrap

The Department of Education also acknowledges the work of OdetteSquires in the production of this document.

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Section I: Program Overview and Rationale

Vision Statement The Newfoundland and Labrador religious education curriculum isshaped by a vision of enabling and encouraging students to growreligiously, spiritually and morally into informed, caring andcontributing members of society, who appreciate their own beliefs andvalues, and the beliefs and values of others, and who understand thecontribution that Christianity and other religions make to humanlife.

Since time immemorial people have had a quest for the spiritual sideof existence and the purpose of life. From early humanity up to thepresent age the religious realm has continued to occupy people’sthoughts and influence their behaviour. In the western world oursociety and culture have been greatly influenced and shaped by theJudaeo-Christian tradition. Beliefs have evolved and traditions havevaried but the religious component of humanity has continued tosurvive. It has been instrumental in determining attitudes towardGod (Ultimate Reality) and attitudes and approaches toward theworld in which we live. On the cusp of the twenty-first century themajority of the world’s population continues to believe in a spiritualside of humanity.

Fundamental questions about life continue to be asked. From ayoung age, children set out on a quest for answers, not always simpleanswers but answers relating to the profound questions of life and lifebeyond. This quest is lifelong and includes a search for answersrelated to questions about the purpose of life, where we fit into thescheme of things, what is the ultimate mystery which embraces ourentire existence, what makes us different from other living things,what the source of suffering is, how happiness can be found, whathappens after death, and other fundamental questions. These arequestions addressed by all major religions and, because of theirimportance, should be given attention in a K-12 curriculum. While areligious education program should provide a forum to address suchquestions, it must be noted that central to the faith development ofthe young person is the family and faith community. The religiouseducation program should support the role of each, whereappropriate. Students should be given structured and unstructuredopportunities to search in their own religious heritage for the answersto these questions, and to compare these with the answers orframeworks provided in other religious traditions.

A Rationale forReligious Education

Because religion plays significant roles inhistory and society, study about religion isessential to understanding both thenation and the world. Omission of factsabout religion can give students the falseimpression that the religious life ofhumankind is insignificant orunimportant. Failure to understand eventhe basic symbols, practices, and conceptsof the various religions makes much ofhistory, literature, art, and contemporarylife unintelligible. (Warren A. Nord,

Charles C. Haynes, Taking ReligionSeriously Across the Curriculum.Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 1998, p. 36.)

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In their search for meaning students should develop an awareness ofwhat it means to be human and the inherent responsibilities whichcome with this. Out of this realization should come a sense of valuefor humanity and all of creation. In their personal search for meaningit is important that students acquire the knowledge, understandingand skills needed to interpret religious ideas. They need to seethemselves as an integral part of creation. When this conclusion isreached behaviour and attitudes toward all creation will be caring andaffirming. The religious education curriculum should help studentsexplore their role in the natural order.

In a world that is truly multi-cultural and multi-faith it is importantthat each person can value and celebrate his/her own faith (religiousheritage or commitment). However, with accurate information aboutother religions the individual should recognize that others havereligious beliefs that they value and celebrate as well. Religious anddenominational intolerance will be eliminated only when people aremore understanding of the intrinsic worth of religious views andtraditions that are not their own. An effective religious educationprogram should give accurate information and demonstrate respect forall world faiths.

Most of the values and morals upheld by any society have their originsin religious teachings. Through discussion and study of various issuesconfronting society, students will be in a better position to develop avalue system and adopt moral standards that give them principles bywhich to live. Students should come to understand and appreciatethat most religions have sacred writings and all teach values, ethicsand morals.

There are other considerations for the importance of religiouseducation being included in the curriculum. According to John M.Hull:

• Religion is too important a part of history, culture, and currentexperience of [humankind] to be left to believers alone. There is arole for the school in preparing pupils to take an informed andthoughtful part in a pluralistic society. When the society containsnot one but several religions, the need for a thoughtful study ofreligion becomes greater, not less. (John M. Hull, “ReligiousEducation in a Pluralistic Society”, Studies in Religion andEducation, London: Falmer Press, 1984, p. 48.)

• Religion has been a determining factor in history and in ourcultural heritage. Major decisions have been made in light ofreligious teachings. While it is true that at times religions havebeen responsible for conflicts in the world it is also true that theyhave served to bring about resolutions, peace, and social justice.

M. Stackhouse in Creeds, Society andHuman Rights writes:

Persons demand beliefs; societies needconvictions; and civilizations require abasic social ethical vision by which toguide behavior. (M. Stackhouse, Creeds,Society and Human Rights. GrandRapids, Michigan: W.B. EerdmansPublishing Co., 1984, p. 4.)

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Our students need to be aware of the role religion has playedhistorically. An effective religious education program will enablethe student to understand and appreciate the relationship betweenreligion and history.

• Religion is also a large contributing factor in current national andinternational events. By coming to a realization of the importanceof religion in these events the student will better understand someof the underlying causes and complexities.

• Consideration and recognition should be given to the impact andcontributions made by religion in the areas of literature,architecture, art, music, film, and theater.

• Finally, it must be noted that young people develop intellectually,physically, emotionally, socially, and spiritually. It is important tohave a religious education component in the school because theschool addresses the development and education of the wholechild.

The Atlantic Canada Framework for Essential Graduation Learnings inSchools states that the mission of Public Education is “to enable andencourage every individual to acquire, through lifelong learning, theknowledge, skills and values necessary for personal growth and thedevelopment of society.” In addition to the six Essential GraduationLearnings outlined elsewhere in the Framework, a specific SeventhLearning for Newfoundland and Labrador references: “Graduates willdemonstrate understanding and appreciation for the place of belief systemsin shaping the development of moral values and ethical conduct.” Aneffective religious education program will be a contributing factor tothat mission. There will be aspects of the religious educationcurriculum that support each of the Essential Graduation Learnings.

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Key PrinciplesUnderlying ReligiousEducation

(For information and theories onspiritual and moral development thefollowing authors are recommended:Fritz Oser, James Fowler, LawrenceKolberg and Carol Gilligan.)

Students should also be aware that religion influences local and globalevents. It is imperative that they be educated regarding otherreligions. They should acquire knowledge of the founders, beliefs,main practices, symbols and festivals of various religions. Theyshould also understand the similarities and differences among thereligions studied.

Throughout the ages, religion has had an influence on, and has beenexpressed through, the arts, including music, art, drama, literature,and architecture. As students study religious education, they alsostudy history, music, literature, and vice versa.

This religious education curriculum acknowledges and supports thenotion that young people have a spiritual dimension and growspiritually as well as physically, emotionally, psychologically andintellectually.

This religious education curriculum acknowledges that the essence ofall inter-faith dialogue is the awareness that human beings shareessential truths and experiences that are much more important thanthose which divide them.

This religious education curriculum respects the place and role offamily and faith communities as primary influences on the faith livesof young people. At the same time it acknowledges thecomplementary and supplementary role of partnership that the schoolcan play in the spiritual, moral, and faith development of youngpeople.

Through their study, students should come to appreciate the intrinsicworth of each religion for its adherents.

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The Religious EducationLearning Environment

Our pedagogy is to actively engage people'swhole "being" in place and time - theirphysical, mental and volitionalcapacities, their head, heart and action,their intellect, desire, and will, theirreasons, memory, and imagination, andenable them to reclaim their past,embrace their present, and takeresponsibility for their own and other'sfuture. (Thomas H. Groome, SharingFaith, A Comprehensive Approach toReligious Education and PastoralMinistry, Harper, San Francisco 1991,p. 430.)

The Adolescent Learner

Meeting the Needs ofall Learners

Today's high school learners are complex and sophisticated.Adolescents approach their world of diversity and complexity withenthusiasm and trepidation. They encounter clashes of values, personalconflicts and social pressures in developing their sense of social justiceand recognition of diversity.

Adolescent learners enjoy questioning and are less likely to accept thestatus quo in attempting to attain their objectives. This opensopportunities for learning through activities such as investigation,research, debate, discussion and community involvement, locally andglobally. Students need to know their opinions are welcomed and canbe expressed without fear of ridicule. Furthermore, they need to knowtheir beliefs and practices are respected.

An effective learning environment will be one where sensitivity andrespect is shown for all religious traditions. The learning environmentshould be such that it fosters in students a positive attitude towardsother people and their right to hold different beliefs. It shouldprepare students for living in a society of diverse religions.Recognizing students' varying backgrounds and experiences, thereligious education instructional environment must incorporateprinciples and strategies which support diversity while recognizing thevaried learning styles, multiple intelligences, and abilities of theindividual.

It is not enough, however, that students learn about other faiths. Inaddition to attending to the cognitive domain, the learningenvironment must be conducive to, and supportive of, the affectivedomain.

Also, the learning environment has to be appropriate to the age anddevelopmental needs of the student, with activities being studentcentered. It may include experiences through celebrations, festivals,food, drama and field trips. An opportunity for reflection isimportant. The learning environment, however, should be sensitive toaspects of any living belief system that can only be experienced andfully appreciated by adherents of that particular belief system. Itshould never be the intent to turn any of these celebrations orobservances into "pretend" sessions. In many instances the teacherwill have to decide to what degree practices of celebrations can befacilitated in the school with the sincerity, dignity, and reverence theydeserve. Therefore, an effective religious education environment mustbe:

• student centered• engaging and relevant• respectful of diversity

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The Role of the Teacher

Instructional Strategies

• inviting and inclusive• participatory, interactive and collaborative• reflective and celebratory• integrative• challenging• inquiry based

It is the role of the teacher to create a supportive environment. Theteacher of religious education:

• is a facilitator• is not “all-knowing” about different religions• uses people from the faith communities as resource people• is sensitive to diverse religious beliefs• fosters a sense of acceptance, trust and comfort in the classroom• demonstrates a valuing of all learners• helps each student form individual beliefs and attitudes• allows time for reflection• challenges students to act upon their learning• provides time for students to ask questions

While it is understood that each teacher brings his or her own beliefsto the classroom, it should also be understood that a teacher shouldnot make any attempt to promote or denegrate any student’s beliefs.The teacher must not attempt to indoctrinate or proselytize.

There is no one best way to teach. Effective instruction encompassesa variety and combination of approaches - within a program, within acourse, within a unit, within a lesson.

Effective instruction facilitates, promotes and results in studentlearning. Effective teachers know how to adapt their strategies tomeet a wide variety of student needs. Effective teachers makedecisions about curriculum selection, organization andimplementation based on sound research and a wide range of practicaland theoretical knowledge. They engage the student in the learningprocess. Effective instruction begins with the assessment of studentlearning needs, interests and abilities, continues with planning anddelivering instruction in an appropriate manner. It includesmonitoring student growth and understanding, concludes withevaluating student progress and achievement in preparation for thenext learning experience.

Instructional strategies should vary so that there is opportunity fordirect instruction, seatwork, assessment, cooperative small groupwork, and learning beyond a prescribed text. No matter what the

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Whole Class Learning

instructional strategy, evaluation, especially formative evaluation,should be ongoing. The learning activities and instructional strategiesoccurring in classrooms should promote a school climate whereteachers and learners collaborate about learning. The climate teacherscreate in any class should foster a sense of acceptance by teachers andpeers, as well as a sense of comfort and order. Such a climate isenhanced when time is provided for students to ask and answerquestions; when teachers restate/rephrase questions for a student;when teachers guide a student in finding solutions to problemsassigned; when teachers acknowledge the worth and dignity of aparticular response.

It is important that general and specific curriculum outcomes be usedas reference points for planning learning experiences. There are manyoptions for instructional strategies that teachers may select andcombine in planning learning experiences for whole class, small groupand independent learning. These activities should create learningcommunities that foster complex, creative, critical and ethicalthought. Evaluation instruments should complement instructionalstrategies by encouraging thinking as well as the acquisition ofinformation.

Whole class learning experiences often focus on an individual (teacheror student) or on a specific group. It may be used effectively topresent strategies, provide information, or communicate directions.This approach is often used to introduce and support other methodsof instruction. For example, instructions and explanations can begiven to the whole class before they begin to work in smaller groups.Whole-class learning can also be used when the entire class is involvedin a common process, for example, in sharing group or individualexperiences, or in planning and making decisions about a class projector other shared learning experience.

Whole-class learning activities include the following:

• questioning and discussion• demonstrations and presentations• modelling• lectures• mini-lessons• overviews and outlines• planning, reflecting on, and evaluating learning

Whole class learning often involves direct communication between aspeaker or speakers and an audience by making statements, givinginformation and directions, or explaining procedures. The

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Small Group Learning

Independent Learning

information and directions presented in a whole class setting canprovide students with necessary support as they become self-directedlearners. Demonstrations, for example, provide students with bothverbal and non-verbal information.

Although large amounts of information transmitted by lecture maynot always be retained, mini-lessons, which are short periods of wholeclass instruction, provided as the need or opportunity arises, canchallenge the imagination, stimulate reflection, and develop a sense ofinquiry. They can provide a forum for critical thinking and challengestudents to revise and extend their own knowledge base as theyencounter the practices and beliefs of others.

Small group experiences should be planned to help students learn howto interact effectively and productively as members of a group orteam. Group work will decrease students’ dependence on the teacherand increase positive interdependence. As groups take on variouslearning tasks, students will develop and consolidate the skills,abilities, and attitudes involved in group processes. Group processesrequire students to:

• participate, collaborate, co-operate, and negotiate• consider different ways of going about a task• discuss, brainstorm, react, and respond• build on their own ideas and extend the ideas of others• share their own expertise and employ the expertise of others• establish group goals• identify and manage tasks• identify and solve problems• make decisions• pace projects, and establish and meet deadlines• respect varying leadership and learning styles• be sensitive to non-verbal communication — their own and others• recognize the responsibilities and dynamics of working in groups

and make use of their understanding• assess their own contributions and use feedback from the group to

improve their performance

Small group learning experiences demonstrate to students how theirpatterns of learning, experience, and expertise are different from andsimilar to those of others. As students become more aware of theirindividual strengths as learners, they will become better equipped todeal with the demands placed on them by independent learning tasks.

Learning is both personal and social. Religious Education recognizesthe diverse interests, learning styles, prior knowledge, experiences andbeliefs students bring to the classroom. Independent learning is one of

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many strategies teachers can use to help students learn. Through thestudy of various religious beliefs and practices, students will be in abetter position to make informed decisions and choices.

Classroom time must be given to allow students to conduct research,confer with peers and with the teacher, prepare reports andpresentations, present the results, and evaluate their progress andachievement in independent learning. Such learning experiences willhelp students to reflect on their own learning strategies and willpromote their progress toward becoming independent learners.

Indirect instruction is generally student-centered and involves inquiry,discovery, induction. It seeks a high level of student involvement inobserving, investigating, forming hypotheses and drawing inferencesfrom data. Indirect instruction encourages students to generatealternatives and\or solve problems. It frees students to explorediverse possibilities and reduces the fear associated with givingincorrect answers. Indirect instruction fosters creativity, and developsresearch skills. Learners, because of their explicit contact with subjectmatter, are better able to understand the material, concepts and ideasunder study, and to apply previous learning to new situations. Theteacher facilitates the activities, acts as a resource person, arranges thelearning environment, provides opportunities for studentinvolvement, and gives feedback to students during the course oftheir inquiries. Indirect instruction relies on a variety of resources.In order to get optimum results from the indirect method, directinstruction may need to be used to teach requisite skills/processes/procedures.

Indirect instruction includes:• problem solving• guided inquiry• case study• reflective discussion and questions

Direct Instruction is teacher centred and is commonly used todescribe a process, present strategies, provide information and tocommunicate directions. Direct instruction is deductive. It presentsthe rule or generalization first and then illustrates with examples.Direct instruction can be used to introduce and support othermethods and strategies of instruction.

Direct instruction includes:• lectures• questioning• explicit teaching• guided practice

Indirect Instruction

Direct Instruction

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Experiential learning is inductive, student centred, activity rich andmulti-sensory. Experiential learning may require the application andconsolidation of previous knowledge, skills and values to a newsituation and/or may emphasize the acquisition of new knowledge,skills and ideas. Experiential learning can occur both inside andoutside the regular classroom setting. It can involve first handexperiences, such as going whale watching, hands-on experiences,reproduce religious symbols with clay and/or vicarious experiencessuch as exploring art through the Internet. Current technologypermits numerous simulations to be shared through various mediasuch as laser video discs, videos, cassettes, and computer programs.School visitations by outside resource people can also provide excellentopportunities for learners to connect learned information to real lifesituations. Students are more motivated to learn when they activelyparticipate. Experiential learning increases student understanding andretention.

Experiential learning includes:

• role playing• simulation• experimenting• field trips• learning centres

Individualized learning fosters the development of individual studentinitiative, responsible decision making, self reliance and independence.It encourages learners to effectively organize and pace their learning.This type of learning may be individual or it may include learning inpartnership with others. The teacher and/or the student (under theteacher’s guidance), may determine the description and conditions ofthe task(s). Individualized learning allows students to explore indepth personal interests related to educational outcomes. Itmotivates learners to make connections and see the relevance of whatthey are learning to their everyday lives. Individualized learning canbe used in conjunction with other methods. It requires carefulmonitoring and regular feedback to the learner(s) to be effective.

Independent learning includes:

• homework• projects• reports• essays• assigned questions• learning contracts• learning centres• computer assisted instruction

Experiential Learning

Individualized Learning

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Interactive instruction relies on discussion and sharing amongparticipants, and allows students to react to the views, ideas andexperiences of others. It permits the generation of alternate ideas andinsights, and provides opportunities for students to develop socialand interpersonal skills with peers, teachers and others. Interactiveinstruction encourages the organization of thoughts and thedevelopment of rational arguments. It allows students to learn torefine their observation, listening, interpersonal and interventionskills. The success of interactive learning depends on the skills of theteacher in structuring and facilitating the activity and respondingappropriately to the characteristics and dynamics of the group(s).Interactive learning permits a range of groupings.

Interactive instruction includes:

• whole group discussion• small group discussion• conferencing• mentoring• dialogue• brainstorming• interviewing

Problem Solving• application of knowledge, skills, ideas, resources and processes to

generate one or many solutions to a problem• may follow the scientific method• can be a practical skill• may include strategies such as “trial and error”, “brainstorming”,

“what if/I suppose”, “attribute listing”, “forced relationships”, “ideacheck list” and “imaging”.

Concept Attainment• students are provided with data about a particular concept

generated by themselves or their teacher and are encouraged toclassify or group the information and to give descriptive labels totheir groupings.

• students link the examples to the labels through their ownreasoning and form their own understanding of the concept.

• students participate actively in their own learning• students organize and manipulate information• students create new and expanded meaning of their information

Inquiry• elements of inquiry include thinking, reflecting, developing

relevant questions and planning appropriate strategies forgenerating answers and explanations

Interactive Instruction

Selected InstructionalStrategies

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• allows students to experience and acquire processes through whichthey can gather information about the world in a variety of waysfrom a variety of sources.

• allows for a high level of interaction among the learner, teacher, thearea of study, available resources and the learning environment

• allows students to act upon their curiosity and interests• encourages students to formulate questions and analyse situations/

problems/information• calls upon prior learning• encourages hypothesis development and testing (new questions and

hypotheses often emerge as the inquiry continues)

• students make inferences and propose solutions• students realize that there is often more than one answer to a

question; more than one solution to a problem.

Questioning• can be used to diagnose recall and comprehension skills• can be convergent and/or factual• may draw on prior learning experience• can determine the extent to which lesson outcomes are being

achieved• provides practice• aids retention of information or processes• stimulates thinking• encourages expression• can be empirical• can be conceptual

Explicit Teaching• direct telling• making statements• giving information or directions• explaining procedures• is largely teacher-centred• can be large group or small group• can be used to motivate the learner• may stimulate reflection• can challenge the imagination• may develop curiosity and a sense of inquiry• may include teacher talk; lecture approach; mini-lessons;

instruction giving

Cautions:

• not all students learn well with this technique• lectured content is often rapidly forgotten

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Demonstrations• can provide verbal and non-verbal information, techniques and

procedures• can illustrate the end product of a process• can provide a model for reproducing a procedure or creating a

product• can involve the collection and organization of materials• allow students to receive information through tactile and visual

means

Guided Practice• can be individual, student centred and needs based• may be small group• used to monitor student performance and practices (e.g.,. signs of

respect, appropriate behaviour)

Simulation• allows for types of experiments/activities that cannot take place in

the real environment• an artificial problem situation or event is presented which

represents some aspect of reality• removes risk and reduces safety considerations• the level of complexity is purposefully reduced so that students

may become directly involved with underlying concepts• may involve the use of models, game formats, structured role play

or an interactive video or computer program

Authentic Experiences• are real life learning experiences that require careful planning• factors such as safety, liability, weather, transportation costs, time

and availability have to be considered• may include field trips, school visitations by outside resource

people, surveys, and field observations

Role Play• is the spontaneous or practiced response to a given situation or

theme where the learner attempts to speak, feel, behave like thecharacter they portray

• is designed to illustrate situations in which the behaviour ofindividuals is the critical factor

• can be part of a game or simulation activity• is an approach to addressing interpersonal problems and practicing

social and communication skills• allows for high level of student engagement• promotes independent and self-determined behaviour

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• promotes increased understanding of the views, positions andfeelings of others

• facilitates attitudinal and behavioral change• encourages cooperation and sharing• can be used to resolve decision-making dilemmas, resolve conflict,

determine appropriate behavioral responses• teachers must define the problem situation and problem clearly as

well as give very clear instructions

Cautions:

• some students may feel self conscious or threatened• may not be appropriate for large groups• may not be appropriate for all learners

Field Trips• involve teaching/learning activities at a site other than the

classroom• involve activities that are appropriate for learning outcomes• require careful planning in order to make the link to learning

outcomes• should spark student interest, discussion, questioning,• may provide “hands on” experience• may involve application of previous knowledge or acquisition of

new knowledge• should involve follow up such as reports, discussions, and/or

evaluation• reflect the real world and put learning in the context of the

community• broaden the student’s view

Assigned Questions• students are provided with a set of questions related to new or

previously learned material• may be a component of problem solving• may be a component of critical thinking• may be used for reflection and self-evaluation• may be an element of programmed instruction• may be used in guided inquiry• may be used as the starting point for cooperative group learning• may be used to guide/direct learning, exploration,

experimentation, and/or observation

Projects• teachers should provide examples of any projects required and

clearly discuss all guidelines

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• include assigned tasks that provide an opportunity for all learnersto consolidate/synthesize learning from a number of disciplines orexperiences

• usually involves learners, alone or in small groups, working on atask for an extended time period (the actual time frame maydepend to some degree on the ages of the learners involved),usually to produce a tangible product such as a model, ademonstration, a report or a presentation

• may be used to relate knowledge to their own experiences and/orto the broader community

• may involve research• usually involves extending/enriching/reinforcing learning• should be focused (e.g., subject matter concept, interdisciplinary

theme, action projects)• should include clearly defined task descriptions such as: interview,

compare opinions, make a model, find contrasting views on, createa dramatic presentation

• should include a criteria for planning and evaluation• students should clearly understand the requirements of the project• should include clear time lines, and ongoing progress reports

Computer-Assisted Instruction• an instructional mode which incorporates the computer into the

lesson plan• can include word processing, drill and practice, tutorial, problem

solving, critical thinking, creativity, simulation• may be an independent or cooperative small group learning• may be appropriate for individualizing instruction• fosters active involvement• allows for independent and collaborative decision making• appropriate for programmed instruction

Learning Contracts• teacher may initially provide terms and conditions, identify

resources and set basic timelines• the student, parents and other professionals may be involved in

designing the contract (such as expectations, conditions, evaluationcriteria, time frame, consequences)

• provide a method of individualizing instruction• can be designed so that students operate at the academic level and

the pace most suited for them• can help students make reasoned choices, become increasingly

independent learners and take responsibility for their own learning.

Conferencing• occurs when teachers meet with individual or small groups of

students to discuss learning tasks or concerns

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• encourages students to talk about their work in a non-threateninglow-risk environment where points of view are shared andrespected

• allows for an open exchange of ideas between the teacher and thelearner

• teachers can guide students and provide feedback• encourages students to reflect on their learning, engage in self-

assessment and make decisions on how to approach tasks• is an appropriate setting for encouraging independence and

promoting self-confidence.

Brainstorming• a process of rapidly generating ideas or responses• all contributions are accepted without judgement or comment

(this includes nods of agreement) and without editing the words ofthe contributor (this includes “you mean to say....., or this is thesame as....)

• a means of extending boundaries and encouraging creative ideas• a means of quickly getting a wide range of ideas on a topic or issue• can be used as a precursor to refining or categorizing ideas/

responses• is intended to capitalize on the varied experiences, knowledge, and

ideas of the group• can be playful with zany ideas encouraged and accepted

Cooperative Small Group Learning• an approach to organizing classroom activity so that students can

work collaboratively and build on one another’s strengths and ideas• group members share clearly defined roles and are interdependent

in achieving the main goal• students learn the importance of respecting individual views and

maintaining group harmony• students must be working towards a common goal• success at achieving the goal depends on the individual learning of

all group members• the teacher’s role is primarily that of facilitator in guiding students

as social groups and learning teams as they engage in activities suchas identifying problems, generating solutions and practicing skills

• successful use of this method requires professional developmentand practice

Interviewing• involves individuals, pairs or small groups collecting information

from peers, younger students, older students, and adults• involves focused thought and active thinking to develop questions

and explore ideas

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• requires interpersonal and listening skills; the student must listenrespectfully, react to, and interpret the views and experiences ofothers

• uses language to articulate and clarify one’s thoughts, feelings, andideas

• allows exchange of ideas, increased understanding and newawareness of a previous knowledge

• involves follow up activities

Personal or Self-reflection/Journaling• allows individuals to think about their level of knowledge, their

beliefs and values

• facilitates personal goal setting and planning

• supports privacy

• respects the personal quality and uniqueness of the individual

• allows students to reflect on what they have learned or are about tolearn

• allows students to pose questions and react to learning experiences

"Links to Other Disciplines". Students should be encouraged to findstrategies to link their learning in this Religious Education course totheir studies in other courses. This might be accomplished, forexample, through interdisciplinary research and presentations that aredeveloped and presented in collaboration with teachers in othercourses for which students are registered. For specifics regarding theselinks to other discipines refer to the notes in the two page spreads.

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Although assessment and evaluation are terms often usedinterchangeably, they are not the same. Assessment refers to thebroader activity of gathering information on the full range of studentlearning in a variety of ways, so that a clear and valid picture emergesof what students know and are able to do in Religious Education.This assessment process should provide a rich collection ofinformation that reflects students’ progress in working towardachievement of learning outcomes and guides future instruction,where data from a variety of sources is collected. Evaluation involvesreflecting on what students have learned for the purpose of sharingthis information with them and with their parent(s), caregiver(s), andschool administration.

Student evaluation is a process basic to teaching. Evaluation is not anadd-on feature of instruction but an integral part of it, since theinformation it provides allows teachers to make adjustments toinstruction and teaching methodologies.

Evaluation must be student-centered where the process andsubsequent decisions reflect a genuine concern for each student.

Teachers have a responsibility to provide accurate, reliable andjustifiable evaluations which do not undermine the integrity, self-confidence, or enthusiasm of students. Comprehensive evaluationinvolves the use of a variety of sources, is referenced to specificlearning outcomes and ensures that the total growth of every studentis recognized. (Adapted from The Evaluation of Students in theClassroom: A Handbook and Policy Guide)

Guiding Principles for Assessment and Evaluation:

• Assessment and evaluation processes and techniques should:

– determine whether the outcomes have been achieved.

– reflect the stated outcomes for the course.

– be an integral part of the teaching and learning process and ofeach component of the course.

– give all students the opportunity to demonstrate theachievement of outcomes.

– provide positive, instructive, and supportive feedback tostudents.

– invite and encourage student self-assessment and activeparticipation.

– allow for a range of options to accommodate students’ abilitiesto demonstrate the achievement of outcomes.

Effective Assessmentand EvaluationPractices

Defining Assessment andEvaluation

Understanding Processand Product

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Evaluation deals with both process and product. Religious Educationplaces emphasis on the affective domain and the process is asimportant as the product.

Product can be thought of as the what of learning. What is itstudents should know? What is it they should be able to do? Thesewhats are typically spelled out in outcomes, whether they are based ona program, a course, a unit or a lesson. In a teaching episode which isfocused on product, the ends may be evaluated without reference tothe means.

Process refers to the procedure which students go through as theycome to know, to value, and to be able to do. The emphasis inteaching shifts from a passing on of “the what” to the methods bywhich it is acquired and utilized. Students are taught to findinformation, to become autonomous thinkers, and to use knowledgeto solve new problems and make decisions for themselves.

In the two-page spreads section of this curriculum guide there arespecific suggestions for teaching and learning as well as suggestions forassessment. Many of these suggestions can be interchanged and usedeither as learning activities or assessment activities or both.

Each student is unique. Within any group of students a range ofdifferences in rates and ways of learning, in experiences and ininterests are expected and respected. Individual differences should becelebrated and built upon. A viable goal for each individual is to haveequitable opportunity to experience success as he or she works towardthe achievement of designated outcomes and a personal best.Improving performance and realizing potential is more importantthan competition and comparisons to others.

In planning for assessment the key question is: “What is the studentexpected to accomplish?” The answer to this question enables theteacher to choose or design appropriate means that allow the studentto demonstrate this. The student will be expected to demonstrateknowledge, skills and abilities. The means can be multiple and varied:presentations; producing videos; writing essays or plays; charting orgraphing information; locating and displaying information;demonstrating a skill, designing a product or a plan; drawing orgraphing a concept, a process, or an idea. The choice of means willdepend on available resources including time and the type of learnersand their strengths.

Diverse Learners

Identifying the Activity

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Teachers are encouraged to use assessment and evaluation practicesthat are consistent with student-centered instructional practices:

• negotiating and making explicit the criteria by which performancewill be evaluated

• designing assessment tasks that help students make judgementsabout their own learning and performance

• designing assessment tasks that incorporate varying learning styles• individualizing assessment tasks as appropriate to accommodate

students’ particular learning needs• providing feedback on student learning and performance on a

regular basis.

Assessment activities, tasks, and strategies include, but are not limitedto, the following:

• anecdotal records• audiotapes• checklists• conferences• demonstrations• exhibitions• interviews (structured and informal)• inventories• investigations• learning logs/journals• media products• observation (formal and informal)• peer assessments• performance tasks• portfolios• projects• questioning• questionnaires• self-assessments• seminar presentations• surveys• tests• videotapes• work samples• written assignments

Evaluation in Religious Educaiton, is concerned with thedevelopment of the whole person in the cognitive, psychomotor, andaffective domains.

Assessment Strategies

There may be times when, throughsummative testing, teachers will want toprovide students the opportunity todemonstrate growth in knowledge andunderstanding. Summative testing,however, must reflect the intention of theSCO’s and must not be the only means ofevaluation.

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The affective domain deals with feelings and emotions and isexemplified through students' attitudes, interests, value systems andappreciations. There is little doubt this is a more difficult area toevaluate than either the cognitive or psychomotor domains. For thisreason, it is generally inappropriate and undesirable to attachpercentage values to affective outcomes. This does not, however,diminish the importance of the affective domain, since values andvalue systems are central to the learning and evaluation process. It isimportant to keep the three domains separate for evaluation purposes.This is important since it is possible for progress to be uneven acrossthe different domains. Even though a student might have a negativeattitude toward school, it is possible for that student to achieve at ahigh level in the cognitive domain.

One of the most effective sources of data for use in evaluatingoutcomes in the affective domain is observation. This method,utilizing appropriate recording devices such as rating scales, checklistsand anecdotal records, enables the teacher to focus upon and recordachievement in the affective domain. Other sources of evaluation datafor the affective domain include self-reporting devices such as anattitude scale, where students respond on a continuum ranging fromfavourable to unfavourable, and individual inventories where studentscheck their preference for, or attitude toward, an idea or activity.Student reports or terms papers can be evaluated from an affectivepoint of view if they are designed so the student is required to take astand on a certain issue. Personal interviews and discussions can alsobe used to evaluate affective growth if care is taken to use indirectquestions so that students cannot guess which answer the teacherwould like to hear.

To become lifelong learners, students need to develop internalmotivation. They are more likely to perceive learning as its ownreward when they are empowered to assess their own progress. Ratherthan teachers asking, What do you want?, students should beencouraged to ask themselves questions such as, What have I learned?What can I do now that I couldn’t do before? What do I need tolearn next? Assessment must provide opportunities for students toreflect on their progress, evaluate their learning, and set goals forfuture learning.

In recognizing and valuing the diversity of students, teachers mightconsider ways to:

• provide a climate and design learning experiences to affirm thedignity and worth of all learners in the classroom community

• redress educational disadvantage - for example, as it relates tostudents living in poverty

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• model the use of inclusive language, attitudes, and actionssupportive of all learners

• adapt classroom organization, teaching strategies, assessmentstrategies, time, and learning resources to address learners’ needsand build on their strengths

• provide opportunities for learners to work in a variety of learningcontexts , including mixed-ability groupings

• identify and respond to diversity in students’ learning styles

• build on students’ individual levels of knowledge, skills, andattitudes

• design learning and assessment tasks that draw on learners’strengths

• ensure that learners use strengths as a means of tackling areas ofdifficulty

• use students’ strengths and abilities to motivate and supportlearning

• offer multiple and varied avenues to learning

• celebrate the accomplishment of learning tasks that learnersbelieved were too challenging for them

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SECTION II: CURRICULUM DESIGN AND COMPONENTS

Section II: Curriculum Design andComponents

This section provides

• information on the curriculum outcomes framework

• essential graduation learnings

• general curriculum outcomes statements

• key-stage curriculum outcomes statements

• an overview of the connection between essential graduationlearnings and key-stage curriculum outcomes

• specific curriculum outcomes statements for high school religiouseducation

• suggestions for teaching approaches, learning tasks, andexperiences, and assessment strategies and activities

Essential graduation learnings are statements describing theknowledge, skills, and attitudes expected of all students whograduate from high school. They are

• cross-curricular

• the foundation for all curriculum development

• found on pages 22-24

General Curriculum outcomes are statements identifying whatstudents are expected to know and be able to do upon completionof study in religious education. These statements

• contribute to the attainment of the essential graduation learnings

• are connected to the key-stage curriculum outcomes for religiouseducation

• are found on page 25

Introduction

Curriculum OutcomesFramework

Essential GraduationLearnings

General CurriculumOutcomes

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Key-stage curriculum outcomes are statements identifying whatstudents are expected to know and be able to do by the end of grades3, 6, 9, and 12 as a result of cumulative learning experiences inreligious education. The key-stage outcomes

• contribute to the achievement of the general curriculum outcomes

• are found on pages 25-28

Specific Curriculum Outcomes are statements identifying whatstudents are expected to know and be able to do at a particular gradelevel. These outcomes

• contribute to the achievement of the key-stage outcomes

• are found on pages 33-47

Essential Graduation Learnings are statements describing theknowledge, skills and attitudes expected of all students whograduate high school. These Learnings describe expectations notin terms of individual school subjects but in terms of knowledge,skills and attitudes developed throughout the curriculum. Theyconfirm that students need to make connections and developabilities across subject boundaries if they are to be ready to meetthe shifting and ongoing demands of life, work and study today,and in the future. Essential Graduation Learnings serve as aframework for the curriculum development process.

For graduates of the religious education program, the followingconnections to the Essential Graduation Learnings apply:

Graduates will be able to respond with critical awareness tovarious forms of the arts and be able to express themselves throughthe arts. Religious education will provide the opportunity forstudents to develop a growing appreciation for some of the greatworks of art, architecture, artifacts, literature, and music. Inreligious education classes students will be encouraged to expresstheir views on religious and social topics through various avenueswhich would be classified as aesthetic expression. The religiouseducation program will provide opportunities for students toexperience and appreciate artistic works from various ages andcultures. Opportunity will be given for reflection, critical responsesand expressions of appreciation.

Specific CurriculumOutcomes

Meeting the EssentialGraduation LearningsThrough ReligiousEducation

Aesthetic Expression

Key-Stage CurriculumOutcomes

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Graduates will be able to assess social, cultural, economic, andenvironmental interdependence in a local and global context.Graduates will be able to show an awareness of the importanceand contributions of various religions to the global community.In the religious education program, it will be recognized thatthere is often a relationship between people’s actions and lifestylesand their religious beliefs. Human rights, social justice, freedom ofreligion, and value systems will figure prominently in the religiouseducation program. By considering various views on these topics,students will better understand what it means to live in a pluralisticmulti-faith society.

Graduates will be able to use the listening, viewing, speaking, reading,and writing modes of language(s) as well as mathematical andscientific concepts and symbols to think, learn, and communicateeffectively. Religious education requires students to consider manyperspectives and beliefs on a wide range of topics. It also requiresthem to think critically about many current issues. Because of thevery nature of the religious education program and the objectives forthe courses in which students will be involved, various methods ofcommunicating will be used, such as oral discussion, writtenresponses, art work and the application of technology.

Some levels of discussion will be at an informal level while otherdiscussions will be more formal in design. There will also be creativewriting as well as response papers and research papers at particulargrade levels. Many of the courses will encourage the use of media andother forms of modern technology as means of communicating.

The very nature of some of the topics discussed will require studentsto be precise and clear in their writing and in their oral presentation.Developing the skill of appropriate expression of thoughts andopinions and responding appropriately to others’ thoughts andopinions will be an integral part of the religious education program.

Graduates will be able to continue to learn and to pursue an active,healthy lifestyle. Personal development is an area of great importancefor the religious education program. Students will be in a position tobe given information and be required to reflect on, and discuss, moraland ethical issues. Recognition will be given to the fact that studentsare collaborative as well as independent learners. However, thisprogram will challenge them to see what it means to live incommunity with others while developing a personal system of beliefsby which to live.

Communication

Personal Development

Citizenship

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Graduates will be able to use the strategies and processes needed tosolve a wide variety of problems, including those requiring language,mathematical, and scientific concepts. An important component inthe religious education program is the interpretation of informationin a critical manner in order that students will be in a position tomake informed decisions. The nature of many of the topics coveredwill require students to acquire knowledge on a given topic or issueand take a position. The problem solving process will take manyforms in religious education, including reading, discussion, debate,reflection, research, observation and media viewing.

Graduates will be able to use a variety of technologies, demonstrate anunderstanding of technological applications, and apply appropriatetechnologies for solving problems. There will be many opportunitiesfor students to use a range of technologies in the religious educationprogram and to reflect on and discuss the ethical issues around the useof much modern technology. Opportunities will be given for studentsto use computer and media technology in various areas of theprogram.

Graduates will demonstrate understanding and appreciation for theplace of belief systems in shaping the development of moral values andethical conduct. A vital component of the religious educationprogram will be the spiritual and moral development of theindividual. Development of values, morals, and ethics will be fosteredin this program. Being able to express one’s beliefs and values whilehaving the ability to listen to and understand other people’s beliefsand values contributes to an improved society. The art of expressingand defending appropriately one’s own beliefs without degrading ornegating those of others is an important part of personaldevelopment.

The program will help students understand the belief they are animportant part of an unfolding creation with a caring Creator whosustains and interacts with all that has been created. It will supportthe idea that each person must take responsibility for his/her actionsand that a person’s actions have direct and indirect effects on both theindividual and the community as a whole. Key to the total programwill be the recognition of the belief that the human being is a spiritualbeing whose life can encompass religious principles.

Problem Solving

Technological Competence

Spiritual and MoralDevelopment

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SECTION II: CURRICULUM DESIGN AND COMPONENTS

General Curriculum Outcomes are statements which describe thecontribution (K-XII) of a curriculum area to the EssentialGraduation Learnings by defining what students are expected toknow, value and be able to do as a result of completing theprogram in that curriculum area.

The General Curriculum Outcomes for religious education follow:

1. Students will be expected to examine the historical impact ofreligion on beliefs, cultures and traditions.

2. Students will be expected to develop an understanding of thebeliefs, principles and practices of Christianity and other livingbelief systems.

3. Students will be expected to examine the meaning and relevance ofsacred texts.

4. Students will be expected to demonstrate an appreciation forpersonal search, commitment and meaning in life.

5. Students will be expected to examine moral and ethical issues andteachings.

6. Students will be expected to develop an appreciation for theconnectedness of all creation.

7. Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of therelationship between religion and science.

8. Students will be expected to examine the influence of religion oncontemporary issues and events.

Key-stage curriculum outcomes for the end of grades 3, 6, 9, and12 reflect a continuum of learning. While there may appear to besimilarities in outcomes across the grade levels, teachers willrecognize the increase in expectations for students according to

• the nature of learning language processes

• students' maturity of thinking and interests

• students' increasing independence as learners

• the complexity and sophistication of ideas, texts, and tasks

• the range of language experiences and the repertoire ofstrategies and skills students apply to those experiences

General CurriculumOutcomes forReligious Education

Key-Stage CurriculumOutcomes

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The following key-stage curriculum outcomes describe what studentsshould know and be able to do in religious education by the end ofgrade 12. It should be noted that students work toward achievingthese key-stage curriculum outcomes in grades 10 and 11, as well as ingrade 12.

By the end of grade 12, students will have achieved the outcomes forentry-grade 9 and will also be expected to

• demonstrate an understanding of the historical development ofliving belief systems (e.g., Christianity, Islam, Hinduism).

• demonstrate an understanding of the lives and key teachings ofreligious founders (e.g., Jesus, Muhammad, Buddha).

• develop an understanding of the influence of living belief systemson family, community and society.

• examine, from an ethical perspective, social, political and economicforces that have shaped the past and present.

• demonstrate an understanding for, and an appreciation of, the waysin which various living belief systems have influenced theindividual’s world view.

By the end of grade 12, students will have achieved the outcomes forentry-grade 9 and will also be expected to

• critically examine the fundamental tenets of various religions.

• examine the diversity among Christian denominations and otherbelief systems.

• assess the nature of relationships among various religions.

• explore the nature of the relationship between the individual andGod for various religions.

• critique the responses of various religions to stewardship and issuesof social justice (e.g., Christianity, Hinduism).

Students will be expected to examinethe historical impact of religion onbeliefs, culture and traditions.

Students will be expected to develop anunderstanding of beliefs, principles andpractices of Christianity and otherliving belief systems.

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By the end of grade 12, students will have achieved the outcomes forentry-grade 9 and will also be expected to

• evaluate the significance of sacred texts, both oral and written(e.g., Bible, Qur’an, Tripitaka).

• demonstrate an understanding of the meanings and relevance ofsacred texts for adherents.

• examine the origins, organization and development of sacred texts(e.g., Biblical Canon, Qur’an).

• develop an appreciation for various interpretations of sacred texts(e.g., King James Version of the Bible, New Revised StandardVersion of the Bible).

• develop a knowledge of key figures, events and themes from sacredwritings.

By the end of grade 12, students will have achieved the outcomes forentry-grade 9 and will also be expected to

• demonstrate an appreciation of how adherents of living beliefsystems seek religious meaning and expression.

• examine the concept of commitment and its meaning in livingbelief systems.

• recognize that conflicts can arise between one’s personal beliefs andthe teachings of one’s religion.

• understand the importance of spiritual growth.

By the end of grade 12, students will have achieved the outcomes forentry-grade 9 and will also be expected to

• evaluate moral and ethical teachings from various belief systems(e.g., Christianity, Judaism, Buddhism).

• explore the implications of the acceptance of responsibility fortheir decisions and actions.

• evaluate society’s influences on the moral and ethical decisions ofindividuals.

• develop an understanding of an approach to life based on religiousprinciples and moral convictions.

Students will be expected todemonstrate an appreciation forpersonal search, commitment andmeaning in life.

Students will be expected to examinemoral and ethical issues and teachings.

Students will be expected to examinethe meaning and relevance of sacredtexts.

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Students will be expected to examinethe influence of religion oncontemporary issues and events.

Students will be expected todemonstrate an understanding of therelationship between religion andscience.

By the end of grade 12, students will have achieved the outcomes forentry-grade 9 and will also be expected to

• deepen their appreciation for the mystery and beauty of creationand the interrelationship within it.

• demonstrate a commitment to, and respect for, the sacredness anddignity of human life and all creation.

• demonstrate an understanding that humanity must take aresponsible stance through stewardship.

• critique the ways in which selected religions have viewedhumanity’s responsibility in creation (e.g., Judaeo/Christianconcept of stewardship).

By the end of grade 12, students will have achieved the outcomes forentry-grade 9 and will also be expected to

• understand that religion and science address some of thefundamental questions of life and creation.

• examine the stance of selected world religions towards scientificinterpretation (e.g., Christianity, Islam).

• develop an understanding of ethical issues related to scientificdevelopment and technological advances (e.g., Christianity andgenetic engineering).

By the end of grade 12, students will have achieved the outcomes forentry-grade 9 and will also be expected to

• critique the relevance of organized religion for personal living as itrelates to contemporary issues and events.

• demonstrate an understanding of the impact of various worldreligions on peace, social justice and respect for the sacredness anddignity of human life in relation to contemporary issues and events(e.g., peace issues, aboriginal rights, sexuality).

Students will be expected to develop anappreciation for the connectedness of allcreation.

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SECTION III: COURSE DESCRIPTION

Section III: Course DescriptionWorld Religions 3101 and 3106 are one credit courses. WorldReligions 3101 is not a prerequisite for World Religions 3106.Students may choose to complete one or both courses.

If Religious Education 3101 and 3106 are taken as a two creditcourse or back-to-back, the Introduction and Overview should beincluded only once.

World Religions 3101 World Religions 3101 is a study of the living belief systems identifiedin the box below. Students explore the nature, place and function ofthese world religions within contemporary Canadian society.

World Religions 3106 World Religions 3106 is a study of the living belief systems identifiedin the box below. Students explore the nature, place and function ofthese world religions within contemporary Canadian society.

World Religions 3106

Introduction and Overview

Judaism

Christianity

Islam

Sikhism

Religion Today: various topics and reference to Baha'i

World Religions 3101

Introduction and Overview

Aboriginal Spirituality

Early Religions: Zoroasttrianism, Jainism, Taoism,Confucianism and Shinto

Hinduism

Buddhism

32

SECTION III: COURSE DESCRIPTION

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SECTION IV: SPECIFIC CURRICULUM OUTCOMES

Overview of SpecificCurriculum Outcomes

The following pages provide an overview of the specific curriculumoutcomes for World Religious 3101/3106.

Section IV: Specific Curriculum Outcomes

34

SECTION IV: SPECIFIC CURRICULUM OUTCOMES

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World Religions 3101/3106

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Specific Curriculum Outcomes Sample Activities/Teaching Strategies

By the end of the course students willbe expected to

World Religions 3101/3106

Students will be expected to examine the historical impact of religion on beliefs,cultures and traditions.

1.1 examine various living beliefsystems regarding their viewson creation, birth, death, god,destiny and afterlife

Teachers could:

• place terms as listed in SCO 1.1 , creation, birth, death, god,destiny and afterlife on chart paper and post around the room.Have the students brainstorm about each term within the contextof the selected living belief systems. After a short period of timerotate the groups. After all groups have contributed to each chart,students should present their findings to the class.

• organize with students a visit to one or more places of worship/meditation in the local area to gain knowledge of the origins ofsymbols, vestments, and furnishings.

Students could:

• choose one of the factors from SCO 1.2 and create a concept webto illustrate how this factor continues to shape or influence a livingbelief system.

• assume the role of a reporter to a national newspaper where theeditor has assigned the task of preparing an article of how one ofthe factors from SCO 1.2 is a current influence on a selected livingbelief system.

• create a KWL chart to establish what they know, what theywant to know and what they learned on creation, birth, death,god, destiny and afterlife in a religious context.

1.2 identify how living beliefsystems are affected by thefollowing factors: social unrest,advances in technology andchanging values

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Sample Assessment Activities Notes/Vignettes

World Religions 3101/3106

Students will be expected to examine the historical impact of religion on beliefs,cultures and traditions.

Student products:

• presentation• web-page• bulletin board• newspaper article

Observation

Questioning

For the first activity, found under Sample Activity/TeachingStrategies on the previous page, teachers should save these chartsto be revisited throughout the course.

It is important that the terms from SCO 1.1 be examined within thecontext of the selected living belief systems to set a foundation forfurther study.

Early in the school year would be an appropriate time to organize,with students, a visit to one or more places of worship/mediation inthe local area to gain knowledge of symbols, vestments andfurnishings. This may stimulate discussion or inquiry regardingcreation, birth, death, god, destiny and afterlife.

Also, early in the school year might the most appropriate time to havestudents begin the KWL chart. KWL charts are effective in helpingstudents to draw on their prior knowledge and generate questions toguide their learning.

KWL charts will draw on students' knowledge and experiences fromlife and from the religious education curriculum.

The chart could be an ongoing activity. The learning questions (thirdblock) would be completed by the end of the unit.

K W L

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Specific Curriculum Outcomes Sample Activities/Teaching Strategies

By the end of the course students willbe expected to

World Religions 3101/3106

Students will be expected to develop an understanding of beliefs, principles, andpractices of Christianity and other living belief systems.

* The Christian component of this GCO is met in World Religions 3106.

2.1 demonstrate a knowledge ofinfluential persons and theircontributions to living beliefsystems

Students could:

• prepare a biographical sketch of an influential person within aliving belief system. Included should be important dates,events and major contributions as they relate to the personbeing studied. Some suggestions are:

Abraham, Baha’ullah, Jesus, Confucius, the Dalai Lama, GuruNanak, Moses, Muhammad, Siddhartha Gautama, Zoroaster

Suggestions to help students share information:

• website creation• poster• presentation ( multimedia/oral)• role play• diorama• re-enactment

• use various resources to develop a portfolio of key beliefs andevents of selected living belief systems (e.g., Pesach, Jihad,Resurrection, ahimsa, revelation, salvation, navjote, Baha'i Feastsand Holy Day Celebrations).

• illustrate and present symbols depicting key beliefs of selectedliving belief systems (e.g., the cross in Christianity, the Star ofDavid in Judaism, fire in Zoroastrianism, the nine pointed starfor Baha'is).

2.4 explore the significance ofreligious symbolism withinliving belief systems

2.2 examine key beliefs and eventsof living belief systems

2.3 develop an understanding ofthe rituals and festivals ofliving belief systems

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Sample Assessment Activities Notes/Vignettes

World Religions 3101/3106

Students will be expected to develop an understanding of beliefs, principles, andpractices of Christianity and other living belief systems.

Student products:

• website creation• poster• presentation (multimedia/oral)• role play• diorama• re-enactment• portfolio• symbols

Observation

Questioning

Teachers can refer to English Language Arts rubrics.

It might be possible to arrange visitations and observations ofservices rituals and festivals of local faith communities.

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Specific Curriculum Outcomes Sample Activities/Teaching Strategies

By the end of the course students willbe expected to

World Religions 3101/3106

Students will be expected to examine the meaning and relevance of sacred texts.

3.1 expand their understanding ofsacred texts and oral teachingsof selected living belief systems

Students could:

• read from the authorized resource, Exploring World Religions:The Canadian Perspective, excerpts of sacred texts studied in thiscourse (e.g., p. 46, 67 and 75) and, either orally or in writing,give their interpretation of the passage.

• identify the sacred texts associated with selected living beliefsystems and share knowledge they have about any of them.

Teachers could:

• use selected sacred texts to engage students in discussion onone of the following: dietary laws, societal laws, religious creedsand good and evil.

3.2 examine the influence of sacredtexts on life in modern society

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Sample Assessment Activities Notes/Vignettes

World Religions 3101/3106

Students will be expected to examine the meaning and relevance of sacred texts.

Discussion

Observation

Questioning

Oral and written responses

Teachers could use local faith community leaders as resource personswhen examining sacred texts. It would be important, if possible, todraw on more than one faith community. It would also be importantfor the teacher to inform invited guests that their purpose for cominginto the classroom is to provide information as it relates to their faithcommunity. It is not the purpose to proselytize or to makecomparisons and contrasts with other faith communities.

Not all sacred text excerpts will address each of dietary laws, societallaws, religious creeds and good and evil.

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Specific Curriculum Outcomes Sample Activities/Teaching Strategies

By the end of the course students willbe expected to

World Religions 3101/3106

Students will be expected to demonstrate an appreciation for personal search,commitment and meaning in life.

4.1 explore questions associatedwith personal search,commitment and meaning inlife

Students could:

• identify questions associated with personal search, commitmentand meaning in life.

• research individuals who, because of their faith, acted to influencetheir community or society at large. Present their findings to theclass.

• use available resources to prepare a biographical sketch of a personwhose faith plays an important role in his/her life.

Teachers could:

• organize a panel discussion to discuss evidence of the influence ofsacred texts on the laws, ethics and morals of contemporarysociety.

• pose questions to initiate a reflective discussion (e.g., Whatmotivates people to be altrustic?).

• have students who are adherents of a belief system reflect on theirthoughts, words and actions for a 24 hour period. They will thenbe given time to write their reflections on how their faith has beena determining factor in the choices they made. If students are notadherents of a belief system they would be asked to reflect aswell and to consider what factors determine their thoughts,words and actions.

These reflections will be sealed in separate envelopes and distributedto the students at the end of the course. Students would then be askedto reflect on their own growth during the course.

4.2 examine the role of faith foradherents in living beliefsystems

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Sample Assessment Activities Notes/Vignettes

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Students will be expected to demonstrate an appreciation for personal search,commitment and meaning in life.

Discussion

Student products:

• research• presentation• biographical sketch

Questioning

Observation

Where possible students can join local groups that encourage personalsearch through the practice of yoga, tai chi, meditation or martialarts. This would offer numerous opportunities for research, visitationsand experiences.

The authorized resource includes a section titled “Living MyReligion” that could be useful for class discussion around SCO 4.1.

The authorized resource includes a section titled “Portraits” and“Community Study” that could be useful in helping students meetoutcome SCO 4.2.

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Specific Curriculum Outcomes Sample Activities/Teaching Strategies

By the end of the course students willbe expected to

World Religions 3101/3106

Students will be expected to examine moral and ethical issues and teachings.

Students could:

• identify a moral or ethical issue and in a short essay discuss if faithplays a part in their views on this issue. If not, what does play apart?

• develop concept webs about the influences on their world views.

• choose one moral/ethical issue and prepare a report in themedia of their choice on how a particular living belief systemaddresses this issue.

• do a media search of moral and ethical issues of interest to peopleof their age. Have them select one issue and write a brief essayincluding why this moral and ethical issue is important to themand their position on the issue.

5.1 expand their understanding ofhow living belief systems usetheir teachings to addressmoral and ethical issues

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Sample Assessment Activities Notes/Vignettes

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Students will be expected to examine moral and ethical issues and teachings.

Student products:

• presentation• report• multimedia presentation• essay

Discussion

Questioning

Observation

The authorized resource includes a section titled “Exploring Issues”that could be useful in helping students meet SCO 5.1.

While it is important for teachers to encourage students to bringmoral and ethical issues to the classroom, teachers need to be sensitiveto the possibility that some students may be dealing with these issuesat a personal level.

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Specific Curriculum Outcomes Sample Activities/Teaching Strategies

By the end of the course students willbe expected to

World Religions 3101/3106

Students will be expected to develop an appreciation for the connectedness of allcreation.

Students could:

• research the teachings of living belief systems regarding humanity’srole in creation. From their research create a Venn diagramillustrating the results.

• research a teaching of a living belief system regarding the placeof humanity in creation. Through a collage, picture(s), work ofart or through symbols they will represent this teaching.

• create and operate a school-based environmental group.

6.1 explore the teachings of livingbelief systems regarding theplace of humanity in creation

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Sample Assessment Activities Notes/Vignettes

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Students will be expected to develop an appreciation for the connectedness of allcreation.

Student products:

• Venn diagram• collage• picture(s)• work of art

Student responses

Discussion

Questioning

Observation

The spirituality of the world’s Aboriginal peoples and those of theEastern faiths, e.g., Taoism, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism is particularlyhelpful in studying the connectedness of humanity in creation.(e.g., the concept of stewardship in religion).

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Specific Curriculum Outcomes Sample Activities/Teaching Strategies

By the end of the course students willbe expected to

World Religions 3101/3106

Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the relationshipbetween religion and science.

Teachers could:

• have students brainstorm areas of tension and harmony betweenreligion and science (e.g., medical research).

• have students select one issue of tension and/or harmonybetween religion and science and in an essay describe thetension and/or harmony that exists between the two views.

• organize a panel to discuss how a living belief system hasadapted to, or has approached, a specific question relating toscience, technology and religion.

7.1 examine the influence ofscience on living belief systemstoday

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Sample Assessment Activities Notes/Vignettes

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Students will be expected to demonstrate an understanding of the relationshipbetween religion and science.

Student product:

• panel discussion• essay

Student responses

Questioning

Observation

When discussing religion and science, the teacher is cautioned not topresent a biased view on the topics being discussed. Students shouldbe encouraged to think about various topics and after examinationand reflection draw on their conclusions. The teacher should notpresent a perticular viewpoint as being right or wrong.

The authorized resource includes a section titled “Exploring Issues:Cloning”, pp. 272-273, that could be useful in helping students meetSCO 7.1.

For the second activity found under Sample Activity/TeachingStrategies, teachers can take this to a higher level by having students,in their essay, take a position on the topic and defend it.

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Specific Curriculum Outcomes Sample Activities/Teaching Strategies

By the end of the course students willbe expected to

World Religions 3101/3106

Students will be expected to examine the influence of religion on contemporaryissues and events.

Students could:

• collect clippings from newspapers, magazines and journals on anissue of interest relating to SCO 8.1. They could develop aninformation package in a media of their choice and share thiswith the class.

8.1 explore the political,economic, social, andideological impact of a livingbelief system on a specificculture

8.2 analyse the influence of a livingbelief system on artisticexpression in a culture

8.3 examine how religiouspluralism is reflected inCanadian society and culture

• research religious pluralism in Canadian society and present theirfindings to the class. Various methods of presentation areencouraged (e.g., drama, music, arts).

• draw on community resources, (e.g., cultural societies fromvarious ethnic communities, and have them organize amulticultural event).

• collect images to build a collage or presentation to reflect theinfluence of a living belief system on artistic expression.

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Sample Assessment Activities Notes/Vignettes

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Students will be expected to examine the influence of religion on contemporaryissues and events.

Student products:

• information package• presentations• collage• multicultural event

Student responses

Discussion

Questioning

Observation

Besides examining differences, to promote a sense of shared values,emphasize similarities among groups.

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SECTION V: APPENDIX

Bibliography Groome, Thomas H. Sharing Faith, A Comprehensive Approach toReligious Education and Pastoral Ministry, San Francisco: Harper,1991.

Hull, John M. “Religious Education in a Pluralistic Society”, Studiesin Religion and Education, London: Falmer Press, 1984.

Nord, Warren A. and Haynes, Charles C. Taking Religion SeriouslyAcross the Curriculum. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 1998.

Province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Department of Education.Adapted from The Evaluation of Students in the Classroom: AHandbook and Policy Guide, Department of Education.

Stackhouse, M. Creeds.Society and Human Rights, Grand Rapids,Michigan: W. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1984.

Section V: Appendix

RecommendedReading

Breuilly, Elizabeth, O'Brien, Joanne and Palmer, Martin. Religions ofthe World: The Illustrated Guide to Origins, Beliefs, Traditions andFestivals. New York: Ferleigh Books, 1997.

Ingham, Michael. Mansions of the Spirit: The Gospel in a Multi-FaithWorld. Toronto: Anglican Book Centre, 1997.

Scott, Susan L. Stories in my Neighbour's Faith. Toronto: UnitedChurch Publishing House, 1999.

Wright, Andrew and Brandon, Ann-Marie. Learning to Teach ReligiousEducation in the Secondary School. New York: Routledge Falmer,2000.

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