R210A Spiritual Formation

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R210A Spiritual Formation. Revelation and Scripture Lawrence Pascual IPM. Outline. Questions Part 1: Revelation Part 2: Scripture Part 3: Scripture Reading Points. Point/Goal. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of R210A Spiritual Formation

  • R210ASpiritual FormationRevelation and Scripture Lawrence PascualIPM

  • OutlineQuestionsPart 1: RevelationPart 2: Scripture Part 3: Scripture Reading Points

  • Point/GoalUnderstanding that we are called and gifted by the Trinitarian God, let us consider how he speaks to us: Revelation and Scripture.

  • ObjectivesUnderstanding RevelationThe Role of ScriptureCatholic Reading of the Bible

  • Part 1Understanding RevelationDefinitionCatholic ApplicationImplications

  • Faith and RevelationFaith: a gift by which we accept of Gods self-communication: ChristRevelation: a gift of Gods self-communication fully realized in and through Christ by the power of the Holy Spirit

  • RevelationLatin: revelatioGreek: apocalypsisLiterally: to unveil, or uncover remove the veil as in marriage.Dis-closureGods self-communication

  • Revelation (CCC 50)By natural reasons man can know God with certainty, on the basis of his works. But there is another order of knowledge, which man cannot possibly arrive at by his own powers: the order of divine Revelation

  • Revelation (CCC 50)Through an utterly free decision, God has revealed himself and give himself to man. This he does by revealing the mystery, his plan of loving goodness, formed from all eternity in Christ, for the benefit of all men. God has fully revealed this plan by sending us his beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit.

  • 1 John 4:9-10God sent his only Son into the world so that we might have life through him. In this is love: not that we have loved God, but that he loved us and his Son as expiation for our sins.

  • Deus Caritas Est, 17[God] loves us, he makes us see and experience his love, and since he has loved us first, love can also blossom as a response within us.

  • RevelationIn terms of communicationEveryone can come to knowledge about God naturallyRevelation is fulfilled in ChristBy love, God freely chooses to reveal

  • Faith and RevelationGod loved us first, we respond with loveGod self-communicates love, we respond with faith: the acceptance of Gods love

  • Approach to understandingThere have been various answers to the dilemma about Revelation.Cardinal Avery Dulles, SJ, gives us a nice summary

  • Theology has a SociologyIn Models of Revelation, Cardinal Avery Dulles, SJ, identifies five basic models of understanding Revelation.

  • NaturalFor what can be known about God is evident to them. Ever since the creation of the world, his invisible attributes of eternal power and divinity have been able to be understood and perceived in what he has made. (Rom 1:19-20)

  • HistoryMiraculous or self-evident historical eventsE.g., the Exodus, parting of the Red SeaGod intervenes in natural order through deed (historic event) and word (scripture)

  • PropositionalCommunication of truths, which are then formulated in explicit propositionsE.g., Jesus is the Good ShepherdJesus takes care of his followers as a faithful shepherd takes care of his sheepDoctrines

  • Similarities of the ModelsRevelation is Gods free action whereby he communicates saving truth to humankind, especially through Jesus Christ as accepted by the apostolic ChurchAs witnessed by the BibleAs witnessed by the continuing community of believers.

  • Theology has a SociologyIn his innovation, he proposes the understanding of revelation as symbolic mediation.

  • Symbolic MediationWe do not encounter God directly (since God is transcendent)Revelation mediated by some experience in the world, person, event, story, or natural phenomenon

  • ThesisRevelation never occurs in a purely interior experience or an unmediated encounter with God.It is always mediated through symbol

  • I. The Meaning of SymbolSymbol as an externally perceived sign that works mysteriously on the human consciousness so as to suggest more than it can clearly describe or define.

  • Not just an Indicator (sign)

  • SymbolIt is a special type of sign Allow us to bring indefinite number of memories and experiences into a kind of focusRequires full, conscious and active participation

  • Symbol DefinedA sign pregnant with a plenitude of meaning which is evoked rather than explicitly stated.

  • Note about SymbolThis isnt fictitious representation. Most people think FAKE, but NOT in academic/theological understanding.Dont restrict it to literary understanding.Natural objects, historical persons, visible artifacts and dreams can all be symbols.

  • Common Properties of Symbolism and RevelationSymbol:Gives participatory knowledge Has a transforming effectPowerful influence on commitment and behaviorIntroduces us into realms of awareness not normally accessible to general communication

  • Participatory KnowledgeA symbol speaks to us only insofar as it lures us to situate ourselves mentally within the universe of meaning and value which it opens up to us.(Makes you stop and think, even wrestle with the symbol)

  • Transforming EffectOccurs insofar that it involves the knower.It does something to us when we engage it.Wow, thats deep...

  • Powerful Influence to commitments and behaviorStirs the imagination, releases hidden energies in the soul, gives strength and stability to the personality.E.g. A National Flag or anthem

  • A New awarenessIt gives rise to thought.Opens up levels of reality which otherwise are closed to us Paul Tillich

  • Revelation does these 4 thingsGives participatory knowledge Has a transforming effectPowerful influence on commitment and behaviorIntroduces us into realms of awareness not normally accessible to general communication

  • Participatory KnowledgeTo accept the Christian revelation is to involve oneself in a community of faith and thus to share in the way of life marked out by Jesus.

  • Transforming EffectChristians come to perceive themselves as personally related to God.Adopted members of Gods family and household.

  • Powerful Influence to commitments and behaviorThe response to Revelation (faith) must express itself in conduct.FAITH IN ACTION.

  • A New awarenessRevelation obviously gives insight into mysteries that reason alone cannot make sense of.Its still intelligible nonetheless.

  • Examples of Christian Symbolism

  • Examples of Christian Symbolism

  • Examples of Christian Symbolism

  • Point and SummaryThe best way of understanding the concept of revelation is by symbolic mediation.It makes use of the strengths of each model and overcomes their weaknesses.Symbol can be understood as a visible sign of an invisible reality.Sound familiar?

  • ReflectionCommunication theorists tend to say that communication is symbolic.Experts say that in our communication:10% is in actual words30% is in sounds60% is in the nonverbalHow is all of this insightful for our faith?

  • BREAK

  • PART 2SCRIPTUREVocabObservationsReadings DiscussionTheology has a sociology

  • QuestionHow would we connect our understanding of Revelation and Bible?

  • Vocab OverviewInspirationTradition Scripture

  • InspirationLatin: InspirareLiterally: to breathe inHow we understand inspiration will affect how we understand Scripture.

  • Inspiration of Scriptureall Scripture is inspired by God, and is useful for righteousness, so that everyone who belongs to God may be proficient, equipped for every good work. (Tim 3:16-17)

  • USCCB p. 32 (cont.)The Sacred Scripture is inspired by God and truly contains the Word of God. This action of God is referred to as Inspiration.

  • (CCC 105, 107; DV 11)God is the author of Sacred Scripture, inspiring the human authors, acting in and through them. Thus God ensured that the authors taught divine and saving truth without error.

  • Dei Verbum, 12In determining the intention of the sacred writers, attention must be paid to literary forms for the fact is that truth is differently presented and expressed in the various types of historical writing, in prophetical and poetical texts and in other literary expression.

  • Biblical interpretationBible was written by and for real people, living in specific historical contexts, to address particular individual and community needsThe devil can cite Scripture for his purpose (William Shakespeare, The Merchant of Venice)

  • Biblical interpretationAttention to ContextE.g., Fire!Do you read a newspaper the same way you read a magazine? A novel and textbook? Song and dictionary?

  • Biblical interpretationA text without context is pretextWe would be reading into the textTaking out contextJesus saves. I wonder where he shops.

  • Biblical interpretationLiteral/FundamentalistHistorical and Literary CriticalHistoricalSocialPoliticalCulturalLiterary

  • Which Method?The Literal Method has been altogether rejected. Pope Pius XII approves the Historical-Critical Method.Divino afflante Spiritu (1943)

  • BIBLE INTERPRETATIONA Concise History and Teaching of Catholic

  • Catholic History of Interpretation0500150018001960presentFundamentalistHistorical -CriticalHermeneutical1600sFrench ScholarRichard SimonDivino Afflante SpirituPope Pius XII1944The RPBC1964

    DeiVerbum19651970sNew Biblical MovementTrent

  • Primary Sources of TeachingDivino Afflante Spiritu (Pius XII, 44)Roman Pontifical Biblical Commission (64)Dei Verbum (Vatican II, 65)

  • Divino Afflante Spiritu (Encyclical by Pope Pius XII in 1944)Within the Bible, there are different forms. It may be said that its a library of Israel and of the Church. (35-39)Hence, aside from the historical writings there is also poetry, drama, epic, parable, preaching etc.

  • The Roman Pontifical Biblical Commission (Under Pope Paul VI in 1964)While the Gospels are substantially historical, they are not literally historical in every word and detail. (111-15)

  • The Roman Pontifical Biblical Commission (Under Pope Paul VI in 1964)For the truth of the story is not at all affected by the fact that the Evangelists relate the words and deeds of the Lord in a different order, and express his sayings not literally but differently, while preserving (their) sense.

  • The Roman Pontifical Biblical Commission (Under Pope Paul VI in 1964)X. Unless the exegete pays attention to all these things which pertain to the origin and composition of the Gospels and makes proper use of all the laudable achievements of recent research, he will not fulfill his task of probing into what the sacred writers intended and what they really said.

  • PBC, 1964 and 1993Fundamentalism confuses the words of Scripture as the actual words and precise deeds of Jesus. This method does not account for the stages of Gospel development.

  • The Three Stages of Gospel DevelopmentRPBC, 1964See Raymond E. Browns Biblical Exegesis and Church Doctrine

  • The First StageJesus himself spoke and acted in the context of his own place and time.He was a Palestenian Jew living two thousand years ago.

  • The Second StageThe Apostles (Jews) adapted Jesus message to the people (Jews-Greeks) of their timeSecond Third of the First century (30-60AD)Translation into another language (Greek)An effort to make sense in other circumstances (large cities of Roman Empire)They brought to the memories (of what Jesus had said and done) the transforming enlightenment of their post-resurrectional faith in Jesus.

  • The Third StageFrom the preaching the writers (or evangelists) selected stories and saying that fitted their purpose in presenting Jesus to audiences of their time. 50AD-110AD Were not written simply as records to aid remembrance, but written as encouragement to belief and life.

  • Dei Verbum (Vatican II, 1965)Used RPBC as its guideDiscussed Transmission of RevelationWay of Reading Scripture

  • Point of Part 2Applying The symbolic understanding of revelation in light of theology has a sociology, we ought to understand that the Word of God is not the Bible itself, but the message that it portrays.

  • In other wordsScripture is the word of God in the words of men. It is symbolically mediated.Scripture is inspired, but with the limits of human words derived from a particular time and place.

  • Three Considerations when Reading ScriptureThe AuthorThe TextYOU, the Reader

  • The GospelsArent historical biographies of Jesus as we understand them today.First and foremost, theyre theological reflections intended to strengthen the faith of their particular audiences.

  • The Gospels (Cont.)A helpful way of understanding the design of the Gospels is the concept of MugshotsPortraits

  • The MugshotAll you get are facts and details about the person.

  • The PortraitDesigned to illustrate an aspect or reality of their character. (Symbolic)

  • PointFirst and foremost, the Gospels were written as theological portraits about Jesus.

  • Theological Portraits of JesusMark: The Suffering ServantMatthew: The New MosesLuke: The Universal Messiah/SaviorJohn: God in the Flesh

  • Is it correct to say that the Gospels are NOT historical?NO! They are historical in the truest sense in that they are based on an actual Jesus of Nazareth.This is different from measuring the Gospels to our modern standards of history.Remember, theology has a sociology: These are Gospels written 2000 years ago throughout the Roman Empire.

  • Not knowing exactly what Jesus saidThough it would be niceEven his own disciples didnt get it.Academic opinion always changes(as it should be)

  • Application:Symbolic MediationIt honors historical inquiry and biblical studies of the person of Jesus Doesnt dwell on literal wordsYet, allows the Gospels to speak to us as Jesus did: symbolically.Gospels clearly illustrate that.

  • Reflection QuestionsWhat is both consoling and challenging about the way God has chosen to transmit his Revelation?How does the Church help you to understand the Bible?Why might you say it makes perfect sense for Jesus to commission followers to carry on his saving vision? How do leaders of the Catholic Church continue the vision of Jesus in our times?

  • BREAK

  • Part 3: The Catholic reading of the Bible

  • PERFECT PLACE TO STOP Short on time? Restless students?

  • Gospel Summaries

  • Gospel of MarkWritten sometime between 60-75Tradition: Mark, follower and interpreter of Peter. Identified as John Mark of ActsRome, where Christians were persecuted by Nero. Other places suggested.Clearly writes to a community that experienced persecution and failure.

  • Gospel of MatthewWritten 80-90, give or take a decadeTradition: Matthew, a tax collector among the Twelve. Wrote either the Gospel or a collection of the Lords sayings.Antioch RegionA Jewish-Christian Community with clear tensions with the Orthodox Jews

  • Gospel of Luke85, Give or take five to ten yearsTradition: Luke, a physician, the fellow worker and traveling companion of Paul.Possibly Greece or SyriaGentile-Christian communities affected by Pauls mission

  • Gospel of John80-110. Tradition: John, son of Zebedee, one of the Twelve. The Beloved Disciple is not John.Likely the Ephesus area. Writing to a Johannine community.

  • Where or where?Mk:RomeMt:AntiochLk:GreeceJn:Ephesus

  • PERFECT PLACE TO STOP Short on time? Restless students?

  • Stuff to be aware ofWhy?Because the average Catholic High School student is going over this material in their theology courses

  • ObservationMatthew, Mark and LukeThe Synoptic GospelsCalled this because theyre identicalWhy?

  • Marcan PriorityNote: A Theory, but widely acceptedShortest of the GospelsMk has the most basic GreekMt and Lk agree in their chronology only when they agree w/ MkDocuments in the ancient Mediterranean were normally expanded upon, not shortened.

  • ObservationsMattLukeMarkJohn

  • 243L243MarkMarkObservations (another step)MMattLuke

  • QuelleThe THEORETICAL source of Jesus sayings.Quelle means SOURCE in GermanQ for short

  • How Mt and Lk were writtenMarkLMQQMarkMattLuke

  • How Mt and Lk were writtenMarkLMQQMarkMattLuke

  • Implications of QSimply tells us that there was a Christian community solely interested in the sayings and teachings of Jesus.Note, that this does not discount the other sayings of Jesus in the New Testament.

  • Other implications of Marcan PriorityThe method of redaction criticism (a tool of historical-critical) becomes a useful tool for Bible interpretation.The method looks at Matthew and Luke changed from the version of Mark.

  • In other wordsHow does the changes of Matthew and Luke affect the narrative?This method is widely used and has revealed a lot of insight about Matthew and Lukes theological views (and intentions).

  • Example:Read the Baptism story of Mark, Matthew and Luke. What is the difference of the three?What did Mt/Lk do?What was the affect of the story?

  • PERFECT PLACE TO STOP Short on time? Restless students?

  • The Letters of PaulWritten before the GospelsThe earliest: 1 Thessaround 50 ADThe latest: RomansAround 57-58 AD

  • More stuff to be aware ofHistorical scholarship has debated over the letters of Paul, whether he wrote them or not.Of those he did not write, the author apparently attributes to Paul (as inspired).This was commonly accepted to be genuine authorship in the ancient world (theology has a sociology).

  • The Letters of PaulUNDISPUTED AUTHORSHIP1 ThessaloniansGalatiansPhilippiansPhilemon1 Corinthians2 CorinthiansRomansPOSSIBLY PSEUDONYMOUS2 ThessaloniansColossiansEphesiansTitus1 Timothy2 Timothy

  • NeverthelessThe letters of Paul are accepted in the canon because of the sensus fidelium or the sense of the faithful. (CCC 904)The Canon of Scripture is the library of the Church that reflects important aspects of the community.Esp. Faith and Morals.

  • Fascinating observationsPauls letters appear more organized as they chronologically progress.Romans (considered his last epistle) is more theologically systematic than Thess (his first epistle) Pauls apocalyptic expectation tends to decrease as letters chronologically progress.

  • Travels of PaulAD 36Conversion to ChristDamascusJerusalem39Visit to Jerusalem40-44In Cicilia44-45At AntiochAntiochCicilia (area)

  • First Missionary JourneyPaul (46-49)DerbePergaAttaliaPaphosAntiochAntiochCyprusSalamis49 AD Council of Jerusalem

  • Second Missionary JourneyPaul (50-52)DerbePhilippiAthensJerusalemAntiochAntiochCaesariaThessalonicaCorinthEphesus1 Thessalonians

  • Third Missionary JourneyPaul (54-58)58-60 Arrested in JerusalemImprisoned in Caesarea60-61 Sent to Rome61-63 Prisoner in Rome64 DEATHJerusalemEphesusGalatiansPhilippiansPhilemon1 Corinthians2 CorinthiansRomansDerbePhilippiAthensAntiochAntiochCaesariaCorinthThessalonicaPauls 3-year stay at Ephesus[imprisoned?]

  • ExerciseGo over Synoptic comparison ofQJesus BaptismIntroduction of the Gospels

    ***From Scripture, we know God deals directly with human kind (e.g., Moses, prophets, kings, and etc.)Gods revelation (self-communication) is fully realized in Christ***********God is said to be the author of the Bible not in the sense of having taken the place of the human authors, but in the sense Gods grace impelled the human authors to write and directed them to give a pure and reliable expression of the faith or the people of God at their particular stage of salvation history. ********************