Peer to peer networks Distributed innovation

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Peer to peer networks Distributed innovation. Niloy Ganguly IIT Kharagpur National Conference on Decentralized Innovation: Focus on Rural and Small Urban Enterprises 16-17 March 2007. Talk Overview. Peer to peer networks Introduction and various utilities P2p in social perspective - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Peer to peer networks Distributed innovationNiloy Ganguly

    IIT KharagpurNational Conference onDecentralized Innovation:Focus on Rural and Small Urban Enterprises16-17 March 2007

  • Talk OverviewPeer to peer networks Introduction and various utilitiesP2p in social perspective Random thoughtsEmerging TechnologiesUltra cheap Telephony

  • Peer To Peer NetworkMost Direct Method of Connecting ComputersSimpleInexpensiveNo BossNo Regulation

  • Peer To Peer NetworkMost Direct Method of Connecting ComputersSimpleInexpensiveNo BossNo Regulation

  • Peer To Peer NetworkPCs at the edge of the network are called PeersPeers can retrieve objects directly from each other

    Advantages of a P2P NetworkA large collection of peers may be available for content distribution--sometimes millions!User takes advantage of the networks currently available resources.

  • Application File sharingP2P networks generate more traffic than any other internet application2/3 of all bandwidth on some backbonesTopology of Gnutella NetworkMachines exchange files within themselvesEach machine shares a set of files

  • Application File sharing

  • Application Internet TelephonyVoIP:Voice over IP (Internet Protocol)Telephony over the InternetSkype: Most popular VoIP applicationFree calls to other Skype usersCheap calls (~ 1p/min) to landlines & mobilesVarious add-on facilities also availableSkype

  • Application Internet TelephonySkype as a telephoneSkype can be used as a conventional telephoneParticularly useful on laptops for the travellerSense of presence know if recipient is online (can switch off)Instant messaging Additional features:Integration with Web browser (sharing browsing)Video SkypeSkype

  • Usage ScenariosHow Skype can be used:Conventional phone replacement (office/home)On laptops, when travellingConference calls (on-the-fly)Listening in to lectures (nb. accessibility benefits)Recording talks (e.g. interviews for Podcasts)Support for remote workersHelp desk support (e.g. VoIP-based Ask Me reference desk).

  • Application Distributed ProcessingHuge number crunching for Cancer [email protected] - Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Two million computers crunching data gathered from the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico. The project produces over 15 teraflops[4] of processing throughput. As a comparison, ANSI white, the world's most powerful supercomputer, produces 12 teraflops of processing throughput at a cost of us$110 million.

  • Application Publisher Subscribe

  • Talk OverviewPeer to peer networks Introduction and various utilitiesP2p in social perspective Random thoughtsEmerging TechnologiesUltra cheap Telephony

  • Tribal-era technologies extremities of limbsAgricultural technologies extension of muscular systems Industrial era central body and internal metabolic functionsInformation age nervous system (telephone and telegraph), mind (computer), Placing p2p in the context of the evolution of technology

  • Placing p2p in the context of the evolution of technologyParticipative but not differentiatedDifferentiated but not participativeHumans become dumb extension of machineMachine become intelligent Machine seen as extension of brain rather than limbsA participation paradigm arises

  • Hacker ethicsMass intellectuality increases through formal and informal educationMeaning in life is no longer sought in the sphere of salaried work but through in life in general. Entertainment is sought through work guiding free software production (socialization)

  • Emergence of p2p networkTechnological artifacts are a social construction, reflecting various social interestsCapital, engineering communities, critical voice within society, consumersInternet was explicitly defined to enable peer-to peer collaborationTechnology reflects a new way of being or feeling

  • Emergence of Peer to peer networkOne-to-one to many-to-one to many-to-many mediaInformation abundanceRedundancy of information Hence extremely robust p2p networks emerge

  • Corporate ChangesFixed arrangement reduces transaction costFor business process, keyword becomes flow and integration of endless flow

  • Corporate ChangesFixed arrangement reduces transaction costFor business process, keyword becomes flow and integration of endless flowFlattening of hierarchySub-unit becomes complex, hence to be granted more autonomyWhat is produced and not how is it produced.Peer to peer form of communication is becoming imperative for corporate competitiveness

  • Communism of CapitalProcesses no longer internally integrated, externally integrated in vast webs of inter-company cooperation. Potential damaging consumers.Workers learning in a series of interaction/ training program Complexity, innovation-dependent and time-based E-bay, amazon consumer feedback

  • Distributed Innovation Open softwareFree software rejects the ownership of softwareOpen Source ownership is there but one can change Within the systems but partly transcends itAttractive for efficiencyUsed by IBM and Microsofts rival, EUInternet infrastructure Apache server, LinuxP2p dialogues are not representative dialogues in which participants represent their various religions, rather they are encounters of composite and hybrid experience in which each full expresses his different understanding, building a spiritual commons.

  • Distributed Innovation DeinstitutionalizationNo formal rules to engage in knowledge exchange (no formal degrees)Open Universities university of OpennessThe uo is a framework in which individuals and organizations can pursue their shared interestAny member may start a faculty to socialize their research with the Uo.News regulation (trustworthiness)No need of any Wall Street journal

  • Distributed Innovation Dot-com burst and decommodificationDotcom burst shows use value cannot be converted to exchange valueP2p creates massive use-value, but no automatic exchange value and thus it cannot fund itselfP2p sphere can work with more and more autonomy, creating more and more use value, slowly creating a cohesive system within system

  • Marginal trend or premise of new civilizationHistorical development of capitalism in 11th to 13th centuryRoman empire Bernat poirot-delpech in Le Monde nothing ever changes, we are bored with this countryArgentina after the economic shock

  • Talk OverviewPeer to peer networks Introduction and various utilitiesP2p in social perspective Random thoughtsEmerging TechnologiesUltra cheap Telephony

  • Emerging Technology Grid and clusterSupercomputer formed by connecting together a number of small computers with high speed interconnectivity

  • Emerging Technology Adhoc NetworkA network where the nodes are the mobile devices.

    Mobile devices themselves form connectivity within themselves without the help of any base station

  • Emerging Technology Mesh NetworkA network of low cost mesh, some of the meshes having satellite connection

  • Emerging Technology Delay Tolerant NetworkNo need of connection-oriented network.

    Here nodes act as post-man carrying the information to the destination

  • Talk OverviewPeer to peer networks Introduction and various utilitiesP2p in social perspective Random thoughtsEmerging TechnologiesUltra cheap Telephony

  • A few phones (or just one) cover a whole villageTelephone ladies = entrepreneurs: they buy phones and other equipment, & then charge for their useLoans (microcredit) from Grameen Bank, support from Grameen TelecomGrameen Phone uses GSM (not the cheapest technology), but charges the urban rate for local calls (0.04$/min in 2001)Everyone wins!Farmers & other callers save $$Telephone ladies earn well, gain independence & respectGrameen Phone earns $$ (major owner: Telenor!)Grameen Bank earns $$, Nobel Peace Prize

    Bangladesh (GrameenPhone)

  • Local = low costStandard GSM is used, but all equipment is produced in Brazil low costOther needed goods purchased locally when possibleEmployees are all locally hired (except 2 on management team)Intense local interaction & contact with customersLocal calls (in town) are cheapunlimited local calls 16$/month, orPlano Basico, local calls, 0.10$/minLaunched in Quixad May 2005, profitable after 10 mosRuralfone (Brazil)

  • Mesh in the jungleIsolated complex (2.5 hours by motorized canoe): high school, ecotourism lodge, science center, medical clinic, officesWireless broadband (WiFi) in a mesh network (many-to-many, so access points are also routers)VoIP over the WiFi meshSolar power, satellite uplink VoIP to Skype: cheap, but has a delayPlans to link to the cellphone networkYachana (FUNEDESIN),Amazonas, Ecuador

  • Towards ultra-cheap telephony(Telenor R&I project)Choose wireless broadband in unlicensed bandno license feemass-produced components low costmesh topology, smart antennasopen source softwarehandset is not (yet) cheapfocus on stand-alone but accessible communitieslocal calls can be very cheapestimate: 7080% of calls are localbackhaul: wireless point-to-point connection to nearest town with cellular networkA possible cost target: 0.0015$/minute for local calls

  • What about peer-to-peer?P2P works best on top of reliable connections, building an overlay network So other technologies are needed for cheap local access, while P2P can give very cheap connection on a global scale

  • Evolution of Collective IntelligenceTribal Intelligence Pyramidal StructureSwarm IntelligenceCollective IntelligenceSufficient moneyOpen standardInformation system to regulate symbolic exchangePermanent connection with cyberspacePersonal