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Optical Semiconductor Devices Optical Semiconductor Devices The Foundations of the Laser Diode

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  • Optical Semiconductor DevicesOptical Semiconductor Devices

    The Foundations of the Laser Diode

  • The Development of the Modern The Development of the Modern Laser DiodeLaser Diode

    Founding principlesFounding principles

    ElectroluminesenceElectroluminesence

    Band TheoryBand Theory

    Discovery of the LEDDiscovery of the LED

    The Challenge of the Laser DiodeThe Challenge of the Laser Diode

    Laser Diodes TodayLaser Diodes Today

  • Overlooked BeginningsOverlooked Beginnings

    Henry J Round (1907)Henry J Round (1907)

    Oleg Oleg LosevLosev

    (1923)(1923)

  • ElectroluminescenceElectroluminescence

    Electroluminescence in silicon carbide crystal fibersElectroluminescence in silicon carbide crystal fibers

  • The Glowing DiodeThe Glowing Diode

    Luminous Luminous carborundum [silicon carborundum [silicon carbide] detector and carbide] detector and detection with detection with crystalscrystals

    (1927)(1927)

    Light RelayLight Relay

  • Band Theory of SolidsBand Theory of Solids

    Bonding Structure of Crystal AtomsBonding Structure of Crystal Atoms

  • Band Theory of SolidsBand Theory of Solids

    Doping of the latticeDoping of the lattice

  • Band Theory of SolidsBand Theory of Solids

  • Schottky DiodeSchottky Diode

    Band Diagram of a Schottky DiodeBand Diagram of a Schottky Diode

    vc EEhc

    =

  • LED ConstructionLED Construction

    Edge Emitting LEDEdge Emitting LED

    Surface Emitting LEDSurface Emitting LED

  • Why LEDWhy LEDs?s?

    High Internal Quantum High Internal Quantum Efficiency RatingsEfficiency Ratings

    High overall efficiency ratingHigh overall efficiency rating

  • LED SpectrumLED Spectrum

    Many Frequencies PossibleMany Frequencies Possible

  • Laser Diode ChallengesLaser Diode Challenges

    Wavelength SpectrumWavelength Spectrum

    Random Light EmissionRandom Light Emission

    Phase Phase CoheranceCoherance

    HeatHeat

  • The Challenge of LasingThe Challenge of Lasing

    ProblemsProblems

    Large Injection CurrentLarge Injection Current

    Additional HeatAdditional Heat

    SolutionsSolutions

    Pulse OperationPulse Operation

    Active CoolingActive Cooling

  • CollimationCollimation

    Cleaved Mirror Resonator CavityCleaved Mirror Resonator Cavity

    Laser Diode

    0.2

  • So What About the Heat?So What About the Heat?

  • The SolutionThe Solution

    Advances in Materials ProductionAdvances in Materials Production

    HeterostructuresHeterostructures

  • HeterojunctionHeterojunction

  • Double HeterojunctionDouble Heterojunction

  • Double Heterojunction VisualizationDouble Heterojunction Visualization

  • Thank You

    References(1) http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/solids/

    (2) S. M. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1981(3) E. Fred Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, New York, 2006

    (4) Mitsuo Fukuda, Optical Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1999(5) B Van Zeghbroeck, http://ece-www.colorado.edu/~bart/book/movie/movie1.htm, 2004

    http://ece-www.colorado.edu/~bart/book/movie/movie1.htm

    Optical Semiconductor DevicesThe Development of the Modern Laser DiodeOverlooked BeginningsElectroluminescenceThe Glowing DiodeBand Theory of SolidsBand Theory of SolidsBand Theory of SolidsSchottky DiodeLED ConstructionWhy LEDs?LED SpectrumLaser Diode ChallengesThe Challenge of LasingCollimationSo What About the Heat?The SolutionHeterojunctionDouble HeterojunctionDouble Heterojunction VisualizationThank You