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  • AR05-6

    o FACTOR THEORY OF PERSONALITY WITHPARTICULAR EMPHASIS ON CATTELL'S 16PF

    -A LITERATURE REVIEW-

    BY

    CAPTAIN J.L. EAVES

    1st PSYCHOLOGICALRESEARCH

    UNIT DTICUNIT -SE19E2E E . 1 D9o

  • \TH4E L$NrTED STATES NATNlONALTHIALINFORMATIO

    S1RIO

    ,a AUTHORISO-t TO I IE

    ,t~ODI),LCF AND SELL TI EO?2

  • AL 149 Depnrtment of Oefae -Page CtsificstonRevised May 86 DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA UNCLASSIFIED

    Ia. A R Number lb. Establishment Number 2. Document Date 3. Tak Number

    AR-005-064 PSRU-RN-2-89 March 19894. Title 5. Socunty Clausification 6. No. PagesFactor Theory of Personality with [P/8" proprate classfication in

    box/s ie Secr(5). Cofidenoal(C)Particular Emphasis on Cattell's Restricted (R). Unclasfied (U)] 3116PF - A Literature Review 7. No. Raft

    8. Author(s) 0]document Eltite[ abstract 7Captain J.L. Eaves 9. Downgrading/Delimiting Instructions

    10. Corporate Author and Address1 Psych Research UnitNBH 3-39 11. Office/Postion responsible for -Northbourne HouseTURNER ACT 2601 Sponsor .....................................................................................

    AUSTRALIA Security .....................................................................................Dow ngrading ............................................................................

    App roval ....................................................................................

    12. Secondary Distribution (Of this document)

    Approved for Public Release

    Overseas enquiries outside stated limitations should be referred through the Document Exchange Centre, Oefence InformationServAce Branch. Department of Defence, Cambell Park, CANBERRA, ACT 260113s. This document may be announced in catalogues and awarenesa services available to ...........

    No Limitations13b. Citation for other purposes (i.. casual announcement) may be [3 unrstricted or [ as for 13a

    14. Descriptors 15. COSATI Group

    Personality 0092BTesting

    16PFLiterature ReviewFactor Theory

    16. Abstract-- -f The concept of personality is widely recognised as being central inpsychology, yet its nature and the ways in which it can be defined andmeasured are questions on which psychologists are in considerabledisagreement. While theorists tend to disagree over definitions ofpersonality, they tend to agreee that in order to perform a systematicexploration of personality's relation to other variables, a definite setof personality factors need to be specified. Researchers engaged in thequestion of the number of factors in the personality sphere seem to divideroughly into three positions: Two factors, five-to-eight factors, and 13-to-18 factors. Cattell devoted a major segment of his career to thedevelopment of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Withthe continuing use of Cattell's 16PF by the Australian Army Psychology Corpscomes the need to review the available literature with a focus on Its use

    1-

  • r Pace ClassificationUNCLASSIFIED 2

    This page is to be used to record information which is required by the Establishment for its own use butwhich will not be added to the DISTIS data unless specifically requested.

    16. Abetract (Contd)in personnel selection. The 16PF purports to measure 16 distinctpersonality traits, yet there is no evidence of the convergent validityof the 16 scales apart from factor loadings and what evidence there is ofdiscriminant validity suggests the primary traits are not clearlydifferentiated. The psychometric adequacy of the test must bequestioned. (b. -

    17. tmprint

    18. Document Series and Number 19. Cost Code 20. Type of Report and Period Covered

    21. Computer Programs Used

    22. Establishment File Ref(s)

    23. Additional Information (As required)

  • Research Note 2/89

    FACTOR THEORY OF PERSONALITY WITH PARTICULAR EmFHASIS ON CATTELL' S 16FF

    - A LITERATURE REVIEW -

    by

    Captain J.L. Eaves

    March 1989

    This Directorate of Psychology publication has been prepared by1st Psychological Research Unit and is authorized for issue by DPSYCH-A.

    Lieutenant ColonelCamianing Officer

    I let Psychological Research UnitNBH 3-44Northbourne House

    ISSN 0156-8817 TURNER ACT 2601

  • Table of Contentsaa~

    Table of CoTtenots

    List of Tables iii

    5 Abtract 3

    Definition of Persoality 5

    Cattell's Total Personality Cm-cept 7

    *Aim8

    Literature Rview 8

    S r 24

    Bibliography 27

    /

    bI

    Acoesion For

    ID71f . ;

    Ufl'a ......

    !Avai 1l it7 , qn,Dist

    ,By - -- t.,, o

    :~tt '. 'eS1c~3

  • List of Tables

    Table Pa

    1 Fiw-to-Kight Factor Squivalerice Table 15

  • Abstract

    The concept of personality is widely recognised as being centralin psychology, yet its nature and the ways in which it can be defined andmeasured are questions on which psychologists are in considerabledisagreement. While theorists tend to disagree over definitions ofpersonality, they tend to agree that in order to perform a systeenticexploration of personality's relation to other variables, a definite set ofpersonality factors needs to be specified. Researchers engaged in thequestion of the number of factors in the personality sphere seem to divideroughly into three positions: TNo factors; five-to-eight factors; and 13-to-18 factors. Cattell devoted a major segment of his career to thedevelopment of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Withthe continuing use of Cattell's 16PF by the Australian Army PsychologyCorps (AA Psych Corps) comes the need to review the available literaturewith a focus on it's use in personnel selection. The 16PF purports tomeasure 16 distinct personality traits, yet there is no evidence of theconvergent validity of the 16 scales apart from factor loadings and whatevidence there is of discriminant validity suggests the primary traits arenot clearly differentiated. The psychometric adequacy of the test must bequestioned.

    The findings and views expressed in this report are the resultsof the author's research studies and are not to be taken as official policyor opinion of the Department of Defence (Army Office).

  • Definition of Personality

    Th concept of personality is widely recognised as being centralin Psychology, Yet its nature and the ways in which it can be defined andmeasured are questions on which psychologists are in considerabled---greant. There are few words in the English language which have sucha fascination, even for the general public, as the term personality.According to Webster's Dicticnary (1961) there are a number ofalternatives:

    The quality or state of being a person and not anabstraction, thing, or lower being.

    The complex of characteristics that distirgis ap rticular individual or characterises him in hisrelationships with others.

    The totality of an individual's emergent tendencies to actor behave especially self-consciously or to act on, Interactwith, perceive, react to, or otherwise meaningfullyinfluence or experience his environment.

    The organisation of the individual's distinguishingcharacter traits, attitudes, or habits. (p. 1687).

    ' ~These alternative definitis comvey some of the contradictionsthat plague the area of personality. The first alternative represents arather global, philosophical point of view and one wtich psychologistsconsider too broad. The secc-Ix definition does provide a firmr foundationfor research, but exctly what characteristics or coplex ofcharacteristics should be ememined? At one time or another al ot everyhumn attribute has been studied as a distinguishing characteristic, forinstance, Sheldon's (1940) body-type theory of personality. The thirddefinition emphasises the study of behaviour. It represen the view thatIf psychology is to be scientific, it must only deal with what isobservable. Behaviour is observable, hence psychology must be the study ofbehaviour. However, cn could add sam confusion by asking whetherbehaviour is defined as including thinking. The fourth definition suggestsconsideratio of individual character traits or habits. These areconvenient map to denote mntal states that presumably underlie variousbehaviour patterns, yet are difficult to measure because they are hard todefine.

    It Is obvious, therefore, that the word "personality" is used invarious senses. However, mot of these popular meanings fall under one oftwo hedi . The first usage equates the term to social skill oradrotnes. By this, Hall and Lidzey (1957) suggest that an Individual'spersonality is aessed by the effectiveness with which he is able toelicit positive reactions from a variety of persons under different

  • -6-

    circumstances. It is in this se that schools which specialise in

    glamrIsing the female intend the term when they refer to corses in"personlity training". Likewise. the teacher who refers to a student aspresenting a personality problem is probably indicating that his socialskills are not deqiate to maintain satisfactory relations with his fellowstudents and the teacher. The second uag ccmiders the personality ofthe in ividual to be described by the most outstanding or salientlmlpression which he creates In others. Thus, Hall and Lindzey (1957)

    suggest a person may be said to bave n "ar esee persomality" or a"ubmi ersonalty"'. In each camse the observer selects an attributeor quality which is highly typical of the subject and wich is presmably

    isan poItant part of the overall I mon wich he crat In others, andhis personality is Identified by this term. It is clear that there is anelement of evaluation in both usages.

    While the diversity in ordinary use of the word personality mayseem considerable, it is overshad by the variety of meanings w