NORTH VS. SOUTH

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NORTH VS. SOUTH. STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, MILITARY STRATERGY, AND BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR. NORTHERN CHARACTERISTICS. Diverse, fast growing population High concentration of railroads Many factories producing manufactured goods Well-developed telegraph system. Southern Characteristics. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • STRENGTHS, WEAKNESSES, MILITARY STRATERGY, AND BATTLES OF THE CIVIL WAR

  • NORTHERN CHARACTERISTICSDiverse, fast growing populationHigh concentration of railroadsMany factories producing manufactured goodsWell-developed telegraph system

  • Southern CharacteristicsEconomy based on agricultureReliance on Slave laborFew citiesFew factoriesFurther between towns- less developed railroads

  • NORTHERN ADVANTAGESPopulation: North: 21.5 million > South: 9 Million

    Railroad Mileage: North: 21,700 Miles > South: (Not same gage) 9,000 Miles

    Factories: 110,100 > 20,600At the start of the war, the value of all manufactured goods produced in all the Confederate states added up to less than one-fourth of those produced in New York State alone.

  • Northern DisadvantagesDivided public opinion- some didnt want free slavesAway from homes- climateUnder-trained and timid generals

  • SOUTHERN ADVANTAGESLEADERSHIP: 7 of 8 military schools located in the South- Most officers went with SouthMILITARY TACTICS: South was defending which meant was less costly: War of attrition- Bleed opponent to deathMORALE: Southerners were more willing to fight-felt to preserve way of life- Some Northerners thought it was to free slave and they didnt want that

  • Southern WeaknessesAgricultural Economy- Cant shoot cotton ballsNo navy and army- Had to DevelopNo national government- Still for strong states rightsFew railroads

  • NORTHERN TACTICS: Anaconda Plan- Crush the SouthControl Mississippi River: Split West & EastControl Major Rail Road Junctions: Stop Southern suppliesBlockade South: Cut off trade of cotton- cut off moneyTake Richmond: Capital of SouthOrganized by Winfield ScottFelt it would take 3 years and 300,000 men

  • Northern Tactics: Anaconda Plans WeaknessNavy- Couldnt fully blockade South

    Army was small

    Underestimated the will of South

  • BORDER STATESHad to treat Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware and Maryland with kid gloves- keep them happyReason Lincoln didnt free slaves in that area during the Emancipation Proclamation

  • DISEASESNo knowledge about how diseases were spreadHighest chance of dying of diseases came within the first 5-6 months: Why?For every one solider that died of wounds, 2 died of diseases: Diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, etc.

  • AMPUTATIONS3 out 4 soldiers were hit in the extremities (arms & legs)Accounted for 75 % of all the surgeriesWould use same saw all day, wiped on apron if too slick / No Anesthesia

  • Clara BartonAngel of the BattlefieldWorked in the patent office- resigned to become a nurseOrganized, petition, and collected medical supplies for the troopsAfter the war, started the American Red Cross

  • Modern WarWith all of its advancements, the Civil War is considered the first modern war

  • RIFLED GUNSGo greater distance and be more destructive than previous warsMade direct, frontal charges more deadly- Picketts ChargeHad more of an impact on the severity of the war than any other weapon advancement

  • Shells and CanisterReplaced cannon ballsArtillery would go over battle field, explode, and send shrapnel over the field- more like a bomb

  • TELEGRAPHMade communications among troops, regiments, and capitals more efficientMade communications more secureFirst air to ground communications: From Hot Air Balloon

  • RAILROADSMovement of troops and supplies quicker- allowed for larger armies because didnt have to march

  • HOT AIR BALLOONSAllowed for spying and recon.Developed by North, Lincoln wanted to us, refused at first in fieldOther troops would attempt to shoot down balloons

  • Iron- Clad ShipMetal covered ship- more durable meant longer Navy battlesDeveloped by South 1st, but info. Was leaked to the NorthMonitor (Union-All iron) vs. Merrimack (Confederates- iron plates)- First navy battle between iron ships: Union Victory

  • THE MERRIMACK- CONFEDERATESTHE MONITOR: UNION

  • Technology: OthersSubmarinesTorpedoes- depth charges

  • Jefferson DavisPresident of the Confederate States of America

  • Abraham Lincoln16th President of the United StatesElected in 1860Took Office in 1861Assassinated April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth

  • Robert E. LeeCommander of the Army of Virginia Confederate

  • Ulysses S. Grant Commanded army in the westTook VicksburgBrought to the east to fill in for the inept generalsLee surrendered to GrantUnconditional Surrender Grant

  • Other Union GeneralsGeorge McClellan-

    Ambrose Burnside-

    Joseph Hooker-

    George Meade-

    Winfield Scott-

  • Other Confederate GeneralsThomas Stonewall Jackson-

    P.G.T Beauregard-

    James Longstreet-

    Joseph Johnston- Braxton Braggs- John B. Hood-

  • Fort SumterFirst battle of Civil WarConfederates fire on fort located in Charleston (SC) HarborUnion held fort for 34 hours and abandoned fortOnly death came when shooting cannon for 100 gun salute

  • First Bull RunFirst major land battleUnion troops were unprepared- Reporters from D.C. followed troopsLocated in Manassas, VA- major railroad junctionStarted to push them back, but Stonewall Jackson rallied troopsUnion forced to retreat back to Washington with major and embarrassing defeatThis battle showed the war would not be easy

  • The Battle of ShilohTook place in the western theater of the warTook place near Corinth, MS on TN and MS borderUnion troops had to fall back after first day, but U.S Grant would not retreat- Proves his willingness to fightUnion won battleShiloh was the bloodiest single day (until Antietam) of fighting in war and ended all hope that this would be a quick war

  • Monitor vs. MerrimackMerrimack- Southern wooden ship with iron bolted to itMonitor- Union ship, completely of iron, took 100 daysFought to a draw, but Merrimack withdrew- never to meet againWooden navies would now be obsolete

  • Battle of AntietamAKA- Battle of Sharpsburg (Known as this mainly in South)Lee hoped a victory on Northern soil would increase European supportMcClellan (U) figured out where the Confederates were because of Lees orders wrapped around cigars were found but he delayed and gave Lee time to prepareLees 14,000 causalities (in 1 day) was a 1/3 of his army

  • Battle of AntietamBecame the BLOODIEST SINGLE DAY of warMcClellan could have crushed Lees army but delayedWith great Union victory, Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation

  • Emancipation ProclamationIssued after the Battle of AntietamStated that effective January 1, 1863- All slaves held in areas still in rebellion would be free (Did NOT free all slaves)Was limited because of border states of KY, MO, and MD- Lincoln did not want to force them towards the Confederates Northerners feared an influx of uneducated African Americans from the south would threaten their jobs, but many were in favor- Continued split in the North Many Southerners did not recognize Lincolns right to pass a law in their country because they felt they were no longer part of the United States Although the Emancipation Proclamation did not free all the slaves, it did mark a significant shift from the war being simply about the unification of the Union, to the ending of slavery.

  • Ambrose BurnsideBecause of his delay, Lincoln again removed McClellan from command and gave it to Ambrose Burnside (From Liberty, IN)

  • Lees Victories: FredericksburgBurnside attempted to march to Richmond- Lee met his armyBurnside walked right into the fire at the Battle of Fredericksburg- he will lose 14,000 men to Lees 5,000- and Lee dealt the union a major defeat

  • Lees Victories: Battle of ChancellorsvilleBurnside resigned, Joseph Hooker replaced himBattle of Chancellorsville: Stonewall Jackson snuck around the lines of the UnionUnion was surrounded and nearly crushed in single nightTragedy- Stonewall Jackson was mistaken by his men to be the enemy and was shot- He later died from his injuries

  • GettysburgLees army needed supplies and he hoped a victory on Northern soil would force Lincoln and the Union to finally give inConfederate troops ran into Union troops while looking for shoes in Gettysburg and this skirmish led to the * Deadliest Battle to ever be fought in North America*

  • Gettysburg: Day 1Day One: Both sides heard the gun fire in town and rush to set up linesLines stretched some 4 milesSouthern troops forced Northern troops back a littleHaving won the day, Robert E. Lee elected to continue the fight despite protest from James Longstreet- his new second in command

  • Gettysburg: Day 2Alabama troops noticed an undefended hill- Little Round Top- of the Union that could allow them to fire on the UnionThey attempted to take the hill, but the Union also noticed the mistake and reinforcements arrived in timeUnion lines remained intact

  • Gettysburg: Day 3Confederate briefly attacked and then all went quietThen Confederates open with the largest artillery barrage of the warUnion stopped firing to save ammo- South thought they had given up- began a direct assault on the center of the Union linesPicketts Charge: Name given to this assault- only a few 100 of 15,000 survived

  • Gettysburg- The Turning PointGettysburg was not only the deadliest battle ever fought in North America, but was also considered to be the turning point of the war.Why? The Souths huge loss of men meant that Lee and the Confederates could not invade Union territory again- and they didntMorale dropped to a new lowThere was no hope that European nations or other nations would become involved for the ConfederatesThis was Lees last, great chance of victo