NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-81, Status Review 2017-08-03آ  NOAA Technical Memorandum...

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  • NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-81

    Status Review of Puget Sound Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    June 2007

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service

  • NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC Series The Northwest Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, uses the NOAA Techni- cal Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC series to issue scientific and technical publications. Manuscripts have been peer reviewed and edited. Documents published in this series may be cited in the scientific and technical literature.

    The NMFS-NWFSC Technical Memorandum series of the Northwest Fisheries Science Center continues the NMFS- F/NWC series established in 1970 by the Northwest & Alaska Fisheries Science Center, which has since been split into the Northwest Fisheries Science Center and the Alaska Fisheries Science Center. The NMFS-AFSC Techni- cal Memorandum series is now being used by the Alaska Fisheries Science Center.

    Reference throughout this document to trade names does not imply endorsement by the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA.

    This document should be referenced as follows: Hard, J.J., J.M. Myers, M.J. Ford, R.G. Cope, G.R. Pess, R.S. Waples, G.A. Winans, B.A. Berejikian, F.W. Waknitz, P.B. Adams. P.A. Bisson, D.E. Campton, and R.R. Reisenbichler. 2007. Status review of Puget Sound steel- head (Oncorhynchus mykiss). U.S. Dept. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-NWFSC-81, 117 p.

  • NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-81

    Status Review of Puget Sound Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Jeffrey J. Hard, James M. Myers, Michael J. Ford, Robert G. Kope, George R. Pess, Robin S. Waples, Gary A. Winans, Barry A. Berejikian, F. William Waknitz, Peter B. Adams, 1 Peter A. Bisson, 2 Donald E. Campton, 3

    and Reginald R. Reisenbichler4

    Northwest Fisheries Science Center 2725 Montlake Boulevard East Seattle, Washington 98112

    1 Southwest Fisheries Science Center 110 Shaffer Road Santa Cruz, California 95060

    2 U.S. Forest Service Olympic Forestry Sciences Laboratory 3625 93rd Avenue Southwest Olympia, Washington 98512

    3 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Abernathy Fish Technology Center 1440 Abernathy Creek Road Longview, Washington 98632

    4 U.S. Geological Survey Western Fisheries Research Center 6505 NE 65th Street Seattle, Washington 98115

    June 2007

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Marine Fisheries Service

  • Most NOAA Technical Memorandums NMFS-NWFSC are available online at the Northwest Fisheries Science Center web site (http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov)

    Copies are also available from: National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springfield, VA 22161 phone orders (1-800-553-6847) e-mail orders (orders@ntis.fedworld.gov)

    ii

    (http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov)

  • Table of Contents

    List of Figures ............................................................................................................................................... v

    List of Tables ..............................................................................................................................................vii

    Executive Summary ..................................................................................................................................... ix

    Acknowledgments......................................................................................................................................xiii

    Abbreviations and Acronyms ..................................................................................................................... xv

    Introduction................................................................................................................................................... 1

    Puget Sound Steelhead.................................................................................................................................. 3

    Previous Determinations ........................................................................................................................ 3

    Current Petition to List Puget Sound Steelhead ..................................................................................... 7

    Review of Steelhead Life History Information............................................................................................. 9

    General Life History............................................................................................................................... 9

    Puget Sound Steelhead Life History....................................................................................................... 9

    Genetic Studies..................................................................................................................................... 14

    ESU Determination..................................................................................................................................... 15

    ESU Configuration ............................................................................................................................... 15

    Resident and Anadromous Life Histories............................................................................................. 15

    Artificial Propagation of Puget Sound Steelhead ................................................................................. 17

    The “Extinction Risk” Question ................................................................................................................. 23

    Risk Assessment Approach .................................................................................................................. 23

    Summary of Major Risks and Status Indicators ................................................................................... 29

    Habitat Conditions................................................................................................................................ 32

    Artificial Propagation ........................................................................................................................... 34

    ESU Risk Assessment................................................................................................................................. 36

    Risk Assessment Methods.................................................................................................................... 36

    Resident Fish Considerations ............................................................................................................... 40

    Risk Assessment Summary .................................................................................................................. 41

    Washington Trout Analysis of Puget Sound Steelhead Productivity ................................................... 53

    Risk Assessment Conclusions .............................................................................................................. 54

    Spatial Structure/Connectivity.............................................................................................................. 57

    iii

  • References................................................................................................................................................... 59

    Appendix A: Survey of Steelhead Abundance ........................................................................................... 67

    Appendix B: Hatchery Population Evaluation Procedure...........................................................................73

    Appendix C: Hatchery Broodstock Review................................................................................................ 75

    Puget Sound Steelhead Derived from Chambers Creek Hatchery ....................................................... 76

    Chambers Creek Derivatives................................................................................................................ 78

    Puget Sound Winter Run Steelhead Not Derived from Chambers Creek Hatchery............................. 92

    Skamania Summer Run Steelhead Hatchery Derivatives..................................................................... 95

    Appendix D: Artificial Propagation of Steelhead in Puget Sound............................................................ 101

    Appendix E: Peer Review Comments on the Draft Status Review Update .............................................. 109

    iv

  • List of Figures

    Figure 1. Map of the Puget Sound steelhead ESU, denoting the major summer and winter run populations identified by SaSI ...................................................................................................................... 4

    Figure 2. Releases of hatchery propagated steelhead from state and federal hatcheries in Puget Sound from 1900 to 1925. .......................................................................................................................... 18

    Figure 3. Total releases of winter run steelhead smolts in the Puget Sound Steelhead ESU from 1978 to 2003 ............................................................................................................................................... 19

    Figure 4. Total releases of summer run steelhead smol