Niagara Tunnel Project - Technical Facts

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N AG AR TU N PR JEC - Techni al Fact s I A N EL O T c

NIAGARA TUNNEL PROJECT

TECHNICAL FACTSLast updated on November 21, 2012

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VOICES from the Niagara Tunnel - A Living History (click link above for more information)

A special THANK YOU is extended to the following companies

STRABAG INC. ONTARIO POWER GENERATION THE ROBBINS COMPANY BERMINGHAM FOUNDATION SOLUTIONS

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HATCH MOTT MACDONALD & GEO-FOUNDATIONS

The Niagara Tunnel Project

The Diversion Tunnel

10.4 km (6.5 miles) long, 140 m (459 feet) beneath the City of Niagara Falls from the Sir Adam Beck Generating Complex to a water intake complex above Niagara Falls. The new tunnel will increase the power supply for owner Ontario Power Generation (OPG) by 150 MW or 1.6 billion kilowatt hours per year, enough electricity for a city twice the size of Niagara Falls, Ontario, and its population of 80,000. Annually, the 150MW generated by the new tunnel will be enough to supply a city of 700,000 people. Unfinished Tunnel Diameter - 14.44-m (47.5-ft) excavated diameter Finished Tunnel Diameter - 12.5 m (41.1 ft) concrete-lined tunnel with a finished diameterw w ni gar af r ont i r . com / t unnel echni al ht m l w. a e t c . 3/ 37

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Greatest Depth of Tunnel - 140-m (459 ft) Water Flow - 500 m3/s (17,657 cf/sec) diversion capacity. The tunnel water flow rate will be 4 meters/second. Interior Tunnel Finish includes: two layers of waterproofing membrane under 600-mm (23.6 inches) thick, unreinforced prestressed concrete injection lining overtop

Dewatering station and surface runoff structurefive 130 meter (427 feet) emergency tunnel dewatering shafts outside diameter 900 mm (35.4 inches) - inside diameter 700 mm (27.5 inches) lined with 200 mm (8 inches) of concrete and grout

Outlet Works300 meters (984 feet) long by 20-m (67 feet) deep outlet canal Outlet structure with downstream closure gate and surge shaft

Intake WorksIntake Grout Tunnel constructed underneath existing Gate #1 of International Water Control Dam within Niagara River Deep intake channel excavation Demolition and replacement of upstream ice control wall Construction of new shore approach wall Grout Tunnel Planned Total Length - 403 meters (1,322 feet) Grout Tunnel Actual Total Length - 298.3 meters (978.6 feet) long Grout Tunnel Height - 7 meters (23 feet) Grout Tunnel Width - 8 meters (26 feet) Grout Tunnel Gradient - 7.150%

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The Intake Grout Tunnel is the entrance portal for water flowing into the new Niagara Tunnel after its completion. As the Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) concludes boring the tunnel it will ascend tow w ni gar af r ont i r . com / t unnel echni al ht m l w. a e t c . 5/ 37

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the surface along the Grout Tunnel. In a simple sense, the Grout Tunnel acts as the glide path for the emerging Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). The diagram on the left gives the realistic perspective of the size ofw w ni gar af r ont i r . com / t unnel echni al ht m l w. a e t c . 6/ 37

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the Grout Tunnel in comparison to the TBM. The most important aspect of the Grout Tunnel was to allow a 360 high pressure grout injection into all the rock cracks and crevices to form a 26 meter diameterw w ni gar af r ont i r . com / t unnel echni al ht m l w. a e t c . 7/ 37

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waterproof curtain to protect the tunnel from flooding from the river above as the TBM surfaces.

The Grout Tunnel was built using the drill and blast method. Fourw w ni gar af r ont i r . com / t unnel echni al ht m l w. a e t c . 8/ 37

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large 3 meter deep expansion holes were drilled near the lower middle of the rock face. The remainder of the rock face had 3 meter deep blast holes drilled approximately every 80 centimeters apart. The holes with thew w ni gar af r ont i r . com / t unnel echni al ht m l w. a e t c . 9/ 37

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exception of the expansion holes were packed with explosives and detonated in a diamond pattern so that the blast would expand toward the expansion holes resulting in a controlled explosion. Every blast would expand the tunnel another 3 meters.w w ni gar af r ont i r . com / t unnel echni al ht m l w. a e t c . 10/ 37

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The blasting was restricted to day time hours only as not to disturb nearby neighbourhoods.

ContractHatch Energy in association with Hatch Mott MacDonald, is providing Owners Representative services to Ontario Power Generation for the construction of the $640M Niagara Tunnel facility project. This includes preparation of design/build contract documents, design review, construction monitoring and contract administration. The design/build project is for a 10.4-km, 14.44-m diameter water diversion tunnel and associated intake and outlet works. The project is a design/build project with a partnering approach. A negotiated Geotechnical Baseline Report (GBR) was used to equitably share underground risks on the project. PROJECT COST: C$985 million After evaluation and negotiations, the contract was signed in midAugust 2005, with the start of construction in September of that year. Actual tunneling commenced a year later after procurement,w w ni gar af r ont i r . com / t unnel echni al ht m l w. a e t c . 11/ 37

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fabrication and erection of the tunnel boring machine (TBM) within the constructed outlet canal. The contract was awarded to Strabag AG of Austria.

Tunnel DesignThe tunnel is being constructed in two passes with rock dowels, steel ribs, mesh and shotcrete, followed by a polyolefin membrane and unreinforced 600-mm thick cast-in-place concrete lining. The lining will be prestressed to resist internal water pressure using a high-pressure 'interface' grout applied between the shotcrete and the final lining. The combination of the membrane and prestressed lining system will prevent water from entering the rock and resultant swelling. Two layers of membrane are being applied to the shotcreted rock enabling the space between the membranes to be vacuum tested after installation in order to ensure membrane integrity. The membrane will also protect the concrete lining from the aggressive groundwater conditions found in the Queenston Formation.

Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM)The project uses the worlds largest hard-rock tunnel boring machine (TBM) by the Robbins Company

TBM type Robbins HP 471-316w w ni gar af r ont i r . com / t unnel echni al ht m l w. a e t c . 12/ 37

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Year of manufacture 2006 Overall Machine diameter (new cutters) 14.44 m (47.2 ft) The tunnel-boring machine is 2,000 tons, cost more than $30 million, is powered by 15 electric motors that generate 6,375 horsepower, and is able to chew through rock at the rate of up to10 feet per hour.

Cutter-Face Cutters Face Series (size) - 508 mm (20 in.) Center Series (size) - 431.8 mm (17 in.) Number of disc cutters - 85 Nominal recommended individual cutter load 35 t /cutter

Cutter-Head Cutter-head drive Electric motors/safe sets, gear reducers Cutter-head power - 6330 HP (15 422 HP) Expandable to 16 422 HP Cutter-head speed 05.0 rpm Approximate torque (low speed) 02.4 rpm - 18,800 kNm Approximate torque (high speed) 5 rpm - 9,025 kNm Thrust cylinder boring stroke - 1,729 mm (68 in.) Hydraulic system - 300 HP (225 kW) System operating pressure at maximum - 275.7 bar (4,000 psi) recommended cutter-head thrust Maximum system pressure - 310 bar (4,500 psi)

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The machine has a cutter head thrust of 18,462 kN (4,150,422 lbs) and a maximum torque of 18,670,000 N-m (13,770,285 lb-ft).

Electrical System Motor circuit 690 VAC 3-phase, 60 Hz Lighting system/control system 120V/24 VDC Transformer size 4 1,700 kVA + 1 1,000 kVA Primary voltage 13,800 V 60 Hz

Machine conveyor Width 1,370 mm (54 in.)

TBM Weight (approximate) 1,100 metric tonnes, excluding drilling equipment

For this construction, Strabag purchased a new Robbins HP main beam TBM, and a new HP backup system provided by Rowa Tunnel Logistics of Wangen,Switzerland. The TBM Model 471-316, nicknamed Big Becky, is the worlds largest hard-rock TBM ever manufactured. Design of the HP machine includes the use of 508-mm (20-in.) rear-mounted cutters, high cutter-head power and state-of-the-art ground support equipment The cutter-head design for this project consists of a six-piece bolted and doweled hard-rock configuration that includes 12 muck buckets with radial face and gage openings. Grill bars, abrasion resistant carbide buttons and abrasion resistant boltable bucket