Embed Size (px)
Transcript of Narrativeforq1b 120126102918-phpapp01
- 1. Narrative is the art of telling a story so it ismore than just the story, it is how the story is told.
2. 1. Story & Plot - Bordwell & Thompson 2. Enigma Codes Roland Barthes 3. BORDWELL & THOMPSON"The term plot is used to describe everything visible and audibly present in the film before us" (Bordwell and Thompson)"The set of all the events in a narrative, both the ones explicitly presented and those the viewer infers, composes the story" (Bordwell and Thompson)In other words, the story is the combination of the entire sequence of events that is shown as well as everything that we conclude has happened but is not shown. 4. In summaryPlot:The explicit presentation of the events (whichis usually less than the story and may be in adifferent order, eg. Go or Pulp Fiction).Story:All the events - both those that are visuallyrepresented and those that are inferred. 5. DefinitionsExplicit: Expressing all details in a clear andobvious way leaving no doubt as to theintended meaning.Infer: To conclude something on the basis ofevidence or reasoning. 6. The key to narrative analysis is to consider the wider storyrather than simply describing the plot. There are elements ofany narrative that we are expected to presume or infer,simply because it would be impossible to explicitly stateeverything.Sometimes the plot may deliberately obscure elements of storyto keep us intrigued (as in mysteries). Many art house filmsare less dependant upon plot and require the audience toinfer more. 7. Elements of story are often open to interpretation, for example we as viewers may presume something about a character based upon their appearance or actions. We often do this subconsciously. Sometimes the plot can be left open which leaves us to make up our own mind about what might or might not happen.The more sophisticated your understanding of story and you ability toinfer subtle information, the better your work will be. The weakestnarrative analysis relies too much upon explicit information.However be careful, inferences must be backed up by reference tothe text. 8. Compression of Time:Most films operate a high degree of Ellipsis or Timemanipulation. In order to move the story forward, theaudience only sees the moments in time which arerelevant to the Narrative.Consider the organisation of time in your teaser trailer: Chronological order? (linear narrative) Events shown out of time order? (non-linear narrative) 9. Use of Narrative to create Suspense and AudienceexpectationsRestricted or Unrestricted Narratives determine howmuch information is released to the Audience at atime What do they need to know and when? 10. Narratives that are left unresolved can be described as opennarratives. For example, if Eastenders ends on a cliff-hanger at the end of the episode and you dont knowwhat will be the outcome, then it is an open narrative.Narratives that come to a conclusion can be said to havereached narrative closure. Can you think of any examples?Would a good teaser trailer have an open or closed narrative? 11. Ellipsis Restricted narrative / Unrestricted narrative Open / Closed narrative Linear / Non-linear narrativePlus another one: Multi-strand narrative 12. To entice an audience to go and see the film.Dont forget to acknowledge this in your own analysisas it is a key driver of what plot information is and isnot given to the viewer and what questions thisleaves them with.It is useful to consider Roland Barthes work here 13. And The Action/Enigma CodesAction Codes: Images or sequences which work asa form of a Visual Shorthand making complexIdeas immediately apparent and carrying thestory forward.Enigma Codes: Images/sequences which controlhow much we know in the story, engaging andholding audience interest. They present puzzleswhich demand to be solved The Social Network 14. More on the Enigma CodeAn enigma code works to keep setting up littlepuzzles to be solved (and not only at the beginningof a story), to delay the storys ending pleasurably:e.g. how will Tom Cruise get out of thispredicament?Enigma codes can be described as minor or major. 15. Apply Barthes ideasTask:Watch the clip and write down all the questionsit raises for you as a viewer.The Social NetworkNow try and sort them into minor and majorenigmas. 16. Apply his ideas to your own workWhat elements of your trailer act as enigma codes(or clues) that leave the audience with questions orpuzzles to solve?Draw and fill in the table below:What are the codes (or What questions do they leaveclues)?the audience with?Minor:Major: 17. How would you approach this in the exam?What the examiners say:If the concept is narrative, and youve done a filmtrailer, you might consider how far a trailer gives a senseof a films narrative and how much you choose to revealin yours as part of promoting the film. What you dontwant to do is apply some theory like Todorovs to try toprove that your film follows a pattern. The task shouldbe seen as an opportunity really to reflect on how yourchosen project actually works as a text. 18. How would you approach this in the exam? Examiners guide to structuring your answer:Para 1 - Intro: Which of your projects are you going to write about?Briefly describe itPara 2: What are some of the key features of the concept you arebeing asked to apply? Maybe outline two of the theories/ideas ofparticular writers briefly. (Bordwell & Thompson? Barthes?)Para 3: Start to apply the concept, making close reference to yourproduction to show how the concept is evident in it. (See next slide)Para 4: Keep applying!Para 5: Conclusion (How successful is the narrative of your product inserving the purpose of a teaser trailer?) 19. How would you approach this in the exam?Ideas for working through paragraphs 3 & 4:What narrative structure does your trailer use? Linear/non-linear? Open/closed?How does this tie in with the purpose of a teaser trailer?What plot information is given and what may audiences inferabout the story of the film? (You could also refer to genre here doesyour trailer show conventional elements of a particular genre and so set upnarrative expectations based on that genre?) Link back to how this willentice viewers and which viewers it would entice.What enigma codes are there and what questions or puzzles arethe audience left with? Link back to how this will entice viewers.