Minor prophets i
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- 1. Minor Prophets I Amos, Hosea, Micah
- 2. Amos, Hosea, Micah Active in the 8th century BC Focus is on sins of their own people Social Sin Cultic Sin (Idolatry, religious abuses) Contemporaries of Isaiah Hosea is in the northern kingdom Micah is in the southern kingdom Amos is from the south, but working in the north
- 3. Hosea Images of marital infidelity are tied to Israels disloyalty Unfaithful wife who becomes a prostitute Hoseas personal experience with his wife, Gomer, is a metaphor for Gods relationship with Israel Unfaithful wife who becomes a prostitute
- 4. Hosea Part I: Hoseas faithless wife Chapters 1-3 Part II: Collection of prophetic speeches Condemns Israels behavior Predicts Gods punishment Express Hope for renewal
- 5. Hosea Part One Gomer not just a harlot, but a cult prostitute serving the god Baal, making Hoseas choice even more dramatic. Covenant God and the people are bound by the covenant Idolatry and Infidelity Baal is the fertility god, responsible for crops, herds, and people Hosea says you cannot choose when to serve the Lord: its a package deal
- 6. Hosea Part One Understanding God God is all that best about human nature Land and Desert The land is filled with milk and honey; worshipping Baal will lead to a desert In the desert, though, God may court his people and renew the covenant
- 7. Hoseas children Jezreel Jehu had royal family executed and heads sent to Jezreel. God will punish Jehu and destroy his family ruling in Israel Lo-ruhama (unpitied) God no longer pities Israel Lo-ammi (not my people) Yahweh will not consider Israel his people any longer
- 8. Hosea 11:1-4 When Israel was a child I loved him,a out of Egypt* I called my son.b 2The more I called them, the farther they went from me, Sacrificing to the Baals and burning incense to idols. 3Yet it was I who taught Ephraim to walk, who took them in my arms;c but they did not know that I cared for them. 4I drew them with human cords, with bands of love;* I fostered them like those who raise an infant to their cheeks; I bent down to feed them.d How do these images apply to our world?
- 9. Hosea One way of knowing God is through human experience. How is God like a faithful spouse, a loving parent, a friend seeking a lasting relationship? Gods judgment and punishment is always directed toward restoring relationship.
- 10. Amos Priest of Bethel Shepherd, dresser of sycamores Religion requires more than ritual observances; it requires a moral life. Harsh critic of Israelite society; 25 years after Amos, Samaria falls to Assyria. Prophet of Doom
- 11. Amos Concern for justice is passionate Demands in all areas of life: political, economic, judicial The fall of Israel is inevitable because of corruption and injustice. Structure of two sentence pronouncements of sins, judgment
- 12. Amos Independent; southerner who proclaims in the north Does not rely on priests or kings for support Prophecies against the king make the priests nervous Independence leads to blunt and somewhat offensive style Cows of Bashan (4:1) to refer to women of Samaria
- 13. words and woes Hear this word (3) Hear this word (4) Hear this word (5) Woe (5:7) Woe (5: 18) Woe (6:1) Followed by Visions for renewal
- 14. Amos Amos was the conscience of the nation and spoke for the powerless. Who are the powerless in our time? Who speaks for them? Take away from me your noisy songs; The melodies of your harps, I will not listen to them. 24Rather let justice surge like waters, and righteousness like an unfailing stream. (5:23-24) How is acting justly linked to prayer and worship?
- 15. Micah Anthology of short speeches Judgment speeches Salvation speeches Concern about the impending Assyrian invasion and social justice Accuses ruling elite of corruption Impatience with false prophets
- 16. Micah Similar to Jeremiah in tone and in terms of acceptance He was a poor peasant farmer/shepherd class Impending Judgment God is coming to judge The rich have taken from the poor; the Assyrians will take from the rich Virtue requires justice and facing reality
- 17. Micah Uses the Hebrew word hesed for covenant, which refers to the steadfast love that binds two parties together. Punishment is deserved, but Micah still mourns for his people. Zion is a plowed field
- 18. Micah Prophecies of Restoration Probably added after Babylonian exile Hope after destruction Prophecy for Bethlehem Indictment of Israel Israels failure to respond to Gods faithfulness True religion is based on acting justly, walking humbly, loving tenderly
- 19. Micah Concluding Indictment and Prayer Only solution to the corruption of the society is repentance and reliance on the Lord God will forgive a repentant people and restore them to favor.
- 20. Micah Prophets who point out the problems in society are not popular. What true prophets do we have in our time? What professional prophets in our time mislead people in our time?
- 21. Micah But you, Bethlehem-Ephrathah least among the clans of Judah, From you shall come forth for me one who is to be ruler in Israel; Whose origin is from of old, from ancient times. What does this section from Micah mean for you? Why is it significant that Jesus will come from Bethlehem?