[Mary Cyr] Performing Baroque Music

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    title: Performing Baroque Musicauthor: Cyr, Mary.

    publisher:isbn10 | asin: 1574670433

    print isbn13: 9781574670431ebook isbn13: 9780585340838

    language:subject

    publication date:lcc:

    ddc:subject:

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    Performing Baroque Music

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    Attributed to Constantin Netscher (1688 1723), "Portrait de Johann Schenck, musiciende l'Electeur Palatin," oil on canvas, 69 cm 52 cm, Conservation du chteau et desMuses de Blois, France. Johannes Schenck (1660 1712), a composer and virtuoso

    performer on the viola da gamba, worked at the court in Dsseldorf.

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    Performing Baroque Music

    Mary Cyr

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    A note about the paperback reprint. Amadeus Press has discontinued production of the companion cassettementioned in the Preface. Contact Amadeus Press for availability of the remaining cassette stock.

    Inside front cover illustrationThe tempest from the opera Alcyone (1706) by Marin Marais, with an indication for double bass in the orchestra, anovelty at the time. From the copy in the Music Library, University of California, Berkeley.

    Inside back cover illustrationThe instrumental parts for three viols and lute from the song "Cease leaden slumber" by Tobias Hume (PoeticallMusicke, London, 1607). The instrumental parts were printed in this manner to permit the players to read from asingle book.

    Cover illustrationJohann Georg Platzer (1704 1761), "Das Konzert," oil on copper 58 84 cm, Nrnberg, Germanisches NationalMuseum.

    Copyright 1992 by Amadeus Press(an imprint of Timber Press, Inc.)All rights reserved.

    Paperback edition printed 1998

    Printed in Hong Kong

    AMADEUS PRESS133 S.W. Second Avenue, Suite 450Portland, Oregon 97204, U.S.A.1-800-327-5680 (U.S.A. and Canada only)

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Cyr, Mary.Performing baroque music / Mary Cyr ; Reinhard G. Pauly, generaleditor.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 1-57467-043-3 (paperback)1. Performance practice (Music)17th century. 2. Performance practice(Music)18th century. I. Pauly, Reinhard G. II. Title.ML457.C9 1992781.4'3'09032dc20 92-97 CIP MN

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    Contents

    List of Musical Examples 8

    List of Tables 10

    List of Figures 11

    Abbreviations 12

    Preface 15

    Acknowledgments 17

    1. Performance Practice and Baroque Sound 21

    The Role of the Performer in Baroque Music

    23

    The Sources and Tools for Studying Baroque Performance

    24

    Baroque Sound

    24

    Bibliographical Notes

    26

    2. Tempo and Spirit 29

    Tempo Mark and Meter in Baroque Music

    30

    Determining the Appropriate Spirit

    31

    Affect and the Aria

    35

    Tempo in Seventeenth-century Music

    36

    The Eighteenth-century Adagio

    38

    Other Baroque Tempo Marks

    41

  • The Dances and Their Tempos

    42

    Bibliographical Notes

    45

    3. Dynamics 49

    Written and Unwritten Dynamic Nuances in the Seventeenth Century

    50

    Written and Implied Dynamics in Eighteenth-century Music

    52

    The Relationship of Dynamics to Harmony

    54

    Bibliographical Notes

    56

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    4. Pitch, Tuning, and Temperament 59

    The Nonstandard Nature of Baroque Pitches and Temperaments

    60

    Northern Germany: The Background to Bach's Pitches

    61

    J. S. Bach's Pitches

    62

    Low Pitches Used in France

    63

    Some High and Low Pitches in Italy

    64

    Choosing a Pitch for Modern Performance

    64

    Equal and Nonequal Temperaments

    65

    Bibliographical Notes

    67

    5. The Basso Continuo 71

    Use and Function of the Continuo in the Seventeenth Century

    72

    The Choice of Continuo Instruments in French Music

    73

    The Continuo Instruments in Bach's Music

    74

    Realizing the Continuo Part

    74

    Summary and Modern Considerations

    81

    Bibliographical Notes

    83

  • 6. Articulation 87

    Lully and Seventeenth-century French Orchestral Practice

    89

    The Emergence of Solo Styles of Articulation in the Eighteenth Century

    94

    Late Baroque Solo and Orchestral Playing

    97

    Woodwind Articulation

    100

    Articulation in Singing

    102

    Keyboard Articulation

    103

    Summary: Choosing an Articulation

    106

    Bibliographical Notes

    106

    7. Rhythm and Notation 109

    The Unmeasured Prelude

    110

    Declamation and Recitative

    111

    Other Rhythmic Alterations

    116

    Summary and Final Thoughts

    120

    Bibliographical Notes

    120

    8. Ornamentation 123

    The Early Baroque Period

    124

    Italian Ornamentation after 1660

    128

  • French Ornamentation after 1660

    132

    Vocal Ornamentation

    136

    J. S. Bach's Ornamentation

    138

    Bibliographical Notes

    140

    Appendix A: Guide to Scores 145

    Johann Sebastian Bach: Recitative ("Zwar fhlt mein schwaches Herz") and Aria("Doch weichet, ihr tollen") from Liebster Gott, wenn werd ich sterben (BWV 8)

    147

    Johann Sebastian Bach: Sinfonia from Ich hatte viel Bekmmernis (BWV 21)

    161

    Dieterich Buxtehude: Sonata in A, Op. 2, No. 5

    165

    Andr Campra: Forlana from L'Europe galante

    179

    Arcangelo Corelli: Sonata Op. 5, No. 5

    185

    Louis Couperin: Prelude in F for Harpsichord

    197

    George Frideric Handel: Aria ("Sirti, scogli, tempeste") from Flavio

    205

    Jean-Baptiste Lully: Ouverture to Le bourgeois gentilhomme

    209

    Claudio Monteverdi:

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    Strophic Aria ("Possente spirto") from Orfeo

    215

    Jean-Philippe Rameau: Menuet in G for Harpsichord

    233

    Jean-Philippe Rameau: Menuet and Air ("Naissez dons de Flore") from Castoret Pollux

    235

    Appendix B: Bibliographies and General Studies of Performance Practice 241

    Appendix C: Pre-1800 Sources Cited 243

    Appendix D: Credits for Musical Examples and Tables 248

    Index 251

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    List of Musical Examples

    Example 2-1. Handel, Sonata No. 3 in A for Violin and Continuo, Third Movement 39

    Example 2-2. Handel, Sonata No. 3 in A for Violin and Continuo, End of the FirstMovement 40

    Example 3-1. Girolamo Fantini, Sonata for Two Unaccompanied Trumpets, fromModo per Imparare a sonare di tromba (1638) 50

    Example 3-2. Dario Castello, Sonata No. 9 from Sonate concertate, Book 1 (1621) 51

    Example 3-3. Quantz, an Adagio with Dynamic Marks to Illustrate the Manner ofAccompanying a Solo 55

    Example 5-1. Francesco Geminiani, How to Arpeggiate and Use acciaccature in theContinuo, from A Treatise of Good Taste in the Art of Musick (London, 1749) 78

    Example 5-2. J.-H. d'Anglebert, The Manner of Accompanying, from Principes del'accompagnement (1689) 79

    Example 5-3. Thomas-Louis Bourgeois, "Revenez cher amant," Air from Psich(Cantates, Book 2[Paris, 1718]), with Indication for Use of the Upper Manual on theHarpsichord 80

    Example 6-1a, b, c. George Muffat, Retaking the Bow in the French Style, fromFlorilegium secundum, 1698 91

    Example 6-2a, b. Muffat, The Detached Bow Stroke, from Florilegium secundum,1698 92

    Example 6-3a, b. Rhythmic Inequality in the French Style, According to Muffat 93

    Example 6-4. Biber, Sonata No. 9 from Sonatae tam aris quam aulis servientes(1676), with Slurs and Articulation Marks 94

    Example 6-5. Marin Marais, "Fantaisie" from 3e livre de pices de violes (Paris,1711) 96

    Example 6-6. Corrette, Sarabande for Violin with Articulation and Dynamic Marks,from L'cole d'Orphe (Paris, 1738) 96

    Example 6-7. The Use of tu and ru in Tonguing, as Shown in Hotteterre's Principesde la flte traversire, de la flte bec, et du hautbois (1707) 101

    Example 6-8. The coulez, or Slurred Tonguing, According to Hotteterre's Principesde la flte traversire, de la flte bec, et du hautbois (1707) 102

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    Example 6-9. J. S. Bach, Applicatio from the Notebook for Wilhelm FriedemannBach, with Original Fingerings 104

    Example 6-10. J. S. Bach, C Major Prelude (BWV 870a), with Fingerings Preservedin a Manuscript Copied by J. C. Vogler 105

    Example 6-11. Fingering of Scale Passages from Franois Couperin's L'art detoucher le clavecin (Paris, 1716) 105

    Example 7-1. How to Accompany a Recitative, from Quantz's On Playing the Flute(1752) 112