Marine Mammals. Order Sirenia: Manatees and Dugongs 1 species dugong1 species dugong 3 species...

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Marine Mammals Slide 2 Order Sirenia: Manatees and Dugongs 1 species dugong1 species dugong 3 species manatees3 species manatees Slide 3 Florida Manatee EndangeredEndangered HerbivoreHerbivore Migrate in WinterMigrate in Winter Inhabit tropical watersInhabit tropical waters Slide 4 Order Pinnipedia: Sea Lions, Seals and the Walrus Slide 5 Family Otariidae: Sea Lions External earsExternal ears Long neckLong neck Performs in showsPerforms in shows Pull hind flipper under bodyPull hind flipper under body Claws to end of flipperClaws to end of flipper Slide 6 Family Phocidae: Seals No external earsNo external ears Short neckShort neck Back flippers to swimBack flippers to swim Cant rotate hind flippersCant rotate hind flippers Claws at end of flippersClaws at end of flippers Slide 7 Family Odobenidae: Walrus Use vibrissae (whiskers) to feed.Use vibrissae (whiskers) to feed. Slide 8 Order Carnivora: Sea Otter Two North American Species 1.The Alaskan 2.The Californian Slide 9 Prized for pelt Over 1 million hairs/in 2Over 1 million hairs/in 2 Need thick fur because they have NO blubberNeed thick fur because they have NO blubber Oil on hair to repel waterOil on hair to repel water Slide 10 Oil Spills Oil covers fur and otters die of exposureOil covers fur and otters die of exposure When otters attempt to clean their fur, they ingest the oil and die.When otters attempt to clean their fur, they ingest the oil and die. Slide 11 Diet Eat invertebrates (urchins and abalone).Eat invertebrates (urchins and abalone). Use tools.Use tools. Slide 12 Slide 13 Order Carnivora: Polar Bears Well-developed claws, strong facial musculature, specialized teeth.Well-developed claws, strong facial musculature, specialized teeth. Slide 14 Family Ursidae Partially aquatic bears.Partially aquatic bears. Inhabit arctic sea ice, water islands & coastlines.Inhabit arctic sea ice, water islands & coastlines. Slide 15 Adaptations to the Arctic Small ears which help conserve body heat.Small ears which help conserve body heat. 12 paws act like snowshoes12 paws act like snowshoes Non-retractable claw (to grip ice)Non-retractable claw (to grip ice) Thick furThick fur Fur is oily and water repellentFur is oily and water repellent Skin is black which enables the bear to absorb sunlight energy to warm its body.Skin is black which enables the bear to absorb sunlight energy to warm its body. Have 4 inches of blubberHave 4 inches of blubber Slide 16 Need 4.4 lbs of fat a day to survive.Need 4.4 lbs of fat a day to survive. Polar bears can smell a seal more than 20 miles away.Polar bears can smell a seal more than 20 miles away. Feed mainly seals, but will scavenge other mammalsFeed mainly seals, but will scavenge other mammals Slide 17 No natural predators as adultsNo natural predators as adults Threatened species protected under MMPA (Marine Mammal Protection Act)Threatened species protected under MMPA (Marine Mammal Protection Act) No hunting in U.S., but are hunted in Canada.No hunting in U.S., but are hunted in Canada. Slide 18 Whales Order: Cetacea Suborders: 1. Mysticeti = Baleen whales 2.Odontoceti =Toothed whales Slide 19 Whale Anatomy Female whales have a genital slit and 2 mammary slits.Female whales have a genital slit and 2 mammary slits. Males have 1 genital slit.Males have 1 genital slit. Slide 20 Order Mysticeti (Baleen Whales) Largest: BlueLargest: Blue 2 nd largest: Fin2 nd largest: Fin Humpback (sings)Humpback (sings) http://www.oceanmammalinst.o rg/songs/hmpback3.wavhttp://www.oceanmammalinst.o rg/songs/hmpback3.wavhttp://www.oceanmammalinst.o rg/songs/hmpback3.wavhttp://www.oceanmammalinst.o rg/songs/hmpback3.wav 2 Blowholes2 Blowholes Humpback Minke Whale Slide 21 Baleen Used for filter feeding Grow down from upper jaw. Slide 22 Rorqual Many throat groovesMany throat grooves Shorter baleen platesShorter baleen plates Expand capacity of mouthExpand capacity of mouth Slide 23 Diving Adaptations Have 2x the RBCs, and 9x the myoglobin (than humans)Have 2x the RBCs, and 9x the myoglobin (than humans) Countercurrent heat exchange systemCountercurrent heat exchange system Veins surround arteries; heat from blood in arteries is transferred to venous blood.Veins surround arteries; heat from blood in arteries is transferred to venous blood. Mammalian diving reflex- blood is shunted away from extremities to vital organs.Mammalian diving reflex- blood is shunted away from extremities to vital organs. Slide 24 Gray Whale Undertakes the longest migration (11,000 miles) Slide 25 Order Odontoceti Examples: Sperm, Orca, Dolphins, Porpoises, Narwhal & BelugaExamples: Sperm, Orca, Dolphins, Porpoises, Narwhal & Beluga Found in fresh and salt waterFound in fresh and salt water Many toothed whales are countershaded or have disruptive coloration (killer whale)Many toothed whales are countershaded or have disruptive coloration (killer whale) Slide 26 Sperm Whales have teeth in the lower jaw only!Sperm Whales have teeth in the lower jaw only! One BlowholeOne Blowhole No sense of smell in toothed whalesNo sense of smell in toothed whales Slide 27 Largest member of Dolphin family is OrcaLargest member of Dolphin family is Orca Largest toothed whale is the Sperm WhaleLargest toothed whale is the Sperm Whale Fastest is Dalls Porpoise: 34 m.p.h.Fastest is Dalls Porpoise: 34 m.p.h. Sperm Whale Dalls Porpoise Orca Slide 28 Cooperative Hunting Orcas, false killer whales, pilot whales,Orcas, false killer whales, pilot whales, & bottlenose dolphins Hunt in packs like wolvesHunt in packs like wolves Humpbacks use bubble netting to surround their preyHumpbacks use bubble netting to surround their prey Slide 29 Echolocation Enables toothed whales to locate and discriminate objects by listening for echoesEnables toothed whales to locate and discriminate objects by listening for echoes Uses organ called a melon which contains fatsUses organ called a melon which contains fats Acts as an acoustical lens to focus sound waves out to H 2 OActs as an acoustical lens to focus sound waves out to H 2 O Sound travels 4x faster in H 2 O than in air.Sound travels 4x faster in H 2 O than in air. Lower jaw bones = sound receptionLower jaw bones = sound reception