Malicious Software Malicious Software Han Zhang & Ruochen Sun.

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Malicious Malicious Software Software Han Zhang & Ruochen Sun Han Zhang & Ruochen Sun

Transcript of Malicious Software Malicious Software Han Zhang & Ruochen Sun.

Page 1: Malicious Software Malicious Software Han Zhang & Ruochen Sun.

Malicious SoftwareMalicious Software

Han Zhang & Ruochen SunHan Zhang & Ruochen Sun

Page 2: Malicious Software Malicious Software Han Zhang & Ruochen Sun.

Malicious SoftwareMalicious Software

Page 3: Malicious Software Malicious Software Han Zhang & Ruochen Sun.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uvEz8dNilvo&feature=channel_video_titv=uvEz8dNilvo&feature=channel_video_titlele

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Backdoor or TrapdoorBackdoor or Trapdoor

secret entry point into a programsecret entry point into a program allows those who know access bypassing allows those who know access bypassing

usual security proceduresusual security procedures have been commonly used by developershave been commonly used by developers a threat when left in production programs a threat when left in production programs

allowing exploited by attackersallowing exploited by attackers requires good s/w development & updaterequires good s/w development & update

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Logic BombLogic Bomb

one of oldest types of malicious softwareone of oldest types of malicious software code embedded in legitimate programcode embedded in legitimate program activated when specified conditions metactivated when specified conditions met

eg presence/absence of some fileeg presence/absence of some file particular date/timeparticular date/time particular userparticular user

when triggered typically damage systemwhen triggered typically damage system modify/delete files/disks, halt machine, etcmodify/delete files/disks, halt machine, etc

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Trojan HorseTrojan Horse

program with hidden side-effects program with hidden side-effects which is usually superficially attractivewhich is usually superficially attractive

eg game, s/w upgrade etc eg game, s/w upgrade etc when run performs some additional taskswhen run performs some additional tasks

allows attacker to indirectly gain access they do not allows attacker to indirectly gain access they do not have directlyhave directly

often used to propagate a virus/worm or install a often used to propagate a virus/worm or install a backdoorbackdoor

or simply to destroy dataor simply to destroy data

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Mobile CodeMobile Code

program/script/macro that runs unchangedprogram/script/macro that runs unchanged on heterogeneous collection of platformson heterogeneous collection of platforms on large homogeneous collection (Windows)on large homogeneous collection (Windows)

transmitted from remote system to local transmitted from remote system to local system & then executed on local systemsystem & then executed on local system

often to inject virus, worm, or Trojan horseoften to inject virus, worm, or Trojan horse or to perform own exploitsor to perform own exploits

unauthorized data access, root compromiseunauthorized data access, root compromise

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Multiple-Threat MalwareMultiple-Threat Malware malware may operate in multiple waysmalware may operate in multiple ways multipartite multipartite virus infects in multiple waysvirus infects in multiple ways

eg. multiple file typeseg. multiple file types blended blended attack uses multiple methods of attack uses multiple methods of

infection or transmissioninfection or transmission to maximize speed of contagion and severityto maximize speed of contagion and severity may include multiple types of malwaremay include multiple types of malware eg. Nimda has worm, virus, mobile codeeg. Nimda has worm, virus, mobile code can also use IM & P2Pcan also use IM & P2P

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VirusesViruses

piece of software that infects programspiece of software that infects programs modifying them to include a copy of the virusmodifying them to include a copy of the virus so it executes secretly when host program is runso it executes secretly when host program is run

specific to operating system and hardwarespecific to operating system and hardware taking advantage of their details and weaknessestaking advantage of their details and weaknesses

a typical virus goes through phases of:a typical virus goes through phases of: dormantdormant propagationpropagation triggeringtriggering executionexecution

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Virus StructureVirus Structure

components:components: infection mechanism - enables replicationinfection mechanism - enables replication trigger - event that makes payload activatetrigger - event that makes payload activate payload - what it does, malicious or benignpayload - what it does, malicious or benign

prepended / postpended / embedded prepended / postpended / embedded when infected program invoked, executes when infected program invoked, executes

virus code then original program codevirus code then original program code can block initial infection (difficult)can block initial infection (difficult) or propogation (with access controls)or propogation (with access controls)

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Virus StructureVirus Structure

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Compression VirusCompression Virus

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Virus ClassificationVirus Classification

boot sectorboot sector file infectorfile infector macro virusmacro virus encrypted virusencrypted virus stealth virusstealth virus polymorphic viruspolymorphic virus metamorphic virusmetamorphic virus

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Macro VirusMacro Virus

became very common in mid-1990s sincebecame very common in mid-1990s since platform independentplatform independent infect documentsinfect documents easily spreadeasily spread

exploit macro capability of office appsexploit macro capability of office apps executable program embedded in office docexecutable program embedded in office doc often a form of Basicoften a form of Basic

more recent releases include protectionmore recent releases include protection recognized by many anti-virus programsrecognized by many anti-virus programs

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E-Mail VirusesE-Mail Viruses

more recent developmentmore recent development e.g. Melissae.g. Melissa

exploits MS Word macro in attached docexploits MS Word macro in attached doc if attachment opened, macro activatesif attachment opened, macro activates sends email to all on users address listsends email to all on users address list and does local damageand does local damage

then saw versions triggered reading emailthen saw versions triggered reading email hence much faster propagationhence much faster propagation

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Virus CountermeasuresVirus Countermeasures

prevention - ideal solution but difficultprevention - ideal solution but difficult realistically need:realistically need:

detectiondetection identificationidentification removalremoval

if detect but can’t identify or remove, must if detect but can’t identify or remove, must discard and replace infected programdiscard and replace infected program

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Anti-Virus EvolutionAnti-Virus Evolution

virus & antivirus tech have both evolvedvirus & antivirus tech have both evolved early viruses simple code, easily removedearly viruses simple code, easily removed as become more complex, so must the as become more complex, so must the

countermeasurescountermeasures generationsgenerations

first - signature scannersfirst - signature scanners second - heuristicssecond - heuristics third - identify actionsthird - identify actions fourth - combination packagesfourth - combination packages

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Generic DecryptionGeneric Decryption

runs executable files through GD scanner:runs executable files through GD scanner: CPU emulator to interpret instructionsCPU emulator to interpret instructions virus scanner to check known virus signaturesvirus scanner to check known virus signatures emulation control module to manage processemulation control module to manage process

lets virus decrypt itself in interpreterlets virus decrypt itself in interpreter periodically scan for virus signaturesperiodically scan for virus signatures issue is long to interpret and scanissue is long to interpret and scan

tradeoff chance of detection vs time delaytradeoff chance of detection vs time delay

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Digital Immune SystemDigital Immune System

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Behavior-Blocking SoftwareBehavior-Blocking Software

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WormsWorms

replicating program that propagates over netreplicating program that propagates over net using email, remote exec, remote login using email, remote exec, remote login

has phases like a virus:has phases like a virus: dormant, propagation, triggering, executiondormant, propagation, triggering, execution propagation phase: searches for other systems, propagation phase: searches for other systems,

connects to it, copies self to it and runsconnects to it, copies self to it and runs

may disguise itself as a system processmay disguise itself as a system process concept seen in Brunner’s “Shockwave Rider”concept seen in Brunner’s “Shockwave Rider” implemented by Xerox Palo Alto labs in 1980’simplemented by Xerox Palo Alto labs in 1980’s

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Morris WormMorris Worm

one of best know wormsone of best know worms released by Robert Morris in 1988released by Robert Morris in 1988 various attacks on UNIX systemsvarious attacks on UNIX systems

cracking password file to use login/password cracking password file to use login/password to logon to other systemsto logon to other systems

exploiting a bug in the finger protocolexploiting a bug in the finger protocol exploiting a bug in sendmailexploiting a bug in sendmail

if succeed have remote shell accessif succeed have remote shell access sent bootstrap program to copy worm oversent bootstrap program to copy worm over

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Worm Propagation ModelWorm Propagation Model

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Recent Worm AttacksRecent Worm Attacks Code RedCode Red

July 2001 exploiting MS IIS bugJuly 2001 exploiting MS IIS bug probes random IP address, does DDoS attackprobes random IP address, does DDoS attack

Code Red II variant includes backdoorCode Red II variant includes backdoor SQL SlammerSQL Slammer

early 2003, attacks MS SQL Serverearly 2003, attacks MS SQL Server MydoomMydoom

mass-mailing e-mail worm that appeared in 2004mass-mailing e-mail worm that appeared in 2004 installed remote access backdoor in infected systemsinstalled remote access backdoor in infected systems

Warezov family of wormsWarezov family of worms scan for e-mail addresses, send in attachmentscan for e-mail addresses, send in attachment

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Worm TechnologyWorm Technology

multiplatformmultiplatform multi-exploitmulti-exploit ultrafast spreadingultrafast spreading polymorphicpolymorphic metamorphicmetamorphic transport vehiclestransport vehicles zero-day exploit zero-day exploit

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Mobile Phone WormsMobile Phone Worms

first appeared on mobile phones in 2004first appeared on mobile phones in 2004 target smartphone which can install s/wtarget smartphone which can install s/w

they communicate via Bluetooth or MMSthey communicate via Bluetooth or MMS to disable phone, delete data on phone, or to disable phone, delete data on phone, or

send premium-priced messagessend premium-priced messages CommWarrior, launched in 2005CommWarrior, launched in 2005

replicates using Bluetooth to nearby phonesreplicates using Bluetooth to nearby phones and via MMS using address-book numbersand via MMS using address-book numbers

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Worm CountermeasuresWorm Countermeasures

overlaps with anti-virus techniquesoverlaps with anti-virus techniques once worm on system A/V can detectonce worm on system A/V can detect worms also cause significant net activityworms also cause significant net activity worm defense approaches include:worm defense approaches include:

signature-based worm scan filteringsignature-based worm scan filtering filter-based worm containmentfilter-based worm containment payload-classification-based worm containmentpayload-classification-based worm containment threshold random walk scan detectionthreshold random walk scan detection rate limiting and rate haltingrate limiting and rate halting

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Proactive Worm ContainmentProactive Worm Containment

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Network Based Worm DefenseNetwork Based Worm Defense

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THANK YOU!THANK YOU!