Lipids Introduction to Lipids Lipids are biomolecules that are soluble in organic solvents and...

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Transcript of Lipids Introduction to Lipids Lipids are biomolecules that are soluble in organic solvents and...

  • LipidsIntroduction to Lipids Lipids are biomolecules that are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. They are defined on the basis of a physical property not by a particular functional group, thus they have a variety of structures and functions. They contain many nonpolar CC and CH bonds and few polar bonds resulting in their water insolubility.*

  • LipidsIntroduction to LipidsLipids can be categorized as:Hydrolyzable lipids can be converted into smaller molecules by hydrolysis with water.*

  • LipidsIntroduction to LipidsLipids can be categorized as:Nonhydrolyzable lipids cannot be cleaved into smaller units by aqueous hydrolysis.*

  • Fatty Acids

    Hydrolyzable lipids are derived from fatty acids. Fatty acids are carboxylic acids (RCOOH) with long C chains of 12-20 C atoms. An example is CH3(CH2)14COOH (palmitic acid):nonpolar portion = hydrophobicpolar portion = hydrophillic*

  • Fatty Acids

    Naturally occurring fatty acids have an even number of C atoms. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds in their long hydrocarbon chains. Unsaturated fatty acids have 1 or more double bonds (generally cis) in their long hydrocarbon chains. As the number of double bonds in the fatty acid increases, the melting point decreases.*

  • Fatty Acids

    Stearic acid (mp 71 oC) is a saturated fatty acid. Oleic acid (mp 16 oC) is an unsaturated fatty acid.*

  • Fatty Acids

    Linoleic and linolenic acids are essential fatty acids; they cannot be produced by the body and must be consumed. Linoleic acid is called an omega-6 acid, because of the position of the first C=C in the nonpolar chain.*

  • Fatty Acids

    Linolenic acid is called an omega-3 acid, because of the position of the first C=C in the nonpolar chain.*

  • Waxes

    Waxes are esters (RCOOR) formed from a fatty acid and a high molecular weight alcohol. General structure of waxes: General formation of waxes:*

  • Waxes

    For example, shown below is the formation of spermaceti wax, isolated from the heads of sperm whales.*

  • Waxes

    Waxes form a protective coating on the feathers of birds to make them water repellent, and on leaves to prevent water evaporation. Beeswax (myricyl palmitate):CH3(CH2)14COO(CH2)29CH3* Beeswax contains the wax myricyl palmitate as a major component.

  • Waxes

    Like other esters, waxes are hydrolyzed with water in the presence of acid or base to re-form the carboxylic acid and alcohol they came from.*

  • TriacylglycerolsFats and Oils

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) are triesters formed from glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids. Below is a generalized block diagram of a triacylglycerol:*

  • TriacylglycerolsFats and Oils

    The general reaction for the formation of a triacylglycerol is:*

  • TriacylglycerolsFats and OilsGeneral Features Triacylglycerols may be composed of three identical fatty acid side chains, or from two or three different fatty acids. Animal fats and vegetable oils, the most abundant lipids, are triacylglycerols with different physical properties. The fatty acids may be saturated or unsaturated.*

  • TriacylglycerolsFats and OilsGeneral Features Fats have higher melting points; they are solids at room temperature. Oils have lower melting points; they are liquids at room temperature. Fats are derived from fatty acids with few double bonds. Oils are derived from fatty acids having a larger number of double bonds.*

  • TriacylglycerolsFats and OilsGeneral Features Solid fats have a relatively high percentage of saturated fatty acids and are generally animal in origin.*

  • TriacylglycerolsFats and OilsGeneral Features Liquid oils have a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids and are generally vegetable in origin. In the unsaturated lipid, a cis double bond places a kink in the side chain, making it more difficult to pack efficiently in the solid state, thus leading to a lower melting point.*

  • TriacylglycerolsFats and OilsGeneral FeaturesAnunsaturatedtriacylglycerol:*

  • Focus on Health & MedicineFats and Oils in the Diet Unsaturated triacylglycerols lower the risk of heart disease by decreasing the level of cholesterol in the blood. Triglycerols formed from omega-3 fatty acids are very helpful in lowering the risk of a heart attack. However, if the double bond of the unsaturated triacylglycerol is trans, the beneficial effect is lost. Trans fats, which are primarily synthesized instead of naturally occurring, act like saturated fats and increase the cholesterol levels in the blood.*

  • Focus on Health & MedicineFats and Oils in the Diet*

  • Hydrolysis of Triacylglycerols

    Triacylglycerols are hydrolyzed with water in the presence of acid, base, or enzymes (in the body).COCH2OCH OCH2OThe 3 bonds that breakare drawn in red.H2SO4CH2OHCH OHCH2OHglycerol+3 stearic acids3(CH2)16CH3(CH2)16CH3(CH2)16CH3+ 3 H2O*

  • Hydrolysis of TriacylglycerolsSoap Synthesis Soaps are metal salts of fatty acids prepared by basic hydrolysis (saponification) of a triacyl-glycerol.polar headionic endnonpolar tailnonpolar end*

  • Hydrolysis of TriacylglycerolsSoap SynthesisCOCH2OCH OCH2OH2OCH2OHCH OHCH2OHglycerol+RNa+ O3 soapmolecules3RRR+ 3 NaOH* The nonpolar tails dissolve grease and oil and the polar head makes it soluble in water.

  • Phospholipids

    Phospholipids are lipids that contain a P atom.* Phosphoacylglycerols are the most common phospholipid, they are the principal component of most cell membranes.

  • Structurally, they resemble a triacylglycerol, except the third fatty acid has been replaced with a phosphodiester bonded to an alcohol. PhospholipidsPhosphoacylglycerols There are two main types of phosphoacylglycerols that differ in the identity of the R group in the phosphodiester.*

  • PhospholipidsPhosphoacylglycerols One of the main types of phosphoacylglycerols is cephalin:*

  • PhospholipidsPhosphoacylglycerols The second of the main types of phosphoacyl- glycerols is lecithin:*

  • Focus on Health & MedicineCholesterol, the Most Prominent Steroid Steroids are a group of lipids whose carbon skeletons contain several fused rings:*

  • Focus on Health & MedicineCholesterol, the Most Prominent Steroid Cholesterol, the most prominent steroid, is synthesized in the liver and found in almost all body tissues. It is obtained in the diet from many sources, including meat, cheese, butter, and eggs.*

  • Focus on Health & MedicineCholesterol, the Most Prominent Steroid Elevated levels of cholesterol in the bloodstream lead to coronary artery disease, heart attack, etc. Cholesterol is insoluble in the aqueous medium of blood. It is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, aggregates of phospholipids and proteins. Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) transport cholesterol from the liver to the tissues. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) transport cholesterol from tissues back to the liver.*

  • Focus on Health & MedicineCholesterol, the Most Prominent Steroid LDLs deposit cholesterol on the walls of arteries when they carry more than is needed to form cell membranes. This forms plaque, which restricts blood flow; thus, LDL cholesterol is called bad cholesterol. HDLs reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood- stream by bringing excess back to the liver; HDL cholesterol is called good cholesterol. Recommended levels are: HDL > 40 mg/dL, LDL < 100 mg/dL, total serum cholesterol < 200 mg/dL.*

  • Steroid Hormones

    A hormone is a molecule that is synthesized in one part of an organism, which then elicits a response at a different site. Two important classes of steroid hormones include sex hormones and adrenal cortical steroids. The female sex hormones are estrogens and progestins. The male sex hormones are called androgens.*

  • The estrogens estradiol and estrone control development of secondary sex characteristics, regulate the menstrual cycle, and are made in the ovaries.Steroid HormonesFemale Sex Hormones: Estrogens*

  • Steroid HormonesFemale Sex Hormones: Progestin The progestin progesterone is called the pregnancy hormone; it is responsible for the preparation of the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg.*

  • Steroid HormonesMale Sex Hormones: Androgens Testosterone and androsterone are androgens made in the testes. They control the development of secondary sex characteristics in males.*

  • Steroid HormonesAnabolic Steroids Synthetic androgen analogues, called anabolic steroids, promote muscle growth. They have the same effect as testosterone, but are more stable, so they are not metabolized as quickly. They have come to be used by athletes and body builders, but are not permitted in competitive sports. Prolonged use of anabolic steroids can cause physical and psychological problems.*

  • Steroid HormonesAnabolic Steroids Some examples of anabolic steroids:*

  • Steroid HormonesAdrenal Cortical Steroids Three examples of adrenal cortical steroids are:aldosteronecortisonecortisol*

  • Steroid HormonesAdrenal Cortical Steroids Aldosterone regulates blood pressure and volume by controlling the concentration of Na+ and K+ in body fluids. Cortisone and cortisol serve as anti-inflammatory agents, which also regulate carbohydrate metabolism. Prolonged use of these steroids can have undesired side effects, including bone loss and high blood pressure. Prednisone, a synthetic alternative, has similar anti-inflammatory proper