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Quality of work life

Transcript of Irene Ferguson Laing



Irene Ferguson Laing (BSc. ADMIN. HRM)

A Thesis submitted to the Institute of Distance Learning, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of


June, 2009

DECLARATION I hereby declare that this submission is my own work towards the CEMBA and that, to the best of my knowledge, it contains no material previously published by another person nor material which has been accepted for the award of any other degree of the university, except where due acknowledgement has been made in the text.

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DEDICATION I dedicate this work to my mother Miss Margaret Yankson for her love and encouragement.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Foremost, I am grateful to God for seeing me through my years of University education. I dedicate this work to God Almighty. He has been the wind beneath my wings. His Grace and Mercy has brought me thus far and I am grateful.

My deepest appreciation and thanks go to my supervisor, Mr. Jude T. Adjoe for his guidance and constructive criticisms that helped me stay focused from the beginning of this work to the end.

I am highly indebted to Mr. Stanislaus Friday Keh, Director of Friskeh Company Ltd. for his unwavering support and also for his material and financial support throughout my education and research work. Thank you for believing in me.

I also want to thank the Management and staff of Ghana Ports and Harbors Authority for their help and contribution towards the success of this project.

Finally, I am grateful to Mr. Adolph Lokko of Central University College for proof reading my work.


ABSRACT The quality of Human Resource is an asset to any organization and as a result Training has become an issue that has to be faced by every organization. The amount, and quality of training carried out varies enormously from organization to organization due to factors such as the degree of external change, for instance, new markets or new processes, the adaptability of existing workforce and importantly the extent to which the organization supports the idea of internal career development. Most organizations meet their needs for training in an ad hoc and haphazard way whiles others set about identifying their training needs, then design training activities in a rational manner and finally assess the results of training. This study, therefore, sought to determine the impact of Training and Development on public sector organizations using Ghana Ports and Harbors Authority (GPHA) as a case study. The research was intended to determine the role and impact of training on employees with emphasis on the lower, middle level staff and the administrators of GPHA, who were randomly selected. The study assessed the training and development process of GPHA and whether training has improved employee performance. A questionnaire was designed using structured questions to collect primary data from employees of GPHA. Personal interviews were held with some management staff of the organization. The results indicated that GPHAs employees were not well informed about training and development programmes in the organization. Most of the employees were of the view that training and development were effective tools for both personal and organizational success. The findings revealed that training practices, methods and activities at GPHA are not in line with the best practices regarding the planned and systematic nature of the training process as is generally known. It was


recommended among other things, that the processes involved in training be duly followed, GPHA should help its staff identify their career paths and to guide them in the pursuit of higher education.


TABLE OF CONTENTS Title page Declaration Dedication Acknowledgement Abstract Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures List of Abbreviations CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background information 1.2 Statement of the problem 1.3 Objectives of the study 1.4 Hypotheses of the study 1.5 Significance of the study 1.6 Scope of the study 1.7 Limitation 1.8 Organization of the study CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Overview of Training 2.2 Human Resource Management 2.3 Human Resource Management and Training 2.4 Training 2.5 Benefits of Training 2.6 Principles of Training 2.7 The Training Process 2.7.1 Training Policies and Resources 2.7.2 Determination of Training needs 2.7.3 Determining Training Objectives and Training Plan 2.7.4 Presenting the Training 2.7.5 Evaluation of Training 2.7.6 Methods of Evaluation 2.8 Training, Performance and Productivity 2.9 Career Development 2.9.1 Career Development Advantages CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Research Design 3.2 Target Population 3.3 Sampling size and Sampling procedure 3.4 Source of data collection 3.5 Research Instrument i ii iii iv v vi x xi xii

1 3 5 5 6 6 6 7

8 9 10 11 13 15 16 16 18 20 22 28 29 30 31 32

34 34 35 35 36


3.6 3.7 3.8

Administration of the Instrument Analyses of Data Limitations

37 38 39

CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS 4.1 Overview of GPHA 4.2 History of GPHA 4.1.2 Administration of GPHA 4.1.3 Role of GPHA 4.2. Involvement of GPHA in training and development activities for 10 years (1999 2008) 4.3 Purpose of training and development at GPHA 4.4 Training and development policy at GPHA 4.5 Training and development practices and methods at GPHA 4.5.1 Age of respondents 4.5.2 Gender of respondents 4.5.3 Educational background 4.5.4 Job position of respondents 4.5.5 Years of service in the organization 4.5.6 Participation in training 4.5.7 Selection for training 4.5.8 Objectives of training 4.5.9 Types of training 4.5.10 Methods of training 4.5.11 Training evaluation 4.5.12 Sponsorship for further studies 4.5.13 Career progression projections for employees 4.5.14 Training and development projections for employees 4.5.15 Assessment of the nature of training at GPHA 4.6 Effects of training and development on worker performance and Productivity 4.6.1 Motivation through Training 4.6.2 Employee potential for development through training 4.6.3 Training and employee performance CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION 5.1 General Summary 5.2 Summary of findings 5.3 Recommendations 5.4 Conclusion Appendix 1: Questionnaire for Employees of GPHA Appendix 2: Interview Schedule for Management of GPHA

40 40 42 42 44 44 45 48 48 49 50 50 52 52 53 55 56 56 58 58 59 59 60 61 61 62 62

65 66 68 73


LIST OF TABLES 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 Educational background of respondents Position of respondents Years of service in the organization Respondents participation in training at GPHA Selection for training Response to participation in training Type of training received Accessibility of training at GPHA to respondents Self-sponsorship for further studies Respondents opinion on planned and systematic nature of training and development activities at GPHA Motivation through training Opportunity for personal development Respondents opinion of training effect on employee performance Training impact on higher skills


LIST OF FIGURES 4.1 4.2 4.3 Employee awareness of existence of training policy at GPHA Age distribution of respondents Gender composition of respondents


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS GPHA - Ghana Ports and Harbors Authority SKAC - Skills, Knowledge, Attributes and Competencies GIMPA- Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration HRM Human Resource Management


CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION1.1 Background Information Human Resources have played a significant role in the economic development in most developed countries such as United States of America, Britain and Japan among others. It can, therefore be concluded that a developing country like Ghana, with its rich natural resources and the necessary financial support can also experience such economic success if the appropriate attention is given to the development and training of her human resource. It is thus seen that in Ghana the government is taking adequate steps to ensure that people acquire the necessary knowledge and skills.

The provision of secondary and technical schools, vocational training institutes and colleges, professional and tertiary institutions, as well as the educational reforms currently taking place in the country, are all geared towards the acquisition of skills and knowledge to ensure effectiveness and efficiency in our workplaces. (Professor Mike Ocquaye, former Minister of the Ministry of Education at the 5th Congregation of Central University College, August 2004.)

With these efforts by the government, it has become necessary for organizations to provide long and systematic training and development programs for its employees. This is because every aspect and activity of an organization involves people. For instance, a manager in an organization will not be successful until he has subordinates beneath him who are well equipped with skills, talent and knowledge.


To manage an organization both large and small requires staffing them with competent personnel. The formal educational system does not adequately teach specific job skills for a position in a particular organization. F