Introduction to nanotechnology charles p. poole jr., frank j. owens

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Transcript of Introduction to nanotechnology charles p. poole jr., frank j. owens


2. Copyright Q 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reservedPublished by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.Published simultaneously in Canada.No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any formor by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except aspermitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the priorwritten permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy feeto the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc.. 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. 978-750-8400,fax 978-750-4470, or on the web at Requests to the Publisher for permission shouldbe addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 11 1 River Street, Hoboken,NJ 07030, (201) 748-601 1, fax (201) 748-6008, e-mail: of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: While the publisher and author have used their best effortsin preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with respect to the accuracy orcompleteness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties ofmerchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by salesrepresentatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitablefor your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher norauthor shall be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damages, including but not limited tospecial, incidental, consequential, or other damages.For general information on our other products and services please contact our Customer Care Departmentwithin the US. at 877-762-2974, outside the US. at 3 17-572-3993 or fax 317-572-4002.Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content that appears in print,however, may not be available in electronic format.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:Poole, Charles PIntroduction to nanotechnology/Charles P Poole, Jr., Frank J. Wiley-Interscience publication.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 0-471 -07935-9 (cloth)1. Nanotechnology. I. Owens, Frank J. 11. TitleT174.7. P66 2003620.54~21 2002191031Printed in the United States of America10 9 8 7 6 5 3. CONTENTSPreface xi1 Introduction 12 Introduction to Physics of the Solid State 82.1 Structure 8Size Dependence of Properties Crystal Structures 92.1.3 Face-Centered Cubic Nanoparticles 122.1.4 Tetrahedrally Bonded Semiconductor Structures 152.1.5 Lattice Vibrations 182.2 Energy Bands Reciprocal Space Effective Masses 282.2.5 Fermi Surfaces 29Insulators, Semiconductors, and Conductors 20Energy Bonds and Gaps of Semiconductors 232.3 Localized Particles 302. Mobility 312.3.3 Excitons 32Donors, Acceptors, and Deep Traps 303 Methods of Measuring Properties3.1 Introduction 353.2 Structure 363.2.1 Atomic Structures 363.2.2 Crystallography 3735V 4. Vi CONTENTS3.2.3 Particle Size Determination 423.2.4 Surface Structure 453.3 Microscopy 463.3.1 Transmission Electron Microscopy 463.3.2 Field Ion Microscopy 513.3.3 Scanning Microscopy 513.4 Spectroscopy 58Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy 58Photoemission and X-Ray Spectroscopy 623. Magnetic Resonance 684 Properties of Individual Nanoparticles4.1 Introduction 724.2 Metal Nanoclusters 744.2.1 Magic Numbers 744. Geometric Structure 784.2.4 Electronic Structure 814.2.5 Reactivity 834.2.6 Fluctuations 864.2.7 Magnetic Clusters 864.2.8 Bulk to Nanotransition 88Theoretical Modeling of Nanoparticles 754.3 Semiconducting Nanoparticles 904.3.1 Optical Properties 904.3.2 Photofkagmentation 924.3.3 Coulombic Explosion 934.4 Rare Gas and Molecular Clusters 944.4.1 Inert-Gas Clusters 944.4.2 Superfluid Clusters 954.4.3 Molecular Clusters 964.5 Methods of Synthesis 974.5.1 RF Plasma 974.5.2 Chemical Methods 984.5.3 Thermolysis 994.5.4 Pulsed Laser Methods 1004.6 Conclusion 1015 Carbon Nanostructures5.1 Introduction 10372103 5. CONTENTS Vii5.2 Carbon Molecules 1035.2.1 Nature of the Carbon Bond 1035.2.2 New Carbon Structures 1055.3 Carbon Clusters 1065.3.1 Small Carbon Clusters 1065.3.2 Discovery of c60 1075. Alkali-Doped c60 1105.3.5 Superconductivity in c60 1125. Other Buckyballs 113Structure of c60 and Its Crystal 110Larger and Smaller Fullerenes 1135.4 Carbon Nanotubes 1145.4.1 Fabrication 1145.4.2 Structure 1175.4.3 Electrical Properties 11 85.4.4 Vibrational Properties 1225.4.5 Mechanical Properties 1235.5 Applications of Carbon Nanotubes 125Field Emission and Shielding 1255. Computers 1265.5.3 Fuel Cells 1275.5.4 Chemical Sensors 1285.5.5 Catalysis 1295.5.6 Mechanical Reinforcement 1306 Bulk Nanostructured Materials6.1 Solid Disordered Nanostructures 1336.1.1 Methods of Synthesis 1336.1.2 Failure Mechanisms of ConventionalGrain-Sized Materials 1376.1.3 Mechanical Properties 1396.1.4 Nanostructured Multilayers 1416.1.5 Electrical Properties 1426.1.6 Other Properties 1476. Porous Silicon 150Metal Nanocluster Composite Glasses 1486.2 Nanostructured Crystals 1536.2.1 Natural Nanocrystals 1536. Prediction of Cluster Lattices 153Arrays of Nanoparticles in Zeolites 154Crystals of Metal Nanoparticles 157133 6. viii CONTENTS6.2.5 Nanoparticle Lattices in Colloidal Suspensions 1586.2.6 Photonic Crystals 1597 Nanostructured Ferromagnetism7.1 Basics of Ferromagnetism 1657.27.3 Dynamics of Nanomagnets 1727.4 Nanopore Containment of Magnetic Particles 1767.5 Nanocarbon Ferromagnets 1777.67.7 Ferrofluids 186Effect of Bulk Nanostructuring of Magnetic Properties 170Giant and Colossal Magnetoresistance 18 18 Optical and Vibrational Spectroscopy8.1 Introduction 1948.2 Infrared Frequency Range 1968. Infrared Surface Spectroscopy 1988.2.3 Raman Spectroscopy 2038.2.4 Brillouin Spectroscopy 210Spectroscopy of Semiconductors; Excitons 1968.3 Luminescence 2138.3.1 Photoluminescence 2138.3.2 Surface States 2158.3.3 Thermoluminescence 2218.4 Nanostructures in Zeolite Cages 2229 Quantum Wells, Wires, and Dots9.1 Introduction 2269.29.3Preparation of Quantum Nanostructures 227Size and Dimensionality Effects 2319.3.1 Size Effects 2319. Potential Wells 2369.3.5 Partial Confinement 2419.3.6Conduction Electrons and Dimensionality 233Fermi Gas and Density of States 234Properties Dependent on Density of States 242165194226 7. CONTENTS iX9.4 Excitons 2449.5 Single-Electron Tunneling 2459.6 Applications 2489.6.1 Infrared Detectors 2489.6.2 Quantum Dot Lasers 2519.7 Superconductivity 25310 Self-Assembly and Catalysis10.1 Self-Assembly 25710.1.1 Process of Self-Assembly 25710.1.2 Semiconductor Islands 25810.1.3 Monolayers 26010.2 Catalysis 26410.2.1 Nature of Catalysis 26410. Porous Materials 26810.2.4 Pillared Clays 27310.2.5 Colloids 277Surface Area of Nanoparticles 26411 Organic Compounds and Polymers1 1.1 Introduction 28 11 1.2 Forming and Characterizing Polymers 2831 1.2.1 Polymerization 28311.2.2 Sizes of Polymers 28411.3 Nanocrystals 2851 Polydiacetylene Types 289Condensed Ring Types 28511.4 Polymers 2921 1.4.1 Conductive Polymers 2921 1.4.2 Block Copolymers 29311.5 Supramolecular Structures 2951 1.5.1 Transition-Metal-Mediated Types 2951 1.5.2 Dendritic Molecules 29611.5.3 Supramolecular Dendrimers 30211.5.4 Micelles 305257281 8. X CONTENTS12 Biological Materials12.1 Introduction 3 1012.2 Biological Building Blocks 3 1 of Building Blocks and Nanostructures 3 11Polypeptide Nanowire and Protein Nanoparticle 3 1412.3 Nucleic Acids 3 1612.3.1 DNA Double Nanowire 31612.3.2 Genetic Code and Protein Synthesis 32212.4 Biological Nanostructures 32412.4.1 Examples of Proteins 32412.4.2 Micelles and Vesicles 32612.4.3 Multilayer Films 32913 Nanomachines and Nanodevices13.1 Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMSs) 33213.2 Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMSs) 33513.2.1 Fabrication 33513.2.2 Nanodevices and Nanomachines 33913.3 Molecular and Supramolecular Switches 345A Formulas for DimensionalityA. 1 Introduction 357A.2 Delocalization 357A.3 Partial Confinement 358B Tabulations of Semiconducting Material PropertiesIndex31 0332357361371 9. PREFACEIn recent years nanotechnology has become one of the most important and excitingforefront fields in Physics, Chemistry, Engineering and Biology. It shows greatpromise for providing us in the near future with many breakthroughs that willchange the direction of technological advances in a wide range of applications. Tofacilitate the timely widespread utilization of this new technology it is important tohave available an overall summary and commentary on this subject which issufficiently detailed to provide a broad coverage and insight into the area, and atthe same time is sufficiently readable and thorough so that it can reach a wideaudience of those who have a need to know the nature and prospects for the field.The present book hopes to achieve these two aims.The current widespread interest in nanotechnology dates back to the years 1996to 1998 when a panel under the auspices of the World Technology Evaluation Center(WTEC), funded by the National Science Foundation and other federal agencies,undertook a world-wide study of research and development in the area of nano-technology,with the purpose of assessing its potential for technological innovation.Nanotechnology is based on the recognition that particles less than the size of 100nanometers (a nanometer is a billionth of a meter) impart to nanostructures builtfrom them new properties and behavior. This happens because particles which aresmaller than the characteristic lengths associated with particular phenomena oftendisplay new ch