Introduction Ashok Dhruv, Llc

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  • Tools andResourcesUsed toMaximizeProfits

  • We provide Technology and Engineering servicesFrom Concept to Commercialization Productivity and Growth

    It is all about business and finance - $$$

    ....Under legal and ethical constraints

    To all segments of the Food and Beverage Industry35 years of experience and expertise Comprehensive and VersatileBy maximizing economic as well as consumer needsA distinctive approach Competitive Advantage with ConfidenceWith technical rigor appropriate to challenge First principle, statistical or empirical analysis Robust decisions

    How and Why?

    Mission

    Food Processing

    Maximize

    2 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    By: application of scientific and

    engineering principles and practices

    Leverage IT revolution

    computing power

    data access - internet

    value generation

    bridge gap between generation and use of information

    Mission

    Provide tangible and material economic benefit

    To Food and Beverage Processors,

    On a Time Effective basis

    Because

    Consumer wants and needs are rapidly changing

    Technology is available

    With Employment of skills and resources on as needed basis

    3

  • First things First Fulfill a BUSINESS NEEDMatch resources technology and engineering to need

    Product life cycle Growth share matrix

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 90004

  • Proteins

    CaseinSoy Isolate

    Carbohydrates

    Starches, Sweetners

    Bio-Ethanol

    Animal feed

    Bio-Waste

    Essential nutrients

    FiberVitamins and Minerals

    Fats and Oils

    Ghee, ButterCookin Oil, ShorteningLard, Tallow

    Bio-Diesel

    Fractionation of Agricutural produce

    Commodity products are enablers for consumer products

    Agricultural products

    Fruits and Vegetables Corn, Soy, Peanuts, Beans

    Milk, FishMeat - Poultry

    From farm to food industry and commerce

    5 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Concept to Commercialization the journey

    6 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Services: Technology Sourcing and Selection-Selected examples

    Open Innovation

    In House - Incremental

    Cross fertilization

    Leverage

    Public Domain - Radical

    USDA Puffing Gun

    NASA / Military

    Academia

    Know how and Expertise

    Consortias - Targeted

    NCFFST

    CAFT

    Acquisitions / Mergers - Radical

    Technology transfer to China

    Nutritious meats / TSP

    RBD Oil/Margarine/Soy Isolate

    Caramel Color

    E/P/C services

    Supercritical Extraction

    MW applications

    130 MM Cereal plant

    Bio-Diesel

    Corn Wet milling Complex

    Artisan Bread

    Abattoir Yield / PSE reduction

    Food and Beverage processors

    Orange juice / Concentrate

    Sports drinks / HF

    7

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Services: Product and Process Development

    Product

    Marketing - Consumer

    Focus / CLT / HUT

    BASIS

    Product

    Scale Bench / PP

    Formulation / Ingr.

    Regulatory

    Label / Std. of Identity

    Functional properties

    Safety / Sensory / S.Life

    Margin / Contribution

    Process - Selection

    Unit Operations / Processes

    Characterize Ingr. Streams

    Cause & Effect Correlation

    Quantification -Modeling

    Mathematical / Statistical

    Empirical / 1st Principle

    Pilot Planting - Verification

    Scale Up / Start - Up

    Pilot to Commercial

    C P

    8

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Services: Process EngineeringProduction of Engineering deliverable for Procurement

    9

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Services: Project Engineering Support to PMCoordination of disciplines and other technical inputs

    10

  • Services: Financial analysis ROI, NPV, IRR

    Fixed and Variable costs Factored Capital cost estimate

    Total project costs based on factors for project components

    Value and Basis of factors

    Category Engineers Aide PI CS

    Food/Pharm.

    industry factor

    SS Engineers Aide PI CS

    Food/Pharm.

    industry factor

    SS

    Equipment 20.70% 20.70% 34.31% 28.87% 28.90% 44.84%

    Installation 9.80% 9.73% 8.06% 13.67% 13.58% 10.53%

    I&C 3.70% 3.73% 3.09% 5.16% 5.21% 4.04%

    Piping and Valves and fittings 13.70% 13.66% 11.32% 19.11% 19.07% 14.79%

    Electrical and lighting 2.30% 2.28% 1.89% 3.21% 3.18% 2.47%

    Building and services 3.70% 3.73% 3.09% 5.16% 5.21% 4.04%

    Land and site work 3.30% 3.31% 2.75% 4.60% 4.62% 3.59%

    Utilities and service facilities 14.50% 14.49% 12.01% 20.22% 20.23% 15.70%

    Total direct costs 71.70% 71.63% 76.52% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

    Engineering, design, management 6.80% 6.83% 5.66%

    Construction expenses and fees 12.80% 12.84% 10.63%

    Total contingencies 8.70% 8.70% 7.20%

    Total indirect costs 28.30% 28.37% 23.49%

    Total project costs 100% 100% 100%

    11 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Return on

    Capital

    1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7

    1.67 106

    3.33 106

    5 106

    6.67 106

    8.33 106

    1 107

    1.17 107

    1.33 107

    1.5 107

    1.67 107

    1.83 107

    2 107

    Refrigeration cost

    Facility cost

    Total cost, $

    Figure 1:

    Time for cooling, hours

    Cap

    ital

    co

    st,

    $

    2 107

    0

    c r

    c f

    c t

    71

    hr

    Services: Financial analysis ROI, NPV, IRRFreezing tunnel - Hog Carcass Chill Room

    12

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900013

    Capital cost optimization - Example

    80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 1800.5

    0.75

    1

    1.25

    1.5

    1.75

    2

    2.25

    2.5

    Refrigeration system cost

    Facility cost, @ 50 $/sq ft

    Total cost, FC @ 40 $/Sq.Ft.

    Total cost, FC @ 50 $/Sq.Ft.

    Total cost, FC @ 60 $/Sq.Ft.

    Capital cost minimization

    Time in chiller, minutes

    Inst

    alle

    d c

    ost

    s, $

    in

    Mil

    lio

    ns

    2.5

    0.5

    RC t( ) 106

    FC 50 t( ) 106

    TC 40 t( ) 106

    TC 50 t( ) 106

    TC 60 t( ) 106

    18080 t

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Services: Capital Project Management

    14

  • Concept to commercializationBusinessCase

    Concept development

    Basic / Preliminary Engineering

    Detailed Engineering

    Procurement

    Construction / Installation

    Start-Up and Commisioning

    Evaluation of Business opportunity:Growth New product / Line ExtensionProductivity Cost reduction Business fit strategic / tactical

    Research and DevelopmentMarket insights- Share / Niche / NeedTechnical problem solvingRefine techno-economic assumptions

    Feasibility studies Process definition in detailTechnical / EconomicalSensitivity analysisPFD / P&ID / Data sheets Cost estimate +/-: 15-30 %

    Engineering and documentationDrawings / SpecificationsRequest for Proposal / QuotationBids / Quotes analysisCost estimate +/-: 10-20 %

    Purchasing and follow UpBid award / Purchase ordersFabrication Assembly drawing approvalInspection /Expediting / FAT

    Construction / InstallationMobilize tradesDry runsElectro / Mechanical completionCost estimate +/-: 10-15 %

    Start Up and CommissioningWet runs / Training / SATCommission/Qualify/ValidateCost estimate +/-: 10 %

    15 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • It is all about business and finance - $$$

    ....Under legal and ethical constraints

    To all segments of the Food and Beverage Industry35 years of experience and expertise Comprehensive and Versatile

    How and Why?

    Mission

    Food Processing

    Maximize

    16 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Protect and Package

    BulkRetail

    Raw materials

    Retrival and Storage

    Kinetics Reactions

    MicrobialEnzymatic

    Bio-Chemistry

    Transport processes

    Heat transferMass transfer

    Momentum transfer

    Input

    WaterCarbohydrates

    ProteinsFats and Oils

    Output Food product

    Safety Microbial Shelf life Nutrition

    Sensory aspects

    Return on Investment

    Food and Beverage ProcessingA generic outline the common basis

    17 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Cereals

    General Mills

    130 MM Grassroots

    Arizona

    35 MM Expansion

    Cedar Rapids

    8 MM Addition

    Bugles / W. Chicago

    Granola

    Extruded corn @ F/L

    Rumbles

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Bakery: Experience by Industry SegmentsSelected examples

    Bakery

    20 MM Artisan Bread

    25 MM Duncan Hines

    Aurora foods /Fru-con

    8 MM Gourmet Cake

    Refrigerated Dough

    Earthgrains

    Single serve cup cakes

    Sara lee / F-L

    Hot Pockets - Fruit

    18

  • Bakery

    19 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Emulsified /

    Comminuted /

    Restructured meats

    Pizza toppings

    Doskocil foods

    Dim Sum items 3I

    50 % TSP

    Simulates Steaks 3I

    Pet Foods -

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Meat: Experience by Industry SegmentsSelected examples

    Bulk Meat

    Kill floor design

    Hogs

    Freezer comparisons

    PSE reduction

    Drip loss

    Mathematical model

    Myosin Kinetics

    20

  • X-101

    Stun

    X-102

    Position

    X-103

    Stick

    X-104

    Shackle

    X-105

    Cold water dip

    X-106

    Scald

    X-107

    Dehair

    X-108

    Gambril

    X-116

    Head cut off

    X-115

    Final wash

    X-114

    Final shave

    Clip eye lids

    X-113

    Hot water wash

    X-112

    Singeing

    X-111

    Toe-nails pinch off

    X-110

    Manual shaving

    X-109

    Cold water spray

    X-117

    Open carcass

    X-118

    Remove aitch bone

    X-119

    Open breast bone

    X-120

    Bung drop

    X-121

    Eviscerate

    Lung, heart, liver,etc

    X-122

    Eviscerate

    Thyroid

    X-123

    Eviscerate

    Kidneys

    X-124

    Eviscerate

    Split carcass

    X-132

    Chilling

    X-131

    Water spray

    X-130

    Grading

    pH measure

    X-129

    Scaling

    X-128

    Washing

    Carcass / Neck

    X-127

    Ham facing

    X-126

    Leaf fat removal

    X-125

    Trim

    Bruises and blemishes

    102

    From stunning

    140

    After leaf

    fat removal

    138

    From kidney

    Evisceration

    134

    To thyroid

    removal

    136

    To kidney

    removal

    132

    To evisceration130

    After aitch

    bone removal

    143

    To scale

    146

    To chilling

    101

    Hogs From supply pens

    128

    After head cut off

    X-133

    Equilibration

    147

    To Equilibration

    102 102 102 102 103108

    To Gambrieling

    107

    Hair and water

    104

    Fresh water

    105

    Scald Purge

    109

    Cold water supply

    106

    Hot water

    140 F

    110

    111

    Cold water discharge

    112

    115

    To Singeing118

    From Singeing

    121

    To final shave

    126

    From Final wash

    123

    To final wash

    113

    Shavings

    114

    Toe -Nails

    117

    Gas exhaust

    116

    Gas supply

    119

    Hot water

    120

    Hot water purge

    122

    Shavings

    124

    Hot water

    125

    Hot water purge

    127

    Cut Heads

    129

    Aitch bone

    131

    Bung

    133

    Liver, lung, heart

    etc.

    135

    Thyroid

    137

    Kidneys

    139

    Leaf fat

    142

    Wash water purge

    145

    Water discharge

    141

    Wash water144

    Water

    148

    To Fabrication

    108

    To Gambrieling

    128

    After opening

    carcass

    130

    To bung drop

    138

    To B&B trim

    138

    From B&B trim

    140

    After ham facing

    143

    From scale

    143

    To water spray

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Experience by Industry SegmentsMeat Abattoir Generic Flow Diagram

    21

  • Consumer products

    Real cheese

    Edam / Gouda

    Cheese spreads

    Processed - American

    Non Dairy - Analogs

    Cream cheese

    Mozarella

    Processed American

    Soy cheese

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Dairy: Experience by Industry SegmentsSelected examples

    Commodities

    Milk proteins -

    Casein / Caseinates

    Non Fat Dry Milk

    Whey solids

    Soy proteins

    Isolates /

    Concentrates

    Enzyme Modified

    Cheese

    Yogurt

    22

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000 23

    Dairy Stirred yogurt exampleProcess improvement P&F HX with corrugated tubes

    Source: Dairy Processing Handbook. Published by Tetra Pak Processing Systems AB, S-221 86 Lund, Sweden. pg. 249.

  • Corrugated tube Double tube design

  • Generic approach

    Assume pressure drop

    Derive Viscosity, Velocity, Shear profile

    Predict U, Derive T Vs length profile

    Pick L for T< 100. Calculate Del P

    Iterate with new Del P

    Add Del P for elbows

    Summarize results

    25 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Provide Insight

    Explore ideas

    Evaluate design

    alternatives

    Challenge: Temperature and Pressure profileDouble, multi tube Corrugated or Spiral

  • Indian / Oriental

    Dals / Sambhar

    Curries

    Veg. / Non-

    Vegetarian

    Dairy (Non too)

    sweet dishes

    Rabdi / Basundi /

    Ras-Malai

    Liquid pre-mixes

    Soups

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Expertise by Industry SegmentsSelected examples: Thermally Processed Foods

    Western

    Gravies

    Meat a food dishes /

    Pet Foods

    Dips - Cheese

    Salsa

    Soups with

    Particulates

    Fruit fillings

    Purees / Concentrates

    Pie fillings

    26

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Thaw

    Blend

    Heat

    Cool

    FillHold

    Soups, Gravy, etc.: Thermally Processed FoodGeneric Block Flow Diagram

    27

  • Thermally Processed Foods Soup

    28 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900029

    Typical ingredients to consider:

    HFCS

    Liquid Sugar

    Base concentrate

    Fruit concentrates Mango, Guava, Banana, etc

    Proteins

    Gums and processing aids

    Spices

    Allergen containing

    Beads formulated additives

    Functional aids nutrition, specific health benefit

    Ethnic ingredients flavorings, etc.

    Physical properties:

    Density, Viscosity, Specific heat, thermal conductivity and surface tension

    Particle size and distribution

    Chemical properties: Reaction rate constants and Activation Energy

    Microbial properties:

    Ni, F0 , z, D TR for target organism / range.

    Above corresponding values for Enzymes. Example - Peroxidases, Pectin Galacto-Uranse for fruits and veggies, etc.

    And / or Reaction rate constants and Activation Energy

    Beverages Hot Fill, Chilled, AsepticIngredient properties of interest

  • Beverages Conceptual PFDBulk bottles to rinsing

    30 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Beverages Conceptual PFDBlend to thermal

    31 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    T-2100

    Pre-mix tank

    xx ft Dia X xx ft TT

    xx Gal.

    316 SS

    T-103

    Balance Tank

    xx ft Dia. X xx ft TT

    316 SS

    T-2110 / 2120

    Blend tank

    xx ft Dia. X xx ft TT

    xx Gal

    316 SS

    P-2101

    Pre- mix pump

    xx gpm @ xx TDH

    316 SS

    P-2411

    Balance tank pump

    xx gpm @ xx TDH

    316 SS

    P-2130/2131

    Blend pump

    xx gpm, xx TDH

    316 SS

    E-201

    Heater

    xx BTUH, xx Sq. ft.

    E-203

    Divert cooler

    xx BTUH, xx Sq. ft.

    E-202

    Trim cooler

    xx BTUH, xx Sq. ft.

    223

    Feed to hold tibe

    222

    Blend to Thermal

    222

    Blend to Thermal

    224

    Discharge from

    Trim cooler

    xx F

    220

    Blend

    xx GPM @ xx psi

    xx F

    210

    Premix

    xx GPM @ xx psi

    xx F

    203

    Bev Base

    220

    Blend210

    Premix

    E-202

    RO water heater

    xx Sq. ft, xx BTUH

    304 SS tube, CS shell

    231

    RO Water

    230

    230

    HX - RO Water

    Recirculation loop

    xx GPM @ xx psi

    xx F

    P-23

    294

    PP-2411

    Product feed pump

    115 GPM @ 100 ft TDH

    T-2430

    Filler supply tank

    500 Gal.

    xx ft Dia X xx ft TT

    316 SS

    PP-2434

    Filler feed pump

    105 GPM @ 35 ft

    7.5 HP

    225

    Filler supply

    T-2431

    Filler return tank

    250 Gal.

    316 SS

    E-97

    252

    Filler return to

    Divert cooler

    251

    Filler return

    xx GPM @ psi

    178 F

    221

    Recycle

    xx GPM @ psi

    90 F

    225

    Filler supply

    xx gpm @ xx psi

    xx F

    202

    Citric Acid

    204

    42 % Sucrose

    M-121

    Pallet jack

    xx Tons

    A-2110/2120

    Blend tank agitator

    xx rpm, xx hp

    M-2110/2120

    BTA motor

    A-103

    Blend tank

    agitator

    xx rpm, xx hp

    M-103

    BT motor

    A-2100

    Pre-mix tank

    agitator

    xx rpm, xx hp

    M-2100

    PMT motor

    201

    Flavor Cloud

    xx lbs/hr

    xx F,

    209

    RO Water

    xx gpm @ xx psi

    xx F,

    208

    RO Water

    205

    55 % HFCS

    206

    RO Water

    xx GPM @ xx psi

    xx F,

    HP Stm.

    Xx psi

    Cond. return

    E-201

    RO water pre heater

    xx Sq. ft, xx BTUH

    304 SS tube, CS shell

    Stm.

    Xx psi

    Cond.

    Xx gpm

    xx F

    207

    RO Water

    xx gpm @ xx psi

    xx F,

    291

    293

    295

    CTR

    290

    CTS

    xx GPM @ xx psi

    78 F

    292

    CTS

  • Beverages Conceptual PFDFilling to bottle cooling

    32Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Beverages Conceptual PFDLabeling to Warehouse

    33 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    W-401

    Shrink Wrapper

    Case Packer

    VarioPack or Hi-Cone

    L-401 A/C

    Labeller

    Case Former

    A-401

    Labeled Bottles

    Accumulator

    xx ft X xx ft, xx min

    304 SS

    P-401

    Palletizer

    412

    Formed cases

    404

    Labeled bottles

    403

    Labeled bottles

    402

    Label roll

    P-52

    406

    Pallets

    405

    Filled Cases

    P-55

    401

    Cooled bottles

    500 BPM

    90 F,

    411

    Case stock

  • Beverage Processing Equipment

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900034

    Ingredient storage environments

    Atmospheric, refrigerated,

    controlled atm.

    Mixers / Blenders

    Surge tanks Blend, Balance,

    Filler Supply

    Rinsing - Air only, Water with

    conservation

    De-Aerator - Versator type

    Mono layer film under vacuum,

    Coalescing type

    Convective diffusion type

    pressure differential / Vacuum

    Disk centrifuges

    Evaporator - TASTE

    Homogenizers - Piston type

    perforated disk, Colloid mill, Shear

    pump

    Heat exchangers Pasteurizer,

    Trim Cooler, Divert cooler, Regens,

    Recoverers, Plate and Frame,

    Double tube tube in tube, Multi

    tube

    Thermal microbial processors -

    Hold tube

    Warmers tunnel pasteurizers

    Inverter / Side layer, Alternates

    Filter

    For small bottles filler, capper

    Bottle cooler

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900035

    Unit Operations:

    Dissolution, Dispersion, Suspension

    Hydration / Size reduction

    Shearing

    Pipe flow, Pumps, Agitators, Filler inner tube, Valves, accessories

    Homogenization / Emulsification

    Desirable Cloud - oil in water Un-desirable foaming - air in water

    De-aeration Coalescence

    Coagulation gum thro

    Diffusion Oxygen control

    Heating / Cooling / Regeneration / Heat recovery

    Centrifugation

    Evaporation

    Unit processes:

    HRM control Hold tube

    Target organism Bottle HF

    Target organism Caps inversion

    Product / process / package combinations for all other products

    Oxidation Unsaturated fats and Oils rancidity

    Citric Acid Oxidation in Juices

    Enzymatic hydrolysis

    Enzyme de-naturation pectinase

    Beverage Processing Unit Operations and Unit Processes

  • It is all about business and finance - $$$

    ....Under legal and ethical constraints

    By maximizing economic as well as consumer needsA distinctive approach Competitive Advantage with Confidence

    How and Why?

    Mission

    Food Processing

    Maximize

    36 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    37

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Increase profitability

    YieldHog Carcass chilling and drip loss

    38

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000 39

    Measure of Chemical Treatment

    Yield - Hog Carcass chilling Myosin denaturation in chilling , PSE and drip loss

    tc 0 5 300PdripPercent drip lossPdrip 4 60 FractionMyoDe

    FractionMyoDeFractionMyoDe 1 Convratio

    ConvratioConvratio eLnConv

    LnConvLnConv

    0

    160

    tcKrate tc d min

    Conv 160Conv tc0

    160

    tcKrate tc d

    Krate 7 min1

    Krate tc K0 e

    E

    Rg as TAv g tc10

    1.3 pH tc

    TAvgF 45 RExpExpE

    Rgas TAvg 5

    E 43500 454cal

    moleK0 2.13 10

    3460 min

    1pH 160pH tc 7.0

    .01

    mintc min

    Calculation of Myosin denaturation :

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000 40

    0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 10

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    Temp, Firmness and PG Conc. of peaches

    Time, minutes

    Tem

    p F

    , F

    irm

    ness

    , N, PG

    Conc

    enta

    rtio

    n 70

    0

    T MW( )

    R

    Firm ( )

    PG( ) 100

    10

    Sensory perception - Texture Peach firmnessCombine time temperature with Enzymatic Kinetics

  • Safety: F0 Pasteurization and Microbial kill

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000LogRedClB 1.044 10

    4LogRedClB log e 10( ) LncitocfClB

    CitoCfClB 1.00024CitoCfClB eLncitocfClB

    LncitocfClB 2.403 104

    LncitocfClB0

    min

    KClB d min

    KClB 7( ) 3.534 103

    min1

    KClB K0ClB e

    EClB

    Rgas TAvg( ) 460 R

    TAvg 8( ) 196.762RExp 101.745ExpEClB

    Rgas TAvg 15( ) 460 R

    EClB

    Rgas

    3.73 104

    KEClB 3.73 104

    Rgas KK0ClB 2 1040

    s1

    Calculation of Microbial kill :

    FTPast 37.228sFTPast0

    min

    10

    TAvg( ) TRef

    zd min

    4.359minz 10 RTRef 180 R

    Calculation of extent of Pasteurization :

    Measure of Safety

    41

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    0 1 2 3 4 50

    20

    40

    60

    80

    100

    120

    140

    160

    180

    200Peroxidase activity drop in heat period

    Time in heating MC tube, minutes

    Act

    ivit

    y r

    atio

    , ;

    Av

    g T

    emp

    deg

    F

    200

    00

    Ratio POD( )

    %

    T Avg( )

    R

    50

    min

    Extend shelf life Enzyme deactivationPrevent enzymatic degradation with time

    42

  • NutritionVitamin B1 Thiamin kinetics

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Calculation of Nutrition destruction :

    Based on Vitamin B1 - Thiamin, Kinetics

    K0B1 2.19 109

    s1

    EB1 1.18 104

    Rgas KEB1

    Rgas

    1.18 104

    K

    ExpEB1

    Rgas TAvg 15( ) 460 RExp 32.187 TAvg 8( ) 196.762R

    KB1 K0B1 e

    EB1

    Rgas TAvg( ) 460 RKB1 7( ) 1.074 10

    3min

    1

    LncitocfB10

    min

    KB1 d min LncitocfB1 7.046 104

    CitoCfB1 eLncitocfB1

    CitoCfB1 1.000705

    LogRedB1 log e 10( ) LncitocfB1 LogRedB1 3.06 104

    43

  • It is all about business and finance - $$$

    ....Under legal and ethical constraints

    With technical rigor appropriate to challenge First principle, statistical or empirical analysis Robust decisions

    How and Why?

    Mission

    Food Processing

    Maximize

    44 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000 45

    Microbiology

    Enzymes

    Bio-Chemistry

    Organic Chemistry

    Heat transfer

    Mass transfer

    Momentum transfer

    Kinetics

    Why and How Application of sound Science and Engineering

    Chemical engineering analysis

    Apply tenets of chemistry

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900046

    Physical / ChemicalProcess

    Equipment

    MathematicalConstitutive Eqn.

    Ini. & Boundary cond.

    Physical laws

    Laws of Math

    ProductBy-productsWaste streams

    Raw materials Utilities Labor

    Physical propertiesOperating conditionsAssumptions

    Microbial log cycle reductionEnzyme deactivation. amountObjective sensory quality

    Physical form

    Mathematical form

    Why and How Mathematical modelingApplication of sound Science and Engineering

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900047

    Conduction and Convection

    Measure of Thermal

    treatment

    tc x0 y0 z0

    p q r

    Axp

    Ayq

    Azr

    Bx tc p By tc q Bz tc r Cx x0 p Cy y0 q Cz z0 r

    Tf tc x0 y0 z0 ta Ti ta tc x0 y0 z0 460 R

    T Avg t fwall T fi t fwall e

    4 U cal D min

    d2

    f C Pf

    Particle

    Fluid

    Why and How Time Temperature Profile

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000 48

    Required for Kinetics of Conversions

    0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 530

    50

    70

    90

    110

    130

    150

    170

    190

    210

    Time to heat fruit piece in puree

    Time of heating, m inutes

    Te

    mper

    atu

    re,

    deg

    F

    130

    175

    T f tc 0 0 0 R1

    T f tcx

    in

    y

    in

    z

    inR

    1

    TAv gF tc R1

    3 5

    tc

    Particle

    Why and How Time Temperature Profile in a particle

  • tc 0 5 300PdripPercent drip lossPdrip 4 60 FractionMyoDe

    FractionMyoDeFractionMyoDe 1 Convratio

    ConvratioConvratio eLnConv

    LnConvLnConv

    0

    160

    tcKrate tc d min

    Conv 160Conv tc0

    160

    tcKrate tc d

    Krate 7 min1

    Krate tc K0 e

    E

    Rg as TAv g tc10

    1.3 pH tc

    TAvgF 45 RExpExpE

    Rgas TAvg 5

    E 43500 454cal

    moleK0 2.13 10

    3460 min

    1pH 160pH tc 7.0

    .01

    mintc min

    Calculation of Myosin denaturation :

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Kinetics

    Measure of Chemical Treatment

    Why and How Myosin denaturation drip loss and PSE

    49

  • Why and How Application of StatisticsProbability of Failure and Sample size

    ICMSF International Committee on Microbial Safety in Foods

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900050

  • ICMSF Enrichment implications and constraints

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Why and How Application of StatisticsProbability of Failure, Sample size and Enrichment

    51

  • Microbial death kinetics Salmonella and Listeria

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Why and How Safety: Salmonella and ListeriaCombining Heat transfer with Microbial death Kinetics

    52

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    0.015 0.01 0.005 0 0.005 0.01 0.0150

    0.25

    0.5

    0.75

    1

    1.25

    1.5

    1.75

    2

    2.25

    2.5

    2.75

    3

    trace 1

    Velocity in z direction

    Radial distance, in

    Vel

    oci

    ty,

    ft /

    sec

    3

    0

    v z r( )

    ft

    s

    R iR i r

    Required for Kinetics of Conversions

    Why and How: Non-Newtonian flowVelocity profile in a tube -

    53

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Measure of Mechanical Damage

    1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3110

    60

    10

    40

    90

    140

    190

    240

    Shear rate, radially

    Shear rate, axially

    Shear rate as afunction of radius, SSHE

    Radial distance, inches

    Shear

    rate

    in p

    er s

    econ

    d

    240

    110

    r in( ) s

    z r in( ) s 10

    31.5 r

    Why and How: Scarped Surface Heat ExchangerShear rate in radial and axial direction

    54

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900055

    Why and How Disk CentrifugationApplication of sound Science and Engineering

  • Beverage Processing Unit operations: Evaporation

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900056

    Why and How EvaporationFlavor and Aroma loss in Juice Processing

  • Hot fill Vs Aseptic Process - Beverages in PET Why and How Heat recovery in HFApplication of sound Science and Engineering

    57 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Hot fill Vs Aseptic Process - Beverages in PET Why and How Temperature profile in HF Bottle cooling comparisons

    58 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Hot fill Vs Aseptic Process - Beverages in PET Why and How Hot Fill Vs Aseptic comparison

    59 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • Open Innovation Evolution

    Researchand Develop

    Acquireand Develop

    Connectand Develop

    60 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

  • What is Open Innovation Anyway Really?

    The exact opposite of NIH Not Invented Here Syndrome

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900061

  • What is Open Innovation Anyway?Open Innovation is a term promoted by Henry Chesbrough, a professor and executive director at the Center for Open Innovation at Berkeley.

    The central idea behind open innovation is that in a world of widely distributed knowledge, companies cannot afford to rely entirely on their own research, but should instead buy or license processes or inventions (i.e. patents) from other companies. In addition, internal inventions not being used in a firm's business should be taken outside the company (e.g., through licensing, joint ventures, spin-offs). In contrast, closed innovation refers to processes that limit the use of internal knowledge within a company and make little or no use of external knowledge. Some companies promoting open innovation include Procter & Gamble, Innovation Exchange, NineSigma, InnoCentive, yet2.com, and IBM.

    Prior to World War II, closed innovation was the paradigm in which most firms operated. Most innovating companies kept their discoveries highly secret and made no attempt to assimilate information from outside their own R&D labs. However, in recent years the world has seen major advances in technology and society which have facilitated the diffusion of information. Not the least of these advances are electronic communication systems, including the internet. Today information can be transferred so easily that it seems impossible to prevent. Thus, the open innovation model states that since firms cannot stop this phenomenon, they must learn to take advantage of it.

    It is the business model of the firm that determines what external information to bring inside, and what internal information to take outside.

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900062

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Chesbroughhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_California,_Berkeleyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Researchhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_venturehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin-offhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin-offhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin-offhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procter_&_Gamblehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innovation_Exchangehttp://www.ninesigma.com/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InnoCentivehttp://www.yet2.com/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBMhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_IIhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradigmhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research_and_developmenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internethttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_model
  • Our current

    market

    Our new

    market

    Other firms

    market

    Open innovation

    External technology

    insourcing

    Internal

    technology base

    External technology base Henry Chesbrough, 2004

    Internal/external

    venture handling

    Licence, spin

    out, divest

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900063

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900064

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 900065

  • Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    Ashok Dhruv

    Acumen @ Business

    Sound Technically

    Highly Motivated

    Out of the Box

    Keen on Results

    Dedicated to team

    Hands on

    Robust @ Financials

    Universal Approach

    Varied Experience

    66

  • 9958 E. Maplewood Ave., Englewood, CO 80111

    [email protected]

    http://www.productivityandgrowth08.com

    Ashok Dhruv, LLC(720) 949 6498 (Off)

    (720) 318 9000 (Mob)

    67 Ashok Dhruv, LLC. (720) 318 - 9000

    mailto:[email protected]