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  • Intelligence

  • 1. Psychological testing (includes standardization, test norms, percentile

    score, reliability [e.g., test-retest], and validity [e.g., criterion-related,

    content, construct] (some in text only)

    2. History of intelligence testing (includes Galton, Binet, Terman,

    Wechsler, WAIS, Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory, Gardner)

    3. Assessing contribution of heredity vs. environment on intelligence

    (includes twin and adoption studies)

    4. The "general" vs. "specific" debate (includes examples or analogies

    for each)

    5. Components of Spearman's ("g factor") vs. Sternberg's explanation of

    intelligence vs. Gardner’s explanation

    6. Correlates of creativity with personality and mental health


  • Reliability -Informal Definition:

    The consistency and stability of


    How We Evaluate Psychological Measures:

    Reliability & Validity

    Validity -Informal Definition:

    Extent to which a test measures

    what it is supposed to measure

  • The Evolution of Intelligence Testing

    • Sir Francis Galton (1869) – Hereditary Genius

    • Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon (1905)– Binet asked to develop test for use with French school children

    – Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale

    • Mental age

    • Lewis Terman (1916)– Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

    • Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – MA/CA x 100

    • David Wechsler (1955)– Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

    ( adapted from Thomson Higher Education, 2007, 2001)

  • Defining Intelligence

    Wechsler’s Definition:

    “Global capacity to act purposefully, think rationally, and

    deal effectively with the environment.”

    (adapted from Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2001)

    Other psychologists are more likely to use “cognitive abilities” or “mental

    abilities” versus “intelligence.”

  • Also called “paper-and-pencil” tests for most common

    way given to applicants

    May measure overall mental ability (”G”) or specific

    cognitive areas (verbal, quantitative, memory,

    reasoning; “facets”) reflecting debate over general

    versus specific intelligences

    Common examples include Wonderlic Personnel Test,

    Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and MANY others

    WARNING: Potential for adverse impact on members of protected classes

    Cognitive or Mental Abilities Tests

  • Multiple Aptitude Test Batteries

    Ployhart, R. E., Schneider, B., & Schmitt, N. (2006). Staffing organizations: Contemporary practice and theory

    (3rd ed.; p. 409). Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • Average Wonderlic Scores

    Guion, R. M., & Highhouse, S. (2006). Essentials of personnel assessment and selection (p. 240). Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum.

  • (adapted from Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2001)

  • Group Tests

    • WAIS is example of individually-administered test

    • In contrast, “Group Tests” are given to several people with less supervision; usually contain

    multiple-choice items

    – Army Alpha was first group intelligence test;

    developed to screen for admission to officer

    candidate school during World War I

    (adapted from Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2001)

  • Cognitive Abilities Tests: Criterion-Related Validity Estimates

    (Hunter, 1986)

    * “Corrected” values from meta-analyses


    Validity for “Job





    Sales clerk

    Vehicle operator







  • Cognitive Ability, Job Complexity, & Job Performance

  • Normal


    and IQ


  • Heredity and Environment

    • “Nature AND Nurture” - Intelligence is probably a combination of heredity (genetics) ANDenvironment (upbringing)

    • “Twins Studies” are used to look at relative contributions of each factor

    – Fraternal Twins: Conceived from two separate eggs

    – Identical Twins: Develop from single egg and have identical genes

    (adapted from Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2001)

  • Studies of IQ similarity

  • Reaction Range: Heredity & Environment

  • Alternative Ways of Viewing Intelligence

    • G-Factor: General ability factor; assumed to

    explain high correlations among various

    intellectual measures

    • Sternberg - Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

    • Gardner - Multiple Intelligences: Argues there

    are several specialized types of intellectual ability

    ( adapted from Thomson Higher Education, 2007, 2001)

  • Spearman’s g.Spearman found that

    specific mental talents

    (S1, S2, S3, and so

    on) were highly

    intercorrelated. Thus,

    he concluded that

    all cognitive abilities

    share a common core,

    which he labeled g for

    general mental ability.

    (adapted from Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2001)

  • Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

    Analytical – abstract reasoning, judgment, evaluation

    Creative – creativity, inventiveness, deal with new problems

    Practical – learn and deal with everyday problems

  • Logical – Mathematical








    Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

  • ( adapted from Thomson

    Higher Education, 2007,


    Creativity &