Info session on Anthropology Honours (Go through visitors entrance from Regent Walk, tell...
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Info session on Anthropology Honours (Go through visitors entrance from Regent Walk, tell receptionist where youre going, and she will buzz you through. Go up stairs to first floor. Room is in that corner above reception.) Wednesday, March 14, 1pm Committee Rm. 3 in U-Office Slide 2 Phonemes Minimal meaningful contrast in sound. Smallest meaningful difference in sounds. The units which we call phonemes are in themselves of no importance: it is the differences among them that count. Slide 3 Phonetics Description of all the sounds in a language Phonology is the study and theory of sounds in Language Slide 4 Vocal tract Points of articulation Slide 5 IPA chart Slide 6 Phonetics websites www.abdn.ac.uk/langling/resources/phonetics.html www.paulmeier.com/ipa/charts.html or www.yorku.ca/earmstro/ipa/ Speech Accent Archive http://accent.gmu.edu/ The speech accent archive presents speech samples from a variety of language backgrounds. Native and non-native speakers of English read the same paragraph and are carefully transcribed. Slide 7 top stop little kitten hunter Phonetics studies and describes perceptible differences Slide 8 Phonemics analyses meaningful contrasts in sound Voiced vs. unvoiced is a meaningful contrast in English, carries a heavy functional load Bit - pit Done - ton Could - good Minimal Pairs highlight phonemic contrasts Slide 9 Not all differences are meaningful Aspiration in English is not meaningful Top - stop t h t Redundantly associated with voiceless tab - tap b- p or p h Slide 10 Hindi /tali/ = key /t h ali/ = strip /kap/ = cup /kap h / = phlegm /p h l/ = fruit /p l/ = moment /b l/ = strength Other languages contrast aspirated and unaspirated Korean /keda/ = fold /k h eda/ = dig out Slide 11 Stress English: present, object, construct, implant, Pitch/Tone Chinese Length Korean: ildayi:lwork sedato countse:dastrong pamnightpa:mchestnut German : die Stadt, der Staat More examples of phonemic contrasts Slide 12 etics System-external description and analysis Victor Turners first stage of ritual analysis (observe behaviour) Biological genealogies in kinship (parents & children) Slide 13 emics System-internal description and analysis Explains social or cultural elements according to indigenous definitions/categories Victor Turners third stage of ritual analysis (interpretation following internal logic of the culture) Kinship terms (how the natives classify their relatives) Slide 14 Etic Kin terms Ego MZF BZ MBDMBS MMBFZFB MZDMZS S FZDFZSFBDFBS DD DS SD D MBDD FZSD FZSS Slide 15 Emic Kin terms (English) Ego auntfather brothersister cousin motheruncleauntuncle cousin son cousin grand- daughter grand- son grand- daughter grand- son daughter cousin Slide 16 Emic categories of kinship (Hawaiian) Slide 17 Etic distinctions External frameworks or universal classificatory grids Linguistic typologies (e.g., analytic, inflecting, agglutinating, polysynthetic) Linnaean classification of plants & animals (genus, species) Disease (medical pathology) But are these just our (Western) emic categories, deployed universally? Slide 18 emics Not the natives model Boass secondary rationalization, Turners exegetical models Emic models, like phonemes, are constructions formalized by the analyst on the basis of distinctive features present in indigenous usage Slide 19 Hanunoo pronouns Etic distinctions inelegant and inaccurate (person, number, gender, inclusive vs. exclusive) I - 1st, singwe-1st, pl you - 2nd, sing & pl. s/h/it - 3rd, sing (fem/masc/neut)they-3rd, pl. Emic categories are Minimal membership, nonminimal membership Inclusion of speaker, exclusion of speaker Inclusions of hearer, exclusion of hearer Categories not overt in native consciousness Slide 20 Emic paradigms /t/ and /d/ are in meaningful contrast, so are /p/ - /t/ - /k/ Morphological paradigm: l j ubl j u, l j ubish, l j ubit An analogy to cultural paradigms is age grades. In Maasai culture: child, junior, warrior, junior elder, elder Slide 21 Info session on Anthropology Honours (Go through visitors entrance from Regent Walk, tell receptionist where youre going, and she will buzz you through. Go up stairs to first floor. Room is in that corner above reception.) Wednesday, March 14, 1pm Committee Rm. 3 in U-Office