Global Agriculture

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Global Agriculture. Essential Standard 2.00: Understand global agriculture. Objective 2.01. Understand the history of global agriculture . Agriscience defined:. The application of scientific principles and new technologies to agriculture Applied science - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Global Agriculture

Unit A: Global Agriculture

Global AgricultureEssential Standard 2.00: Understand global agricultureObjective 2.01Understand the history of global agriculture.Agriscience defined:The application of scientific principles and new technologies to agricultureApplied scienceapplies knowledge of biology, chemistry and physicsAgronomists use biology and chemistrydevelop new ways to control weedsEntomologists use biology and chemistrydevelop new ways to control insectsAgricultural engineers use physicsdevelop new, more efficient machineryEmploys the scientific methodto solve problems

Agriculture defined: The production, processing, marketing and distribution of all agricultural products, related supplies and servicesExamples:Cattle Productionfarmercow-calffeeder steersProcessingslaughter facilityRenderingBeefLeatherMarketingButcherGrocerySteaksTransportationPlaneRailTruckRelated supplies and servicesVeterinarianfeed dealer

Agriculture defined: Examples:Wheat ProductionFarmerGrainProcessingGrain millsFlourMarketingBakeryBreadTransportationgrain trucksRailRelated supplies and services fertilizer dealercrop scoutingmachinery dealerGPS

Agriculture defined: Examples:RosesProductionflower growerprocessing/marketingHarvesterswholesale retail floristTransportationPlaneTruckfloral delivery driverRelated supplies and servicesglass vase salesgreenhouse manufacturersfloral designers

Agribusiness defined:Agribusiness refers to commercial firms (businesses) that have developed with or stemmed out of agricultureExamples of Agribusiness:Farm relatedChemical CompanyTractor ManufacturerPharmaceutical Company (veterinary medicines)Horticulture relatedLandscape or nursery businessSeed companyMower Manufacturer

Renewable natural resources defined:Resources provided by nature that can replace or renew themselvesExamplesWildlife deer, songbirds, birds of prey, fish, rabbitsForests trees, grasses

Progress in US AgricultureMechanizationHelps 2% of Americas work force meet the food and fiber needs of our nationReduction of 90% in production farming in the last 200 yearsCotton GinInvented in 1793Eli WhitneyTransformed cotton to a usable productRemoved cotton seed from cotton fiber

Eli Whitneys Cotton Gin

George Washington CarverLate 1890sDeveloped crop rotations and the use of legumesplants that make their own nitrogenPeanutsSignificantly improve soil fertility in the U.S. south

Grain ReaperCyrus McCormickInvented in 1834Cut grainsCut wheat, oats, and other crops

Cutting GrainWith the sickle or reaping hook one man could cut from one-half to one acre in a hard day's work. The cut grain was later bound by hand

The Reaper

Grain Reaper

McCormick Reaper

Cast Iron PlowInvented in the early 1800sThomas JeffersonRough surface that dirt stuck to

Steel Moldboard Plow1837John DeereSmoother surfaceRich clay soil did not stick to itMade plowing easier and faster

Henry BlairSeed planter1834Cotton planter1836

Corn PickerInvented in 1850Edmund QuincyHelped speed up the harvesting of corn

Corn Picker

Modern Corn Picker

Barbed WireJoseph Glidden1874dramatically changed raising livestock

Milking MachineInvented in 1878Anna BaldwinUsed vacuum suctionReplaced hand milking

Modern Milking MachineModern Milking Machine

Perishable food preservation 1879Thomas Elkinsdesigned a device that helped with the task of preserving perishable foods by way of refrigeration

TractorInvented in 1904Benjamin HoltReplaced the mule as a source of powerHorse power

1849 - 1920

Steam powered Caterpillar tractor built by Holt in 1908. Gene Gun1987John SanfordA device for injecting cells with genetic informationGPS technology 1993tractor based GPS systems together with GIS (Geographic Information Systems)Used to gather data such as soil condition, humidity, temperature and other variablesUsed to controlintensity of plantingapplication of fertilizerapplication of pesticideswatering schedules

Robotic Milking MachinesLate 1990sFirst used in Ontario, CanadaBenefits by a reduction in laborInitial cost is primary disadvantage especially to small producer

Land Grant InstitutionsAn institution designated by its state legislature to receive funding (Morrill Acts of 1862 &1890) to teach agriculture, military tactics and the mechanical arts.Agricultural experiment stations (Hatch Act 1887).

Examples:North Carolina A&T (1890) Greensboro, NCNorth Carolina State University (1887) Raleigh, NCClemson University (1889) Clemson, SCUniversity of Georgia (1785) Athens, GAUniversity of Tennessee (1794) Knoxville, TNVirginia Tech. University (1872) Blacksburg, VA

Agriculture related Government Agencies Established to assist farmers, ranchers and the general public Informationprofessional assistancefunding

Examples of some of the agencies we now have:(USDA) United States Department of Agriculture1862Provides leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources, rural development, nutrition, and related issues based on sound public policy, the best available science, and efficient management.Examples of branches/agencies of USDA:NRCS (1935) - Natural Resource Conservation ServiceAPHIS (1972) Animal and Plant Health Inspection ServiceNASS (1863) National Agricultural Statistics ServiceUSFS (1905) United States Forest ServiceMmission is to sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the nations forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations.

Examples of some of the agencies we now have:NCCES North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service 1914To put research based knowledge to work for economic prosperity, environmental stewardship and an improved quality of life

North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (NCDA&CS) Services that promote and improve agriculture..

Origins of Major Food Crops1. Fruits and VegetablesPeaches - ChinaTomato South AmericaPeanut Peru, South AmericaSweet potato Central AmericaOrigins of Major Food Crops2. Grain, Oil and Fiber CropsCorn Cuba, MexicoSoybeans Southeast Asia Cotton Mexico, Africa, PakistanWheat Southwest Asia (Syria, Jordan, Turkey, India)

Note: Sources vary on actual country of origin but generally agree on region of the world.

Major US Agricultural Production Regions for Selected Crops and LivestockRegions develop based on a variety of factors:SoilsWeathermarket developmentFeed availability

Examples of agricultural production regions and/ or states that generally rank high in U.S. production.Citrus fruit FloridaTexasCalifornia Corn beltIncludes all or parts of these Midwestern statesOhio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, South Dakota, Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska,Examples of agricultural production regions and/ or states that generally rank high in U.S. production.Wheat Hard Red Spring Wheat (highest protein content, excellent bread wheat, superior milling and baking characteristics)Minnesota, North and South Dakota, Montana, Idaho, (also Oregon, Washington, California)Soft Red Winter Wheat (high yielding, low protein, used for cakes, biscuits, pastries)Southeastern states including North Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, Georgia and others, as well as Midwestern states including Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri.Spearmint Washington, Oregon, IdahoFloriculture cropsCalifornia, Florida, Michigan, Texas, North Carolina

Examples of agricultural production regions and/ or states that generally rank high in U.S. production.Beef cattleTexas, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, Colorado, Oklahoma, Missouri, South Dakota (corn belt area) DairyMinnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Maine, California, Idaho and Texas are leading producers but are not located in this region

Examples of agricultural production regions and/ or states that generally rank high in U.S. production.Hogs North Carolina and Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, MinnesotaCorn belt area

Poultry (broilers)Southern and southeastern statesNorth Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Arkansas, Mississippi, Texas North Carolina AgricultureNC is divided into three basic geographic and agricultural regionsMountainsPiedmontCoastal plains

North Carolina AgricultureMountain countiesChristmas treesApplesTrout

North Carolina AgriculturePiedmont countiesGreenhouse and Nursery cropsBroilersTurkeysDairy cattle

North Carolina AgricultureEastern countiesHogsTurkeysBroilersTobacco- flue-curedSweet potatoesVegetablesPeanutsCottonCornSoybeans worlds most important source of vegetable oil

Farm Cash Receipts (2011) Statewide exceeds $10,000,000,000 ($10B) annuallyLivestock, Dairy and PoultryApproximately 2/3 of all farm cash receiptsBroilers and hogs account for nearly half of this amountCropsApproximately 1/3 of all farm cash receiptsgreenhouse, nursery, floriculture and Christmas treesObjective 2.02Compare the current and future issues in global agriculture.Global outlookThe world population will continue to grow with expectations of 9 billion humans on the planet by 2050.More children survive to adulthood worldwide.More adults are living longer worldwide.Population growth will:Add stress to environmental systems of air, water, soil and natural resources. Create challenges to meet demands for food and fiber.Global outlookExamples of agriscience research to meet these demands:Genetically engineered cropsa bio-engineered tomato that resists rottingNew fuel sources biodiesel from animal fatHuman nutritiondecreasing the amount of animal fat in the diet and raising the proportion of fat from vegetable sourcesSatellite technology (gps)determine various nutrient levels/deficiencies in plantsTrends and Issues in Global AgricultureAgriculture will always be a