Gear Materials, Properties, And Manufacture

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Transcript of Gear Materials, Properties, And Manufacture

2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Gear Materials, Properties, and Manufacture (#05125G)

www.asminternational.org

GEAR MATERIALS, PROPERTIES, AND MANUFACTUREEdited by

J.R. Davis Davis & Associates

ASM International Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 www.asminternational.org

2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Gear Materials, Properties, and Manufacture (#05125G)

www.asminternational.org

Copyright 2005 by ASM International All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of the copyright owner. First printing, September 2005 Great care is taken in the compilation and production of this Volume, but it should be made clear that NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, ARE GIVEN IN CONNECTION WITH THIS PUBLICATION. Although this information is believed to be accurate by ASM, ASM cannot guarantee that favorable results will be obtained from the use of this publication alone. This publication is intended for use by persons having technical skill, at their sole discretion and risk. Since the conditions of product or material use are outside of ASMs control, ASM assumes no liability or obligation in connection with any use of this information. No claim of any kind, whether as to products or information in this publication, and whether or not based on negligence, shall be greater in amount than the purchase price of this product or publication in respect of which damages are claimed. THE REMEDY HEREBY PROVIDED SHALL BE THE EXCLUSIVE AND SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER, AND IN NO EVENT SHALL EITHER PARTY BE LIABLE FOR SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHETHER OR NOT CAUSED BY OR RESULTING FROM THE NEGLIGENCE OF SUCH PARTY. As with any material, evaluation of the material under end-use conditions prior to specication is essential. Therefore, specic testing under actual conditions is recommended. Nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a grant of any right of manufacture, sale, use, or reproduction, in connection with any method, process, apparatus, product, composition, or system, whether or not covered by letters patent, copyright, or trademark, and nothing contained in this book shall be construed as a defense against any alleged infringement of letters patent, copyright, or trademark, or as a defense against liability for such infringement. Comments, criticisms, and suggestions are invited, and should be forwarded to ASM International. Prepared under the direction of the ASM International Technical Books Committee (2004-2005), Yip-Wah Chung, FASM, Chair. ASM International staff who worked on this project include Scott Henry, Senior Manager of Product and Service Development; Madrid Tramble, Senior Production Coordinator, and Kathryn Muldoon, Production Assistant. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Gear materials, properties, and manufacture / edited by J.R. Davis p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index ISBN 0-87170-815-9 1. GearingManufacture. I. Davis, J.R. (Joseph R.) TJ184.G34715 2005 621.8 33dc22 2005050105 SAN:204-7586 ASM International Materials Park, OH 44073-0002 www.asminternational.org Printed in the United States of America

2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Gear Materials, Properties, and Manufacture (#05125G)

www.asminternational.org

ContentsPreface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

Introduction to Gear TechnologyChapter 1 Basic Understanding of Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Gear Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Types of Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Proper Gear Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Basic Applied Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Gear Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Gear Manufacturing Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Heat Treating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Through Hardening and Case Hardening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Gear Tribology and Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gear Tribology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubrication Regimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classication of Gear Tooth Failure Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubrication-Related Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricant Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oil Lubricant Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection of Gear Lubricant Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application of Gear Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Case History: Failure of a 24-Unit Speed-Increaser Gearbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 19 19 21 21 27 31 32 33 33 35

Chapter 2

Gear MaterialsChapter 3 Ferrous and Nonferrous Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wrought Gear Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface-Hardening Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Through-Hardening Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gear Steel Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Processing Characteristics of Gear Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bending Fatigue Strength of Carburized Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Properties of Interest for Carburized Steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iii

39 39 40 44 44 45 46 62

2005 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. Gear Materials, Properties, and Manufacture (#05125G)

www.asminternational.org

Other Ferrous Alloys for Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Nonferrous Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Chapter 4 Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Characteristics of Plastic Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classication of Plastics for Gear Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metals versus Plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plastic Gear Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plastic Gear Manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 77 77 78 79 82

Gear ManufactureChapter 5 Machining, Grinding, and Finishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Machining Processes for Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Selection of Machining Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Cutter Material and Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Speed and Feed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Cutting Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Comparison of Steels for Gear Cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Milling and Hobbing Machines . . . . . . . . 113 Grinding of Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Honing of Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Lapping of Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Supernishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Casting, Forming, and Forging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .