2. Games TheoryMay 10, 2010 Different fields and disciplines have demonstrated an interest in videogames and their study.The approaches can be characterised in 2 ways:Social science approach Studying the effects of games on peopleWhat do games do to people? E.g Learning, effects of violence in gamesHow do people create and negotiate a game? Humanities approach Studying the meaning and context of games E.g. What meanings are made through game use? 3. Games TheoryMay 10, 2010Theory Social learning theory (e.g., Bandura, 1986)Playing aggressive videogames stimulates aggressive behaviorActive participant (as opposed to a passive observer as the case of aggression in film and television).Catharsis theory (e.g., Feshbach and Singer, 1971)Implies playing aggressive videogames would have the opposite effectChanneling latent aggression resulting in a positive effect on players. 4. Games TheoryMay 10, 2010 Gee and Shaffer, 2003,Argued that certain qualities present in the medium of videogames provide valuable opportunities for learning. Sherry Turkle ('Life on the Screen')Explored how people that participated in MMORPG used their experiences with the game to explore personal issues of identity 5. Games Theory May 10, 2010 Consalvo, 2007Gamers choose to play the games negotiate how, when, why to subvert a games rulesCheating is continually negotiated by players, the game industry, and various gaming sub-cultures Narratology vs. LudologyNarratological view is that games should be understood as novelforms of narrative and can thus be studied using theories ofnarrative The ludological position is that games should be understood on their own terms.In other words, the focus of game studies should be on the rules of a game 6. Games Theory May 10, 2010 7. Games Theory May 10, 2010 8. Games Theory May 10, 2010 9. Games TheoryMay 10, 2010Refers to computer games as 'PrometheusEngines' Millions of pixels radiate complex messagethrough computer and TV screens aroundthe world. These Prometheus Engines are the subjectof criticisms by people who claim they areharmful. The claims are carried gleefully by those whose job it is to reduce, entertain and sellabsorbing stories.