Functional and dysfunctional conflicts

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Functional and Dysfunctional Conflicts S. Ebi Pearlin MA.HRM(1 st year)
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Transcript of Functional and dysfunctional conflicts

Functional and Dysfunctional Conflicts

Functional and Dysfunctional ConflictsS. Ebi PearlinMA.HRM(1st year)Topics to be coveredWhat id Conflict.?Difference between the traditional, human relations, and interactionist views of conflict.The conflict icebergFunctional vs. Dysfunctional ConflictContrast task, relationship, and process conflict.Outline of the conflict process.5 stages in the Conflict processConflict management techniques

ConflictConflict DefinedIs a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.Is that point in an ongoing activity when an interaction crosses over to become an interparty conflict.Encompasses a wide range of conflicts that people experience in organizationsIncompatibility of goalsDifferences over interpretations of factsDisagreements based on behavioral expectationsTransitions in Conflict ThoughtCauses:Poor communicationLack of opennessFailure to respond to employee needs

Traditional View of ConflictThe belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided.Transitions in Conflict Thought (contd)

Human Relations View of ConflictThe belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group.Interactionist View of ConflictThe belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.The Conflict Iceberg

Functional versus Dysfunctional ConflictFunctional ConflictConflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance.Dysfunctional ConflictConflict that hinders group performance.Functional vs. Dysfunctional ConflictFunctional Conflict serves organizations interests

Is commonly referred to as constructive or cooperative conflictDysfunctional Conflict threatens organizations interests

Wastes the organizations resources and is counterproductive

Functional or Dysfunctional is determined by whether the organizations interests are servedTypes of Conflict

Task ConflictConflicts over content and goals of the work.Relationship ConflictConflict based on interpersonal relationships.Process ConflictConflict over how work gets done.The Conflict Process

Stage I: Potential Opposition or IncompatibilityCommunicationSemantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and noiseStructureSize and specialization of jobsJurisdictional clarity/ambiguityMember/goal incompatibilityLeadership styles (close or participative)Reward systems (win-lose)Dependence/interdependence of groupsPersonal VariablesDiffering individual value systemsPersonality typesStage II: Cognition and PersonalizationPositive FeelingsNegative EmotionsConflict DefinitionPerceived ConflictAwareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise.Felt ConflictEmotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility.Stage III: IntentionsCooperativeness:Attempting to satisfy the other partys concerns.Assertiveness:Attempting to satisfy ones own concerns.IntentionsDecisions to act in a given way.Dimensions of Conflict-Handling Intentions

Stage III: Intentions (contd)CompetingA desire to satisfy ones interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict.CollaboratingA situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties.AvoidingThe desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict.AccommodatingThe willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponents interests above his or her own.CompromisingA situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something.

Stage IV: Behavior

Conflict ManagementThe use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict.Conflict-Intensity Continuum

Stage V: OutcomesFunctional Outcomes from ConflictIncreased group performanceImproved quality of decisionsStimulation of creativity and innovationEncouragement of interest and curiosityProvision of a medium for problem-solvingCreation of an environment for self-evaluation and changeCreating Functional ConflictReward dissent and punish conflict avoiders.

Dysfunctional Outcomes from ConflictDevelopment of discontentReduced group effectivenessRetarded communicationReduced group cohesivenessInfighting among group members overcomes group goalsTypes of ConflictPersonality Conflict Given the many possible combinations of personality traits, it is clear why personality conflicts are inevitableA personality conflict is an interpersonal opposition based on personal dislike, disagreement, and/or different styles

Intergroup ConflictConflict among work groups, teams and departments is a common threat to organizational competitivenessIntergroup cohesiveness a we feeling binding group members together can be a good or bad thing (smooth running team or result in groupthink which limits critical thinking)

Minimizing Intergroup Conflict Conflict within the group is high There are negative interactions between groups Influential third-party gossip about other group is negative Work to eliminate specific negative interactions between groups Conduct team building to reduce intragroup conflict and prepare employees for cross-functional teamwork Encourage personal friendships and good working relationships across groups and departments Foster positive attitudes toward members of other groups Avoid or neutralize negative gossip across groups or departmentsRecommended actions:Level of perceivedintergroup conflict tendsto increase when:Managing ConflictStimulating Functional Conflict Devils AdvocacyThe Dialectic Method

5 Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional ConflictIntegrating (Problem Solving), Obliging (Smoothing), Dominating (Forcing), Avoiding and Compromising

Third-Party InterventionsConflict TrianglesAlternative Dispute Resolution

Stimulating Functional Conflict: Devils AdvocacyA proposed course of action is generatedA devils advocate is assigned to critique the proposalThe critique is presented to key decision makersAny additional information relevant to the issues is gatheredThe decision to adopt, modify, or discontinue the proposed course of action is takenThe decision is monitored

Stimulating Functional Conflict: The Dialectic MethodA proposed course of action is generatedAssumptions underlying the proposal are identifiedA conflicting counterproposal is generated based on different assumptionsAdvocates of each position present and debate merits of their proposals before key decision makersThe decision to adopt, either position or some other position is takenThe decision is monitored

5 Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional ConflictIntegratingObligingDominatingAvoidingCompromisingHighLowHighLowConcern for OthersConcern for Self1. Integrating (Problem Solving)Is appropriate for complex issues plagued by misunderstandingIs inappropriate for resolving conflicts rooted in opposing value systemsIts primary strength is its longer lasting impact because it deals with the underlying problem rather than merely with symptomsHowever, it is very time consuming

5 Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict2. Obliging (Smoothing)Involves playing down differences while emphasizing commonalitiesMay be appropriate when it is possible to eventually get something in returnIs inappropriate for complex or worsening problemsIts primary strength is that it encourages cooperationHowever, its a temporary fix that fails to confront the underlying problem

3. Dominating (Forcing)Shows a high concern for self and low concern for othersEncourages I win, you lose tacticsIs appropriate when an unpopular solution must be implemented, the issue is minor or a deadline is nearIs inappropriate in an open and participative climateIts primary strength is speedHowever, it often breeds resentment

5 Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict5. CompromisingA give-and-take approach involving moderate concern for both self &othersIs appropriate when parties have opposite goals or possess equal powerIs inappropriate when overuse would lead to inconclusive or delayed action Its primary strength is that the democratic process has no losersHowever, it only provides a temporary fix that can stifle creative problem solving5 Alternative Styles for Handling Dysfunctional Conflict4. AvoidingMay involve either passive withdrawal from the problem or active suppression of the issueIs appropriate for trivial issues or when the costs of confrontation outweigh the benefits of resolving the conflictIs inappropriate for difficult and worsening problemsIts primary strength is that it buys time in ambiguous situationsHowever, it only provides a temporary fix that sidesteps the underlying problemThird-Party InterventionsConflict TrianglesWhen two people are having a problem and instead of addressing the problem, one of them gets a third party involved

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Avoiding costly lawsuits by resolving conflicts informally or through mediation or arbitration

Alternative Dispute ResolutionsFacilitationA third party, usually a manager, informally urges disputing parties to deal direction with each other in a positive manner

ConciliationA neutral third party informally acts as a communication conduit between disputing parties

Peer reviewA panel of trustworthy co-workers hears both sides of a dispute in an informal and confidential meeting

Alternative Dispute ResolutionsOmbudsmanSomeone who works for the organization, and is widely respected, hears grievances on a confidential basis and attempts to arrange a solution

MediationA trained, third-party neutral actively guides the disputing parties in exploring a solution; the mediator does not render a decision

ArbitrationA trained, third-party neutral, makes a decision regarding the dispute