Fish Oil and Fish Meal From Sustainable Fisheries

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Transcript of Fish Oil and Fish Meal From Sustainable Fisheries

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCES

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCESFISH OIL AND FISH MEAL FROM SUSTAINABLE FISHERIESResource Review No.1, July 1996 When you go into each section click the above title to get back to this index page. The arrows at the bottom of the pages will take you through the following articles sequentially. 1. SUMMARY 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 TRADE IN FISH OIL 1.3 TRADE IN FISH MEAL 1.4 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2. EUROPEAN INDUSTRIAL FISHING 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 SANDEEL 2.3 NORWAY POUT 2.4 SPRAT 2.5 HERRING 2.6 CAPELIN (NORTH ATLANTIC) 2.6.1 CAPELIN (BARENTS SEA) 2.7 BLUE WHITING 2.8 HORSE MACKEREL 3. INDUSTRIAL FISHING OUTSIDE EUROPE 3.1 PERU

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SUSTAINABLE RESOURCES

3.2 CHILE 3.3 USA 4. DISCARDS OF FISH 5. SEABIRDS 6. OVERVIEW AND CONCLUSION 7. REFERENCES

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Welcome to IFOMA

INTERNATIONAL FISHMEAL & OIL MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

Welcome to the IFOMA Internet SiteIFOMA PRESS RELEASES RESOURCES USE OF FISH MEAL IN ANIMAL NUTRITION USE OF FISH OIL IN ANIMAL NUTRITION USE OF FISH OIL IN HUMAN NUTRITIONIf you wish to order a hard copy of any of the items on this site please click this button at the bottom of the article that you require

If you wish to review and submit your order please click this button at the bottom of the page International Fishmeal & Oil Manufacturers Association 2 College Yard, Lower Dagnall Street St. Albans, Herfordshire AL3 4PA United Kingdom

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SUSTAINABLE RESOURCES

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCESThe title Resources at the top of each page will bring you back to this main index page. q FISH OIL AND FISH MEAL FROM SUSTAINABLE FISHERIESq

SUSTAINABILITY OF FISH RESOURCES FOR MEAL AND OIL PRODUCTION

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FISH OIL AND FISH MEAL FROM SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCESFISH OIL AND FISH MEAL FROM SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES SUMMARY q Concern has been expressed about purchasing and refining for edible purposes fish oil obtained from fish resources which are not sustainable. Focus has been on the fishery in the North Sea. q From the North Sea about 1 million tonnes of fish are landed for processing into fish meal and fish oil. These fish are generally non-edible species (small bony oily fish) and are collectively called 'industrial' fish. A global catch of industrial fish of around 30 million tonnes is landed and processed. Thus the North Sea represents only 3% of the world total. It yields about 9% of internationally traded fish meal and 15% of traded fish oil. q The state of utilisation of the industrial fish species in the world has been reported by UN Food & Agriculture Organisation FAO. On the basis of a classification of moderately fished, fully fished and depleted stocks, none of the industrial fish species showed depleted stocks. q Fish oil and fish meal production directly/indirectly turn a sustainable resource into valuable and nutritious human food, e.g. chicken, fish and edible fats, for a growing world population. q Industrial fishing is undertaken by conventional fishing vessels using conventional nets with government controlled mesh sizes. q Worldwide nearly all of the industrial fish caught are subject to quotas. These are set by Govemment bodies on the basis of scientific advice to ensure stocks are sustainable. q In the North Sea the industrial fish catches (Norway pout, sprat and sandeels) are governed by quotas, except sandeels. Evidence so far from an independent body monitoring fish stocks (ICES) indicates industrial fishing does not threaten overall stocks of sandeels - only 20% to 30% of these stocks are caught. In consequence quotas have been considered unnecessary for sandeels. q There is no scientific evidence that industrial fishing is significantly affecting the food chain of human grade fish such as cod and haddock.

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FISH OIL AND FISH MEAL FROM SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES

q

It is concluded that industrial fisheries in Europe, North and South America based on independent scientific advice are sustainable and ecologically sound. The fish oil and meal industry believes it is necessary that industrial fisheries continue to be controlled and managed based on scientific advice, in order to maintain this resource in a manner that is biologically, economically and socially sound. To this end the fish oil and meal industry is fully supportive of an official fishery policy which will achieve the above objectives.

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1.1 Introduction

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCESFISH OIL AND FISH MEAL FROM SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES

1.1 IntroductionFish oil is produced almost exclusively from small, inedible, bony, pelagic fish - so called industrial fish. Worldwide around 30 million tonnes of such fish are caught and processed into fish oil and fish meal. Most of the fish oil is used for human consumption in edible products such as margarine. Both fish oil and fish meal are indispensable components of feeds for farmed fish. Fish meal is also a valuable component of feeds for farmed animals - particularly young, breeding and milk producing animals. Directly or indirectly this valuable resource is a supply of human food. How sustainable are the industrial fish used in the production of fish meal and oil? Also, in catching them are other fish caught in the process; what is the by-catch? As these small fish are part of the food chain for larger fish, what impact does their capture have on stock of human grade fish? Answers to these questions are vital to reassure consumers that industrial fisheries are responsible fisheries ensuring sustainability of this resource and others on which they impact. Providing answers to these questions form the basis of this report. As the North Sea is 'nearest to home', it is considered first. But it is South America which is the world's and UK's major fish oil and fish meal supplier. Information on these areas follows. The sources of information used are independent organisations such as the United Nations' Food & Agriculture Organisation in Rome (FAO), and the International Council for Exploration of the Sea (ICES).

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1.2 Trade in Fish Oil

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCESFISH OIL AND FISH MEAL FROM SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES

1.2 Trade in Fish OilThe world's major exporters of fish oil are Peru, Chile, USA, Denmark, Iceland and Norway (Figure 1). These same countries are the world's major producers. Total production of fish oil in 1993 was 1.1 million tonnes; total export was 0.66 million tonnes.

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1.2 Trade in Fish Oil

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1.3 Trade in Fish Meal

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCESFISH OIL AND FISH MEAL FROM SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES

1.3 Trade in Fish MealThe world's major exporters of fish meal are Peru, Chile, Denmark and Iceland (Figure 2). These same countries are among the world's major producers together with Japan, Norway, Thailand, USA and USSR, which consume domestically most of their production and thus do not have a significant export. Total production of fish meal in 1993 was 6.2 million tonnes; total export was 3.6 million tonnes.

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1.3 Trade in Fish Meal

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1.4 Sustainable Development

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCESFISH OIL AND FISH MEAL FROM SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES

1.4 Sustainable DevelopmentThe term "sustainable development" has been used by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) who use the words in recognition of the use of these resources to satisfy human needs and improve the quality of human life10. The definition of sustainable development which FAO report as having been adopted by the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987 is probably the simplest: "Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." A further definition for both aquatic and terrestrial systems adopted by the 94th FAO Committee on Fisheries in 1991 is as follows: "Sustainable development is the management and conservation of the natural resource base, and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations. Such development conserves land, water, plant and genetic resources, is environmentally non-degrading, technologically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable." More details of this definition applied to all sectors of the fishing industry can be found in the original document.

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2.1 Introduction

SUSTAINABLE RESOURCESFISH OIL AND FISH MEAL FROM SUSTAINABLE FISHERIES 2. EUROPEAN INDUSTRIAL FISHING

2.1 IntroductionThe species of fish used in full or in part, in Europe for industrial fishing are 1 shown in the table at the base of this page: The seven species (see table) which are utilised for industrial fishing can be classified into three categories: q those for which there is at present little or no use for human consumption (sandeel, capelin and Norway pout) q those for which there is a potential use for human consumption but which are used mainly for production of fish meal and oil (blue whiting, horse mackerel and sprat) q those for which the primary market is t