Evaluation of UNESCO Support to EFA National Evaluation of UNESCO Support to EFA National Planning .
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Evaluation of UNESCO Support to EFA National Planning
Country: Pakistan Draft Report
Dr. Alam Chowdhury Dr. Fareeha Zafar
Education for Change London September 2005
CURRENCY EQUIVALENTS (as of August 2005)
Currency Unit - Rupee (Rs)
Rs.1.00 = $.0.176 US$ 1.00 = Rs 57
ADB Asian Development Bank AEPAM Academy for Educational Planning and Management AUSAID Australian Assistance for International Development CB Capacity Building CCA Common Country Assessment CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child CSO Civil Society Organization DP Development Partner EC European Commission ECE Early Childhood Education EFA Education for All EFA NPA Education for All National Plan of Action ESR Education Sector Reforms FATA Federally Administered Tribal Areas GOP Government of Pakistan MDG Millennium Development Goals MOE Ministry of Education MOWD Ministry of Women Development MS Member State (UNESCO) MTDF Medium Term Development Framework NCHD National Commission on Human Development NGO Non Government Organization NRB National Reconstruction Bureau PNCU Pakistan National Commission for UNESCO PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper SCF-UK Save the Children – United Kingdom TA Technical Assistance USAID United States Assistance for International Development UNDAF United Nations Development Assistance Framework UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population UNICEF United Nations International Children’s Funds WB World Bank WFP World Food Program
i. The fiscal year (FY) of the Government ends on June 30. ii. In this report “$” refers to US dollars.
Executive Summary 5 1. Country background 12
1.1. Key events in EFA planning 1.2. Profile of UNESCO presence 1.3.Organization of development partnership 1.4. Contexts
2. Findings 16 2.1. Integrating EFA Planning within wider educational 16 and national development frameworks
2.1.1. Policy and Programming 2.1.2. Roles and Actions 2.1.3. Outputs 2.1.4. Impact
2.2.UNESCO support of national, regional and international 21 EFA forums and strategies
2.2.1. Programming 2.2.2. Roles and Actions 2.2.3. Outputs 2.2.4. Impact
2.3.UNESCO’s national coordination actions in preparing and 23 Follow-up of EFA National Action Plans
2.3.1. Programming 2.3.2. Roles and Actions 2.3.3. Outputs 2.3.4. Impact
2.4.UNESCO’s technical assistance and capacity building efforts 25 in the follow-up to the EFA National Action Plans
2.4.1. Programming 2.4.2. Roles and actions 2.4.3. Outputs 2.4.4. Impact
2.5.UNESCO’s support of data collection, reporting, monitoring and 26 evaluation of implementation of EFA Plans
2.5.1. Programming 2.5.2. Roles and Actions 2.5.3. Outputs 2.5.4. Impact
2.6. UNESCO’s internal organization and communication 27 2.6.1. Policy, programming and organization 2.6.2. Roles and Actions 2.6.3. Outputs 2.6.4. Impact
3. Results achieved 29
3.1. Results of UNESCO support 3.2. Factors that contributed to successful outcomes 3.3. Factors that have limited the success of outcomes
4. Lessons learnt and recommendations 31 5. Annexes 34
5.1. List of people met 5.2. References 5.3. Summary of EFA related activities supported by UNESCO Islamabad
1. Integrating EFA planning support within wider educational and national development framework Issues/Criteria Summary of Findings 1.1. Policy and Programming EFA planning for 6 EFA goals.
UNESCO as lead coordinating agency for EFA consistently supported MOE toward developing an integrated approach to EFA goals.
Policy of support to EFA Planning within national development planning
MOE in collaboration with UNESCO mobilized strong political commitment for EFA, developed National, Provincial and District Action Plans, created awareness of and advocacy for EFA and for enhanced budgetary support to basic education. EFA goals and targets were integrated into education sector framework linked to poverty alleviation and development strategies, ensuring engagement of civil society in formulation, implementation and monitoring of strategies for educational development.
1.2. Roles and Actions Actions for EFA within national context
Creation of EFA Wing as focal point within the MOE, concurrent development of Education Sector Reforms (ESR) program and EFA NPA. Attempts were made to link EFA targets with ESR, PRSP and MDG.
Dialogue with international and national agencies
Regular dialogue with international development partners including the World Bank, ADB and bilateral aid agencies. UNESCO also chaired the Thematic Group of the UN agencies that focuses EFA goals and targets. Dialogue with NRB for integration of education and EFA structures within the Government’s Devolution Plan. On the other hand, internal consultation continued among Planning Commission, Finance and provincial Planning Departments for sharing EFA targets and budgets and their reflection in PRSP. The inclusion of FATA in the EFA NPA was an important development.
EFA planning with ESR
EFA and ESR started concurrently with the assistance of a TA provided by EC and UNESCO. ESR allocated 77% of funds for EFA activities.
EFA links with PRSP
Linkages established between EFA goals and PRSP relate mainly to literacy and economic growth. The other EFA goals are not explicitly stated in the PRSP.
ECE EFA highlighted the need for ECE and development of specific programs/activities in this area. Katchi class (infant class) officially declared as part of ECE.
1.3. Outputs Approach to planning
The federal government’s planning document on education has embedded all six EFA goals. Provincial EFA Plans were developed and preparation of district EFA plans is underway. There is clear understanding on all goals excepting the goal related to life skills.
National Planning Pakistan was the first country to develop draft EFA NPA presented at South Asian Ministerial Review meeting in Katmandu in April 2001. Plan was based on evidence in the education sector, but not all indicators are measurable. Overall picture of EFA implementation in Pakistan is not
encouraging both with regard to quantitative and qualitative targets neither of which is monitored adequately. The linkage between EFA NPA and other planning document is mostly in broad terms; specific planning targets are not consistent between the EFA NPA and MTDF.
Rights, equality, quality and innovation
The PRSP and Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) in general reflect these ideas. However, they do not specifically state the performance targets for each of the imperatives.
1.4. Impact Support for plans Strong support of GOP for improving the quality of basic education is
reflected in EFA NPA, and ESR, although quality indicators are not yet fully developed. Also full budgetary support is lacking. Pakistan is far from reaching the UNESCO’s recommended target of 4% of GNP for education.
Developing policies on rights, equality, and quality
Article 37-B of the Constitution of Pakistan taken as starting point. Also linked to CRC, CEDAW and C-182 regarding child labor. The GOP’s active role in ESR and EFA preparation facilitated the development of innovative ideas and in upgrading the analytical skills of government personnel. Quality issues addressed through focus on Learning Achievements at primary level and teacher skills. Recognition of Katchi class as part of formal primary cycle. Concept of ‘Inclusive Education’ accepted and being promoted. Tawana Pakistan (school nutrition program for girls) supported by WFP has been successful in promoting girls education.
Is planning real? Planning is generally viewed as a separate process from implementation because historically the former has been a federal responsibility and the latter provincial responsibility. Budgetary allocations in plans are based on targets but decisions on actual allocation are circumstantial or more often politically driven. At the conceptual level the separation of primary education and adult literacy started a rethinking of literacy outcomes and materials used for teaching adults.
2. UNESCO support of national, sub-regional and regional EFA forums and strategies 2.1. Programming Programming process
UNESCO provided continued support to the National EFA Forum and its activities including celebration of various international events/days like EFA week and Teachers day etc Within the sub-region UNESCO supported the first meeting of the South Asian Countries Forum on EFA. UNESCO is also promoting a policy of regional cooperation on EFA with Iran, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan.
Scale and scope of regional programming
UNESCO /Bangkok’s focus was more on systemic issues relating to strategic interventions for gender, life s