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Transcript of Enhancing Automotive Stability Control with Artificial Neural · PDF file Enhancing Automotive...

  • Enhancing Automotive Stability Control

    with Artificial Neural Networks

    By

    David Andrew Butler

    B.Eng. (Mech. Hons.), M.Eng.Sci.

    Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of

    Doctor of Philosophy

    School of Engineering, University of Tasmania

    September 2006

    The

    Project

  • -i-

    Declaration and Authority of Access

    This thesis contains the results of research done at the School of Engineering, University

    of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia between 2003 and 2006.

    It contains no material that has been accepted for the award of any other higher degree or

    graduate diploma in any tertiary institution and, to the best of the author’s knowledge

    and belief, this thesis contains no material previously published or written by another

    person, except where due reference is made in the text of the thesis.

    This thesis contains confidential information and is not to be disclosed or made available

    for loan or copy without the express written permission from the University of Tasmania

    (i). Once released the thesis may be available for loan and limited copying in accordance

    with the Copyright Act 1968.

    (i) Enquiries should be directed to the Research and Development Office

    ___________________________

    David Butler

    School of Engineering,

    University of Tasmania,

    Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

    September 2006

  • -ii-

    Acknowledgements This PhD investigation is the result of much hard work, not only by the author. The

    greatest outcome, to my admiration, is its contribution to my recent marriage to my new

    wife Bonnie Butler. After meeting just one year before the PhD started, we were married

    in January this year. Bonnie’s help in patiently listening to my exhaustive rhetorical

    conversations, despite very little interest in the subject area, was invaluable. I was

    particularly amazed at her ability to constantly supply useful points and comments, even

    though she must have been bored senseless. Credit should also be given for her help

    correcting spelling and grammar within the thesis, which was a very time consuming

    task when she was already very busy. Thanks for the support Bon!

    I wonder, has a PhD thesis ever been completed without the author thanking his mother?

    This is no different, with special thanks going to mum for spending a week of her time

    correcting thesis drafts. My family, and my new family-in-law, must also be thanked for

    providing continuous love and support.

    In regards to the technical content of the thesis, my supervisor Vishy Karri clearly needs

    to be thanked. His ability to manage a huge number of postgraduates in parallel is

    amazing and, despite his limited time, his capacity to provide comments on research

    methodology and thesis structure was very useful. John McColloch is thanked for his

    data acquisition and LabVIEW programming support, particularly in writing the sensor

    communication routines and building the wheel speed PIC.

    International experience was a significant part of this work too, and Peter Rossmanek is

    thanked for accommodating me at the Fachhochschule Stralsund, Germany to complete

    automotive research leading up to the PhD study. Ole Madsen’s help in organising and

    supporting my study into intelligent control at Aalborg University, Denmark is also

    highly appreciated.

    Final thanks goes to all of the Hydrogen and Allied Renewable Technologies (HART)

    and Intelligent Car team members. The chance to be involved with each of your projects

    was a very useful distraction, and I learnt a lot. A highlight was the opportunity to drive

    the vehicle used in this investigation around the state in the 2006 Targa Tasmania tarmac

    rally, running on hydrogen of course!

  • -iii-

    Abstract Many studies of automotive crash statistics have shown that driver error is a major cause

    of accident and injury on the roads worldwide. This has lead to the development of

    many active control systems to aid the driver during panic maneuvers, such as antilock

    braking systems. Nonetheless, there has been a slow growth in the control methodology

    of these systems, with wheel speed regulation based on the information derived from a

    small number of sensors the norm across all past and present systems. To achieve

    greater performance gains, it is important to control more vehicle parameters and obtain

    vehicle state information from larger sensor arrays. Problems arise using traditional

    control methodology, as additional variables create exponential increases in control

    algorithm complexity, and in computational requirements.

    Artificial neural networks (ANN) are presented in literature as an artificial intelligence

    solution to approaching problems. Significant benefits include, the ability to model

    highly non-linear and complex systems, capacity to incorporate many model inputs and

    outputs, low computational requirements and capability for self-learning from observed

    data. However, previous work has largely been limited to simulation or very narrow

    practical testing, from which it is difficult to draw useful conclusions.

    This thesis addresses these problems by developing two new ANN systems,

    implemented in broad practical tests. The first uses suspension and wheel speed

    vibration to intelligently predict road surface conditions, which is a major performance

    limitation in all current systems. The second models complex vehicle dynamics through

    a large sensor array and ANN process optimisation to implement intelligent traction

    control. This method determines the optimal driven wheel speed for maximum

    acceleration in the driver’s desired direction, in a process that is generic and adaptable to

    current and future active control systems.

    All results are derived from a real test vehicle, which was adapted for this investigation.

    This included the installation of chassis and engine sensors, data acquisition and control

    systems, engine management hardware and user interfaces, as well as constructing ANN

    models and controllers in the NI LabVIEW language. The positive outcomes of this

    work are a step towards establishing new methods of active vehicle control on a

    statistical and quantitative basis.

  • -iv-

    Table of Contents - 1 - INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 1

    - 2 - VEHICLE STABILITY BACKGROUND ........................................................... 13

    2.1 SYSTEMS THAT ASSIST DRIVERS ............................................................................. 14

    2.2 TYRE DYNAMICS FUNDAMENTALS .......................................................................... 18

    2.3 CONTEMPORARY VEHICLE STABLITY CONTROL ...................................................... 33

    2.4 RESEARCH METHOD ................................................................................................ 85

    2.5 REMARKS ................................................................................................................ 93

    - 3 - ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS ................................................................ 94

    3.1 ANN OPERATION .................................................................................................... 95

    3.2 AUTOMOTIVE ANN APPLICATIONS ....................................................................... 109

    3.3 REMARKS .............................................................................................................. 115

    - 4 - CHASSIS SENSORS AND DATA LOGGER INSTALLATION .................... 116

    4.1 TEST VEHICLE ....................................................................................................... 117

    4.2 CHASSIS SENSORS .................................................................................................. 118

    4.3 ADVANCED DASH LOGGER .................................................................................... 143

    4.4 ADVANCED DASH LOGGER INSTALLATION ............................................................ 144

    4.5 ADVANCED DASH LOGGER CONFIGURATION ........................................................ 151

    4.6 INTERPRETER SOFTWARE ....................................................................................... 152

    4.7 REMARKS .............................................................................................................. 152

    - 5 - PAVEMENT FEATURE RECOGNITION DURING STABLE DRIVING

    CONDITIONS .......................................................................................................... 154

    5.1 SURFACE PREDICTION USING ANN ........................................................................ 155

    5.2 CHOICE OF ANN MODEL ....................................................................................... 159

    5.3 DATA AQUISITION ................................................................................................. 168

    5.4 SOFTWARE ...........................................