Enhanced High-Speed Packet Access HSPA+ · Cellular Communication Systems Andreas Mitschele-Thiel,...

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Enhanced High-Speed Packet Access HSPA+ Background: HSPA Evolution Higher Data Rates Signaling Improvements Architecture Evolution/ Home NodeB

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Page 1: Enhanced High-Speed Packet Access HSPA+ · Cellular Communication Systems Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016 2 HSPA+ The evolution of UMTS HSPA Corresponding to UMTS

Enhanced High-Speed Packet Access HSPA+

Background: HSPA Evolution

Higher Data Rates

Signaling Improvements

Architecture Evolution/ Home NodeB

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Cellular Communication Systems 2 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

HSPA+

The evolution of UMTS HSPA

Corresponding to UMTS Release 7 and beyond

Motivation of HSPA+

3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) being rolled-out, but not backwards compatible with HSPA

556 HSPA networks in service in 203 countries (Oct. 14)**

Investment protection needed for current HSPA deployments

Main goals

Performance and flexibility comparable to LTE in 5 MHz

Optimized packet-only mode for voice and data

Backward compatible with Release 99 through Release 6

Smooth migration path to LTE through commonality and facilitate joint technology operation

Requiring simple infrastructure upgrade from HSPA to HSPA+

HSPA+ defines a broad framework and set of requirements

Improvement of the radio interface

Architecture evolution

**[source: 4GAmericas]

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Cellular Communication Systems 3 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

Higher Order Modulations (HOMs)

BPSK

1 bit/symbol

16QAM

4 bits/symbol

64QAM

6 bits/symbol

Uplink Downlink

Increases the peak data rate in a high SNR environment Very effective for micro cell and indoor deployments

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Cellular Communication Systems 4 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

Peak Rate Performance Benefits of HSPA+

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Pe

ak

Th

rou

gh

pu

t in

Mb

ps

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21

28

42

5.7

11.5

HSDPA

HSPA+ 64QAM

HSPA+ 16QAM

2x2 MIMO

HSPA+ 64QAM*

2x2 MIMO

HSUPA

HSPA+ 16QAM

Downlink

Uplink

*Release 8

Uplink and Downlink peak rates similar to LTE peak rates in 5 MHz

Major increase HSPA peak

rates by Higher Order Modulations

Data rate benefits for users in ideal channel conditions (e.g. static users, fixed users close to the cell center, lightly loaded conditions)

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Cellular Communication Systems 5 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

HSDPA Performance with 64QAM

Without 64QAM With 64QAM Gain

Cell Throughput 6.9 Mbit/s 7.65 Mbit/s 10.7%

95%-tile User Throughput 7.1 Mbit/s 8.7 Mbit/s 22.5%

0

1000

2000

3000

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5000

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7000

8000

9000

10000

Cat 10/ 15 users Cat 14/ 15 users

thro

ug

hp

ut/

kb

ps

average user throughput 95% user throughput ave. cell throughput

Single micro-cell scenario, advanced receivers required

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Cellular Communication Systems 6 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

16QAM for E-DCH

16QAM specified in the uplink for HSPA Evolution, for use with the 2 ms TTI and with 4 multicodes (2xSF2 + 2xSF4)

Increases peak rate from 5.76 Mbps to 11.52 Mbps

Performance results showed:

16QAM requires very good radio conditions

Enhancement of the radio architecture needed (transmitter, receiver)

BPSK

BPSK

BPSK

BPSK

SF2

SF2

SF4

SF4

I

Q

I

Q

SF2

SF4

16 QAM

I

Q

16 QAM

I

Q

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Cellular Communication Systems 7 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

16QAM EDCH Performance

Isolated radio cell with good radio conditions (AWGN) and HARQ retransm. rate of 1%

Results show performance for 16QAM above 11 Mbps

Ideal channel conditions

Single user active

Advanced receiver

RLC settings need to be adapted

Larger PDU size

Improved L2 provides some further gain

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Cellular Communication Systems 8 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

Coding/Modulation/

Weighting/Mapping

Basic MIMO Channel

The HSDPA MIMO channel consists of 2 Tx and 2 Rx antennas

Each Tx antenna transmits a different signal

The signal from Tx antenna j is received at all Rx antennas i

Channel capacity can be increased by up to a factor of two

Weighting/Demapping

Demodulation/Decoding

Tx Rx

H

HVUH

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Cellular Communication Systems 9 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

MIMO in HSPA+

Release 7 MIMO for HSDPA (D-TxAA) 2 x 2 MIMO scheme 4 rank-1 precoding vectors and 4 rank-2 precoding matrices are defined

The rank-2 matrices are unitary (the columns are orthogonal)

The mobile reports the rank of the channel and the preferred precoding weights periodically (PCI)

Dynamic switching between single stream and dual stream transmission is supported by the NodeB scheduler

DOCUMENTTYPE 1 (1)

TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere TypeYourNameHere TypeDateHere

Weight Generation

w 1 w 4

Determine weight info message from the uplink

w 2 w 3

TrCH processing

HS-DSCH TrCH processing

HS-DSCH

Spread/scramble

Primary transport block

Primary: Always present for scheduled UE

Secondary: Optionally present for scheduled UE

Secondary transport block

Ant 1

Ant 2

CPICH 1

CPICH 2

w 1

w 2

w 3

w 4

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Cellular Communication Systems 10 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

MIMO Performance Benefits

2x2 D-TxAA MIMO scheme doubles peak rate from 14.4 Mbps to 28.8 Mbps

2x2 D-TxAA MIMO provides significant experienced peak, mean & cell edge user data rate benefits for isolated cells or noise/coverage limited cells

2x2 D-TxAA MIMO provides 20% – 60% larger spectral efficiency than 1x2

0

0.25

0.5

0.75

1

1.25

1.5

1.75

2

Near Cell Center Average Cell

Location

Cell Edge

Data

Rate

Gain

of

MIM

O v

s.

SIS

O f

ora

n I

so

late

d C

ell SISO (1x1)

MIMO (2x2)Note: All gains

normalized to

Near Cell Center

SISO Data Rate

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80

100

Interference Limted

System

Isolated Cell

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ec

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l E

ffic

ien

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in (

%)

of

2x

2

MIM

O o

ve

r 1

x2

LM

MS

E

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Cellular Communication Systems 11 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

Overview of Dual Cell Operation

3GPP Rel.8 scope:

The dual cell operation only applies to downlink HS-DSCH

Uplink traffic is carried on one frequency

The two cells belong to the same Node-B and are on adjacent carriers

The two cells operate with a single TX antenna

Max two streams per user

Improvements in Rel.9

Dual-Band HSDPA

MIMO in dual cell operation

Dual Cell uplink

Multi-carrier HSDPA

Node-B

F1

UE F2

DL DL

5 MHz 5 MHz

UL

5 MHz

2.1 GHz UL

UTRAN configures one of the cell as the serving cell for the uplink

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Cellular Communication Systems 12 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

Dual Cell HSDPA Operation for Load Balancing

Dual Cell HSDPA can optimally balance the load on two HSDPA carriers by scheduling active users simultaneously or on least loaded carrier at given TTI

Simple traffic and capacity model

Avg. Transfer size : 1000 kbyte

Avg. Time between transfers : 60 sec

No gain at very high load

Dual Cell HSDPA operation versus Two legacy HSDPA carriers

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2000

3000

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5000

6000

7000

8000

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Nb of users in sector footprint

Th

rou

gh

pu

t in

kb

ps

Avg user throughput (2 HSDPA carriers)

Avg Sector throughput (2 HSDPA carriers)

Avg user throughput (Dual Cell HSDPA operation)

Avg Sector throughput (Dual Cell HSDPA operation)

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Cellular Communication Systems 13 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

Enhanced Layer-2 Support for High Data Rates

Release 6 RLC layer cannot support new peak rates offered by HSPA+ features such as MIMO & 64QAM

RLC-AM peak rate limited to ~13 Mbps, even with aggressive settings for the RLC PDU size and RLC-AM window size

Release 7 introduces new Layer-2 features to improve HSDPA

Flexible RLC PDU size

MAC-ehs layer segmentation/ reassembly (based on radio conditions)

MAC-ehs layer flow multiplexing

Release 8 improves E-DCH

MAC-i/ MAC-is

Rel.7

2

1500 byte IP packet

RLC-AM

MAC-ehs

RLC-AM PDU

1500

1502 3

MAC-ehs PDU

Traffic flow i for user k

2

1500 byte IP packet

RLC-AM

RLC-AM PDU

1500

1502

Traffic flow j for user k

3

22 bits

80 2 80 2

1500 byte IP packet

RLC-AM

80 2

MAC-hs

80 2 80 2 80 2

RLC-AM PDU

MAC-hs PDU

x19

..

.. Rel.6

Traffic flow i for user k

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Cellular Communication Systems 14 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

MAC-ehs in NodeB

MAC-ehs Functions

Flow Control

Scheduling/ Priority handling

HARQ handling

TFRC Selection

Priority Queue Mux

Segmentation

MAC-ehs

MAC – Control

HS-DSCH

TFRC selection

Priority Queue distribution

Associated Downlink Signalling

Associated Uplink

Signalling

MAC-d flows

Priority Queue

Scheduling/Priority handling

Priority Queue

Priority Queue

Segmentation

Segmentation

Segmentation

Priority Queue MUX

HARQ entity

Cf. 25.321

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Cellular Communication Systems 15 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

HSDPA – UE Physical Layer Capabilities

HS-DSCH

Category

Maximum

number of

HS-DSCH

multi-codes

Supported Modulation

Formats

Minimum

inter-TTI

interval

Maximum

MAC-hs

TB size

Total number

of soft channel

bits

Theoretical

maximum

data rate

(Mbit/s)

Category 6 5 QPSK, 16QAM 1 7298 67200 3.6

Category 8 10 QPSK, 16QAM 1 14411 134400 7.2

Category 9 15 QPSK, 16QAM 1 20251 172800 10.1

Category 10 15 QPSK, 16QAM 1 27952 172800 14.0

Category 13 15 QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM 1 35280 259200 17.6

Category 14 15 QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM 1 42192 259200 21.1

Category 15 15 QPSK, 16QAM 1 23370 345600 23.3

Category 16 15 QPSK, 16QAM 1 27952 345600 28.0

Category 17 15 QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM/

MIMO: QPSK, 16QAM

1 35280/

23370

259200/

345600

17.6/

23.3

Category 18 15 QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM/

MIMO: QPSK, 16QAM

1 42192/

27952

259200/

345600

21.1/

28.0

Category 19 15 QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM 1 35280 518400 35.2

Category 20 15 QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM 1 42192 518400 42.2

Note: UEs of Categories 15 – 20 support MIMO cf. TS 25.306

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Cellular Communication Systems 16 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

E-DCH – UE Physical Layer Capabilities

E-DCH Category

Max. num. Codes

Min SF EDCH TTI Maximum MAC-e TB size

Theoretical maximum PHY data rate (Mbit/s)

Category 1 1 SF4 10 msec 7110 0.71

Category 2 2 SF4 10 msec/ 2 msec

14484/ 2798

1.45/ 1.4

Category 3 2 SF4 10 msec 14484 1.45

Category 4 2 SF2 10 msec/ 2 msec

20000/ 5772

2.0/ 2.89

Category 5 2 SF2 10 msec 20000 2.0

Category 6 4 SF2 10 msec/ 2 msec

20000/ 11484

2.0/ 5.74

Category 7 (Rel.7)

4 SF2 10 msec/ 2 msec

20000/ 22996

2.0/ 11.5

NOTE 1: When 4 codes are transmitted in parallel, two codes shall be

transmitted with SF2 and two codes with SF4

NOTE 2: UE Category 7 supports 16QAM

cf. TS 25.306

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Cellular Communication Systems 17 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC)

Uplink DPCCH gating during inactivity significant reduction

in UL interference

F-DPCH gating during inactivity

UE listens on HS-SCCH only when active

DPDCH

DPCCH

HS-SCCH-less transmission introduced to reduce signaling bottleneck for real-time-services on HSDPA

Prior to Rel.7

Rel.7 using CPC

DPDCH

DPCCH

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Cellular Communication Systems 18 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

CPC Performance Benefits

CPC provides up to a factor of two VoIP on HSPA capacity benefit compared to R.99 AMR12.2 circuit voice and 35 – 40% benefit compared to Rel.6 VoIP on HSPA

0

0.5

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1.5

2

2.5

3

AMR12.2 AMR7.95 AMR5.9Vo

IP C

ap

acit

y G

ain

of

CP

C

R'99 Circuit Voice

VoIP on HSPA (Rel'6)*

VoIP on HSPA (CPC)*

Note: All

capacity gains

normalized to

AMR12.2

Circuit Voice

Capacity

* All VoIP on HSPA capacities assume two receive antennas in the terminal

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Cellular Communication Systems 19 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

“Always On” Enhancement of CPC

CPC allows UEs in CELL_DCH to “sleep” during periods of inactivity

Reduces signaling load and battery consumption (in combination with DRX)

Allows users to be kept in CELL_DCH with HSPA bearers configured

Need to page and re-establish bearers leads to call set up delay

Incoming

request Page UE

Paging

Response

Re-establish

bearers

Send data

Without CPC, users

typically kept in

URA_PCH or CELL_PCH

state to save radio

resources and battery

UE in

URA_PCH

CPC allows users to

kept in CELL_DCH

Send data almost

Immediately

(<50ms reactivation)

Incoming

request

UE in

CELL_DCH

Avoids several hundred

ms of call setup delay

CELL_FACH

CELL_DCH

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Cellular Communication Systems 20 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

Enhanced CELL_FACH & Enhanced Paging Procedure

UEs are not always kept in CELL_DCH state, eventually fall back to CELL_PCH/URA_PCH

HSPA+ introduces enhancements to reduce the delay in signaling the transition to CELL_DCH use of

HSDPA in CELL_FACH and URA/CELL_PCH states instead of S-CCPCH

Enhanced CELL_FACH

Enhanced Paging procedure

In Rel.8 improved RACH procedure

Direct use of HSUPA in CELL_FACH

Incoming

request Page UE

Paging

Response

Re-establish

bearers

Send data

UE in

URA_PCH

CELL_FACH

CELL_DCH

Use HSDPA for faster

transmission of signaling messages

2ms frame length with up to 4 retransmissions

Page 21: Enhanced High-Speed Packet Access HSPA+ · Cellular Communication Systems Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016 2 HSPA+ The evolution of UMTS HSPA Corresponding to UMTS

Cellular Communication Systems 21 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

E-RACH – High level description

RACH preamble ramping as in R.99 with AICH/E-AICH acknowledgement

Transition to E-DCH transmission in CELL_FACH

Possibility to seamlessly transfer to Cell_DCH

NodeB can control common E-DCH resource in CELL_FACH

Resource assignment indicated from NodeB to UE

10 ms

#0 #1 #2 #3 #14#13#12#11#10#9#8#7#6#5#4#0 #1 #2 #3 #14#13#12#11#10#9#8#7#6#5#4

p

-

a

#0 #1 #2 #3 #14#13#12#11#10#9#8#7#6#5#4#0 #1 #2 #3 #14#13#12#11#10#9#8#7#6#5#4PRACH

access

slots

10 ms

Access slot set 1 Access slot set 2

#0 #1 #2 #3 #14#13#12#11#10#9#8#7#6#5#4#0 #1 #2 #3 #14#13#12#11#10#9#8#7#6#5#4

Transmission starts

with power ramping

on preamble

reserved for E-DCH

access

NodeB responds by

allocating common E-DCH

resources

UE starts common E-DCH

transmission.

F-DPCH for power control, E-AGCH

for rate control, E-HICH for HARQ

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Cellular Communication Systems 22 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

HSPA+ Architecture Evolution

Integration of some or all RNC functions into the NodeB provides benefits in terms of:

Network simplicity (fewer network elements)

Latency (fewer handshakes, particularly in combination with One-Tunnel)

Synergy with LTE (serving GW, MME, eNB)

Backwards compatible with legacy terminals

Central management of common resources

NodeB

RNC

SGSN

GGSN

Traditional HSPA

Architecture

User Plane

Control Plane

NodeB

RNC

SGSN

GGSN

HSPA with One-Tunnel

Architecture

NodeB+

SGSN

GGSN

HSPA+ with One-Tunnel

Architecture for PS services

Page 23: Enhanced High-Speed Packet Access HSPA+ · Cellular Communication Systems Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016 2 HSPA+ The evolution of UMTS HSPA Corresponding to UMTS

Cellular Communication Systems 23 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

Evolved HSPA Architecture – Full RNC/NodeB collapse

2 deployment scenarios: standalone UTRAN or carrier sharing with “legacy” UTRAN

Evolved HSPA

NodeB

SGSN

GGSN

User plane : Iu / Gn

( ” one tunnel ” ) Control

plane : Iu

Iur

Evolved HSPA

NodeB

SGSN

GGSN

User plane : Iu / Gn

( ” one tunnel ” ) Control

plane : Iu

Iur

RNC

NodeB

NodeB

” Legacy ”

UTRAN

Iu

Evolved HSPA - stand - alone Evolved HSPA - with carrier sharing

NodeB+

User plane : Iu / Gn

( ” one tunnel ” ) Control

plane : Iu

Iur

NodeB+

User plane : Iu / Gn

( ” one tunnel ” ) Control

plane : Iu

RNC

NodeB

NodeB

” Legacy ”

UTRAN

Iu

Evolved HSPA - stand - alone Evolved HSPA - with carrier sharing

Page 24: Enhanced High-Speed Packet Access HSPA+ · Cellular Communication Systems Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016 2 HSPA+ The evolution of UMTS HSPA Corresponding to UMTS

Cellular Communication Systems 24 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

Home NodeB – Background

Home NodeB (aka Femtocell) located at the customers premise

Connected via customers fixed line (e.g. DSL)

Small power (~100 mW) to only provide coverage inside/ close to the building

Advantages

Improved coverage esp. indoor

Single device for home/ on the move

Special billing plans (e.g. home zone)

Challenges

Interference

Security

Costs

IP Network

UE

Gateway

Operator

CN

Page 25: Enhanced High-Speed Packet Access HSPA+ · Cellular Communication Systems Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016 2 HSPA+ The evolution of UMTS HSPA Corresponding to UMTS

Cellular Communication Systems 25 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

CN Interface

Iuh

Iu-CS/PS

Home NodeB architecture principles based on extending Iu interface down to HNB (new Iuh interface)

Approach

Leverage Standard CN Interfaces (Iu-CS/PS)

Minimise functionality within Gateway

Move RNC Radio Control Functions to Home NodeB and extend Iu NAS & RAN control layers over IP network

Features

Security architecture

Plug-and-Play approach

Femto local control protocol

CS User Plane protocol

PS User Plane protocol

HMS interface

RNC HNB-GW

NodeB HNB

RAN Gateway Approach with new “Iuh” Interface

Mobile CS/PS Core

Page 26: Enhanced High-Speed Packet Access HSPA+ · Cellular Communication Systems Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016 2 HSPA+ The evolution of UMTS HSPA Corresponding to UMTS

Cellular Communication Systems 26 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

HSPA+ Status & Outlook

The HSPA+ enhancements provide an interim solution for ongoing UMTS network deployment

Investment protection for the existing HSPA operators

Fill the gap before deployment of LTE

Provide alternatives to LTE in some selected areas

Currently, 365 HSPA+ networks are in service in 157 countries (Oct. 2014)**

Almost using 64QAM (often also with DC)

Only a few ones with MIMO

3GPP is working on further HSPA enhancements

Release 10: 4-carrier HSDPA

Release 11: 8-carrier HSDPA, 4x4 HSDPA MIMO, HSDPA multipoint transmission, UL MIMO + 64QAM

Release 12: enhancements on HSDPA signaling, EDCH improvements

**[source: 4GAmericas]

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Cellular Communication Systems 27 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

HSPA+ References

Papers:

H. Holma et al: “HSPA Evolution,” Chapter 15 in Holma/ Toskala: “WCDMA for UMTS,” Wiley 2010

R. Soni et al: “Intelligent Antenna Solutions for UMTS: Algorithms and Simulation Results,” Communications Magazine, October 2004, pp. 28–39

4G Americas: “The Evolution of HSPA,” White Paper, October 2011

H. Holma. A. Toskala, P. Tapia (Ed.): “HSPA+ Evolution to Release 12: Performance and Optimization,” Wiley 2014

Standards

TS 25.xxx series: RAN Aspects

TR 25.903 “Continuous Connectivity for Packet Data Users”

TR 25.876 “Multiple-Input Multiple Output Antenna Processing for HSDPA”

TR 25.999 “HSPA Evolution beyond Release 7 (FDD)”

TR 25.820 (Rel.8) “3G Home NodeB Study Item Technical Report”

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Cellular Communication Systems 28 Andreas Mitschele-Thiel, Jens Mueckenheim Nov. 2016

Abbreviations

AICH Acquisition Indicator Channel

AMR Adaptive Multi-Rate

BPSK Binary Phase Shift Keying

CLTD Closed Loop Transmit Diversity

CPC Continuous Packet Connectivity

CQI Channel Quality Indicator

DC Dual Channel

DSL Digital Subscriber Line

E-RACH Enhanced Random Access Channel

F-DPCH Fractional Dedicated Physical Control Channel

GW Gateway

HNB Home NodeB

HOM Higher Order Modulation

HSPA High-Speed Packet-Access

IA Intelligent Antenna

LTE Long Term Evolution

MAC-ehs enhanced high-speed Medium Access Control

MAC-i/is improved E-DCH Medium Access Control

MIMO Multiple-Input Multiple-Output

Mux Multiplexing

PARC Per Antenna Rate Control

PCI Precoding Control Information

PDU Protocol Data Unit

Rx Receive

RTT Round Trip Time

SDU Service Data Unit

SAE System Architecture Evolution

S-CPICH Secondary Common Pilot Channel

SDMA Spatial-Division Multiple-Access

SINR Signal-to-Interference plus Noise Ratio

SISO Single-Input Single-Output

SM Spatial Multiplexing

Tx Transmit

VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol

16QAM 16 (state) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

64QAM 64 (state) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation