Colonialism and the Pan-African Movement

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    02-Jan-2016
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    28
  • download

    6

Embed Size (px)

description

Colonialism and the Pan-African Movement. GPS: SS7H1 – The student will analyze continuity and change in Africa leading up to the 21 st century. Essential Question: What were the effects of European colonization on Africa? Objectives : - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Colonialism and the Pan-African Movement

  • Colonialism and the Pan-African Movement

  • GPS: SS7H1 The student will analyze continuity and change in Africa leading up to the 21st century.Essential Question: What were the effects of European colonization on Africa?Objectives:The student will explain how the European partitioning across Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and artificial political boundaries.

  • I. European ImperialismA. ImperialismControl by one country over another country's government, trade, and culture

  • B. Reasons behind European Imperialism1. End of the Slave TradeEuropean nations ended slavery in early 1800s, lost revenue2. Natural ResourcesEuropeans believed that the best way to profit from Africa's natural resources was to poltically control the region3. European Nationalism1800s saw unified European nations with a huge sense of national pride4. Modern TechnologyIndustrial Revolution- better weapons, transportationMalaria vaccine

  • C. Partition of Africa1. The Scramble for AfricaFierce competition over land2. Conference of Berlin 1884-1885Agreement between European nations as to how Africa would be dividedTerms of AgreementColonies must have European settlersTaking over new territory required approval from other European nationsSlavery must be ended in all European held colonies

  • C. Partition of Africa continued3. Effect on AfricaBetween 1885-1914 almost all of Africa was divided between Belgium, France, Great Britain, Germany, Spain, Italy, and PortugalEuropeans drew boundries to benefit European interests, with no thought to the already existing political and cultural boundaries

  • D. The Impact on West Africa1. A Region DividedFrance controlled the northwest portion of the regionBritain, Germany, and Portugal controlled the rest2. Liberia and Sierra LeoneLiberia was founded in the 1820s by freed slaves. In 1847 it became a free nationSierra Leone was a British colony that also became a home for freed slaves

  • E. African Resistance1. Life Under European ImperialismModernizationTechnologyNew roads and railroads were built throughout AfricaMedicationVaccines, Western medicineCultureAfricans resisted adopting European cultureThe French wanted Africans to adopt European cultureOther European nations did not want the Africans to adopt culture because they did not view them as equals

  • 1. Life Under European Imperialism, continued ExploitationColonial authorities claimed land owned by nativesForced natives to work on plantations, road building, et ceteraCooperationSome African leaders cooperated1892 king of Northern Ghana signed a trade treaty with Great Britain

  • 2. Resistance BeginsSamory ToureMilitary Leader in GuineaFought the French for 15 yearsDeclared that he was king1898 French defeated Toure

  • II. Pan-Africa MovementA. The BeginningWorld War IAll European nations with African colonies were involvedAt the end of the war Germany had to give up all African holdings; most of which fell under British controlWorld War IIAlthough European conflicts caused fighting in North Africa there was very little unrest against colonist rulers

  • B. African NationalismWWII changed the world by colonial powers unwilling to changeGrowth of African middle classUrbanization; revolt against working for low wages in rural jobs controlled by colonial powers

  • C. Pan-AfricanismIncluded people of African descent from around the worldTwo Goals:Wanted to end European control of AfricaDesired equality for people of African descent living in Africa and all other continents

  • D. Pan-African ConferenceFirst Conference: 1919a) The Allies administer the former German territories in Africa as a condominium on behalf of the Africans who lived there.b) Africans should take part in governing their countries "as fast as their development permits" until, at some unspecified time in the future, Africa is granted home rule. Second Conference: 1921"England, with all her Pax Britannica, her courts of justice, established commerce, and a certain apparent recognition of Native laws and customs, has nevertheless systematically fostered ignorance among the Natives, has enslaved them, and is still enslaving them, has usually declined even to try to train black and brown men in real self-government, to recognise civilised black folk as civilised, or to grant to coloured colonies those rights of self government which it freely gives to white men."Third Conference: 1923

    HOMELIVING HISTORYEARLY HISTORYNILE VALLEYWEST AFRICANKINGDOMSTHE SWAHILITRADITIONALRELIGIONSISLAMCHRISTIANITYSLAVERYCENTRAL AFRICANKINGDOMSAFRICA & EUROPE(1800-1914)SOUTHERN AFRICABETWEENWORLD WARS(1914-1945)INDEPENDENCEPROGRAMMESSEARCHFORUM/FEEDBACK

    INDEX

    The Pan-African VisionIn Africa, there was a general assumption on the part of colonial powers that Africans must wait patiently for limited political concessions and better career opportunities. Ex-servicemen and the educated urban classes became disillusioned and were only too willing to listen to socialist ideas based on concepts of equality and a new world order.In London, the Socialist Club attracted a wide audience of people who felt marginalised - Africans, Irish Nationalists and German Jews. Drury Lane was the site of a club exclusively for black soldiers."They had been disillusioned with the European war, because they kept on having frightful clashes with English and American soldiers, besides the fact that the authorities treated them completely differently from the white soldiers...I was working at that time in London in a communist group. Our group provided the club of Negro soldiers with revolutionary newspapers and literature, which had nothing."Letter from Jamaican writer and socialist, Claude McKay to Trotsky in 1922.1919 - THE FIRST PAN AFRICAN CONGRESS Racist treatment reinforced a sense of solidarity within the Diaspora. This found expression in a series of Pan-African meetings. In 1909 the first Pan African Conference was held. In 1919 the first of five Pan-African Congresses was held. This was organised by the African American thinker and journalist, W.E.B. DuBois.Fifty seven delegates attended representing fifteen countries. Its principal task was petitioning the Versailles Peace Conference, then meeting in Paris. Among its demands were:a) The Allies administer the former German territories in Africa as a condominium on behalf of the Africans who lived there.b) Africans should take part in governing their countries "as fast as their development permits" until, at some unspecified time in the future, Africa is granted home rule. 1921 - THE SECOND PAN AFRICAN CONGRESSThis congress met in several sessions in London, Paris and Brussels. The Indian revolutionary Shapuiji Saklaatvala was introduced. The Ghanaian journalist W.F. Hutchinson spoke. This Congress was considered by some to be the most radical of all the meetings. The London session resulted in the Declaration To The World, also called the London Manifesto."England, with all her Pax Britannica, her courts of justice, established commerce, and a certain apparent recognition of Native laws and customs, has nevertheless systematically fostered ignorance among the Natives, has enslaved them, and is still enslaving them, has usually declined even to try to train black and brown men in real self-government, to recognise civilised black folk as civilised, or to grant to coloured colonies those rights of self government which it freely gives to white men."The London Manifesto.The one dissenting voice was that of Blaise Diagne who, although African, was effectively a French politician, representing Senegal in the French Chamber of Deputies. He thought the declaration dangerously extreme and soon abandoned the idea of Pan Africanism.1923 - THE THIRD PAN AFRICAN CONGRESSThis congress was held in London and Lisbon. Badly organised, it was also not very well attended. But it repeated the demand for some form of self-rule, defining the relationship between Africa and Europe, as well as mentioning the problems of the Diaspora in a number of ways:a) the development of Africa for the benefit of Africans and not merely for the profit of Europeans.b) home rule and responsible government for British West Africa and the British West Indies

  • C. Third Conference 1921Africa should be developed to benefit Africans and not EuropeansWest Africa should have responsible home ruleD. Fourth Conference 1927Same resolutionsE. Fifth Conference 1945MAJOR CONFERENCE