Colonialism & Imperialism
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Colonialism & Imperialism
Colonialism & ImperialismJinna PakDean LeeJae songWhat are colonialism and imperialism? Colonialism: the belief in and support for the system of one country controlling another and develops trade for its own benefit
Imperialism: a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or sociallyExamplesColonialism: Spanish, Portuguese, French, English, and DutchAround 1500, Spanish and Portuguese colonized Central and South America, now called Latin America, establishing their American empires. Throughout 1600s and 1700s, Dutch, French, and Britain competed on North America, and Britain was the final winner. Over time, America became new societies due to European controls and immigrants.For Africa, people were taken from their homeland and worked as slaves in the Americas. During middle passage, or the ocean voyage from Africa to America, great number of people die out because of horrible conditions. There were too much people in small capacity.
Imperialism: Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Italy, and United StatesRacism and Social Darwinism flourished. Racism is the belief that one race is superior to others. Social Darwinism refers to the manipulation of Charles Darwin's "survival of the fittest" to justify the imperialist expansion.In Africa, Europeans were entering by the means of gun, railroads, steamships, and cure for malaria. Europeans could prevent malaria from the drug called quinine, making control in Africa easier. Africa however, had variety of cultures and languages. They also lacked technology, and Africans were not united where different ethnicity groups fought each other.
Geographical map of Nigeria
How it applies to NigeriaNigeria was British colony. During early 1800s, Britain established the Royal Niger Company, and gained the control of the palm-oil trade along the Niger River. In 1914, British claimed the entire area of Nigeria as a colony.British used indirect ruling system, where local government officials were used. There were limited self-rule, and the goal of Britain was to develop future leaders of the colony.Geography of NigeriaThe total area is about 900,000 km2. There are three main geographical division: extreme north, intermediate, and extreme south. Northern Nigeria is desert, where it rains less than 20 inches per year. The area between north and south is tropical grassland, and rains falls from 20 to 60 inches per year. Southern Nigeria is rather humid, where the average annual rainfall is 60-80 inches. North Nigeria is high, where south Nigeria is low in the means of topography. Estimated population count is 116,900,000, or 116 million. Growth rate is 2.4%. People of NigeriaThere are three large ethnic groups that makes up 70% of the total population. They are the Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba, and Igbo. There are several minor ethnic groups numbering more than a million people in each group. The official language is English since it was affected by British colonization. There are 400 native Nigerian languages too. Quotes"Turning and turning in the widening gyre
The falcon cannot hear the falconer;
Things fall apart; the center cannot hold;
Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world.(At the beginning of the book)AnalyzingGyre is the round shape formed by a concentric circles; it represents the worsening confusion.Falconer is a person who keeps the falcon. At the quote, it is said that the falcon cannot recognize the falconer. This also suggests the loss of direction and identity.By saying that things fall apart, the quote is conveying that there is no tide that interconnects the people together.As a result, the lack of organization and control occurs. Overall, this quotation shows how the Africans were in chaos when colonization began.Quotes"Does the white man understand our custom about land?(Okonkwo to Obierika) "How can he when he does not even speak our tongue? But he says that our customs are bad; and our own brothers who have taken up his religion also say that our customs are bad." (chp.20, page 176)AnalyzingThis conversation reflects the author's opinion about colonization. He seems to go against it due to white men's lack of knowledge on Native cultures and customs. He didn't like the fact that the whites are not trying to understand the native cultures, but instead rule over the culture.Discussion Question #1Do you think that imperialist country contribute to the development to their colony?YES, not only they support the other nations with beneficial usages, but also it lets the mother nations expand their colonies by taking over the other nations around them. This effect then makes the mother nation much more stronger and powerful. NO, not all imperialists countries are able to extend their development in colonies. Some countries are not successful within imperialism. Discussion Question #2Why do you think that Africa had so diverse cultures and language, and couldn't unite to one nation?Just like United States, it is not so easy to make a combination of all cultures and languages. Also, having diverse cultures is quite interesting for more ideas, and new thoughts. Having different cultures and languages in Africa had made them develop new features in their countries. If it were not for such diverse cultures, current Africa could not have developed like this. Discussion Question #3If you were African people under European colonial system, how would you try to gain independence?You can try to gain independence by boycotting and have civil disobedience, where you do not obey to the Europeans if you think that it is injustice. You can either make a separate power to fight against the Europeans. Furthermore, you can constantly perform a guerrilla warfare.