Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Cognitive Learning Observational Learning.
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Transcript of Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Cognitive Learning Observational Learning.
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Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Cognitive Learning Observational Learning Slide 2 An experience in environment, which causes a.. change in an organism that is relatively permanent Slide 3 Decreased response to a stimulus judged to be of little or no importance We engage in this type of learning so we can tune out unimportant stimuli and focus on what matters Slide 4 Increased response to a stimulus when we are anticipating an important stimulus We engage in this type of learning so we are prepared for dangerous situations Slide 5 Behaviorism states that: learning and experience determine behavior. Babies are tabula rasas Psychology should focus purely on observable behaviors and not unobservable thoughts Slide 6 Learning that two things go together Conditioning: A simple form of learning in which a specific pattern of behaviors is learned in the presence of well-defined stimuli Classical conditioning aka Pavlonian conditioning An involuntary behavior is determined by what comes before it i.e. Baby Albert and the loud bell i.e. Seeing the dentists office and feeling anxiety Operant conditioning aka instrumental aka Skinnerian Involves rewards and punishment A voluntary behavior is determined by the anticipation of something that follows it i.e. studying on a test for obtaining good grades i.e. fastening your seat belt to avoid the obnoxious beeping Slide 7 1. A child is attacked by a dog. The child now fears all dogs. 2. You do your homework every night to get good grades and avoid punishment. Classical involuntary, stimulus precedes behavior Operant voluntary, stimulus follows behavior Slide 8 Learning in which a response naturally caused by one stimulus comes to be elicited by a different, formerly neutral stimulus Ivan Pavlov Accidentally discovered classical conditioning His experiments on digestion in dogs turned into research on learning Slide 9 Unconditioned stimulus (US) A stimulus that automatically causes a specific response in an organism And example of a US would be food Unconditioned response (UR) The response caused by a US The UR is automatic and unlearned An example of a UR is salivation in response to food Slide 10 Conditioned stimulus (CS) A formerly neutral stimulus (NS) that is paired with a US and eventually causes the desired response all by itself An example of a CS is the bell in Pavlovs studies Conditioned response (CR) The learned response to the CS An example is salivation in response to the bell Slide 11 Involves a few central concepts: Unconditioned = Unlearned Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Conditioned = learned Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Slide 12 Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Meat powder Unconditioned Response (UCR) Salivation Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Bell Conditioned Response (CR) Salivation * Hint: replace conditioned with learned to make it more intuitive. Slide 13 John Watson Little Albert 11 month old orphan Showed him a white rat. No fear. Made a loud noise. Albert cried. Showed him a white rat and made a loud noise. Albert cried. Repeated several times. Eventually Albert cried at white rat alone. Give me a dozen healthy infants, well- formed, and my own specified world to bring them up and Ill guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might selectdoctor, lawyer, merchant-chief, and yes, ever beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. (1930) Slide 14 UCS = Loud Noise UCR = Fear of Noise NS = Rat CS = Rat CR = Fear of Rat The Little Albert experiment demonstrated a classically conditioned fear of white fluffy things Slide 15 Acquisition initial learning of the stimulus-response relationship (learning that bell means meat powder) Extinction diminished response to the conditioned stimulus when it is no longer coupled with UCS. (stop giving meat powder with bell and dog will stop salivating to bell) Spontaneous recovery reappearance of an extinguished CR after a rest. Generalization the tendency to respond to any stimuli similar to the CS (Dog salivates to other noises) Discrimination the ability to distinguish between the CS and similar stimuli (Dog only salivates to specific tone) Slide 16 If Little Albert generalized, what would we expect to happen? He might cry at the sight of similar objects (he did rabbit, dog, sealskin coat, some rumors Santas beard) How could we teach Little Albert to discriminate? Continually expose him to stimuli similar to the rat, but only make the loud noise when exposing him to the rat How could Little Alberts conditioning be extinguished? Continually expose him to a white rat without making the loud noise (unfortunately, this was never done because Little Albert was adopted soon after the original experiments (he would be 83 now if he is still alive probably scared of rats!) If Little Albert is still alive, his fear of white rats is likely to have been extinguished (no loud noise when he sees a rat). However, occasionally, when he sees a rat, he may find that his heart races for a second or two. What is this called? Spontaneous recovery Slide 17 UCS? Pain from the drill UCR? Fear CS? Sound of the drill CR? Fear Slide 18 Extinction: if the pain does not result when the drill is used, the CS (fear) will diminish. Spontaneous recovery: the child returns for a visit the next day and the sound of the drill elicits fear again. Generalization: the child becomes fearful of the sound of any motor Discrimination: the child learns that only the high pitched dentist drill is associated with pain and not a low pitch hum of the vacuum cleaner. Slide 19 UCS?Pretty people UCR? Feeling good CS? Sight of BMW CR? Feeling good Slide 20 UCS? Pain of the accident UCR? Fear CS? Presence of car CR?Fear Slide 21 UCS? Stomach virus UCR? Feeling sick CS?Sight of snails CR? Feeling sick Slide 22 UCS? Getting in trouble from parents UCR? Increased heart rate CS? Flashing lights CR? Increased heart rate Slide 23 Lick your finger and dip it into your cup of lemonade powder, but DO NOT EAT IT. When you hear the tone, immediately eat the powder on your finger, and then dip your finger back into the cup to prepare for the next trial. You must eat some of the powder immediately after each tone, but not any other time. After several learning trials, you will be instructed to simply listen to the tone without eating the powder. What happens? Label the UCS, UCR, NS, CS and CR in your notes based on the demo. Slide 24 Once a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus, it may function as an unconditioned stimulus to elicit new learning. For instance, in Pavlovs experiment, once the bell produced the salivation response in the dogs, it could be paired with a new neutral stimulus, such as a red light, until the dogs learned to salivate to the red light. Slide 25 In order for Classical Conditioning to work the following variables must exist: STRENGTH - Stimuli (UCS, NS) must be noticeable enough to provoke a response. TIMING - UCS and NS must be paired close together so that an association is made between the two. FREQUENCY - UCS and NS must be paired together many times so that an association is made between the two and the NS can come to elicit the same response as the UCS. Slide 26 Extinction After a period of time passes when CS is not paired with UCS, CS returns to being an NS e.g. Baby Albert would eventually cease to be afraid of white fluffy things after they were not paired with a horrible and frightening noise. Spontaneous Recovery Just because extinction occurs, does it mean that the learning is gone completely? No! After extinction, it is not unusual to see the recurrence of the conditioned response This proves the learning never disappeared; it was just obscured by new learning - like interference Slide 27 Generalization An organism may learn to respond not only to the CS, but also to other stimuli that are similar to the CS. e.g. Baby Albert was conditioned to fear a white rat, but also feared cotton balls, rabbits, white sweaters, etc. Discrimination Organisms can also learn to decipher between similar stimuli when only particular stimuli are paired with a UCS. Slide 28 Some learning mechanisms are so powerful they do not require frequency of pairings. Taste Aversion Occurs when organism becomes ill following consumption of a particular food. Organism may never be able to eat the food again. WHY? Garcia Effect Using principles of taste aversion, John Garcia put this phenomenon to good use Sprinkled carcass of sheep with a chemical that caused illness in coyotes Coyotes did not attack the livestock following this experience Slide 29 It was once believed that conditioning occurred the same in all animals (and therefore you could study human behavior by studying any animal) and that you could associate any neutral stimulus with a response. Not so. Animals have biological predispositions to associating certain stimuli over others Example You eat a novel food and later get sick. You will be conditioned to associate the taste of the FOOD with getting sick (and thus avoid that food in the future), but NOT the music playing in the restaurant, the plate it was served on, or the perfume your neighbor was wearing. It is much easier to condition someone to have a fear of snake than of flowers. Birds hunt by sight and will more quickly become conditioned to the SIGHT of tainted food Slide 30 Some conditioned responses come naturally, others do not. Preparedness Conditioned behaviors that work well with organisms instinctive behaviors and are easy to train e.g. phobia of snakes or spiders Contrapreparedness Other conditioned behaviors go against the organisms instinctive behaviors and are difficult or impossible to train. e.g. phobia of chairs or tables? Slide 31 Many phobias are learned responses and can be unlearned This can be done gradually or